Major Critical Texts of the New Testament
Byz RP: 2005 Byzantine Greek New Testament, Robinson & Pierpont
TR1550: 1550 Stephanus New Testament
Maj: The Majority Text (thousands of minuscules which display a similar text)
Gries: 1774-1775 Johann Jakob Griesbach Greek New Testament
Treg: 1857-1879 Samuel Prideaux Tregelles Greek New Testament
Tisch: 1872 Tischendorf’s Greek New Testament
WH: 1881 Westcott-Hort Greek New Testament
NA28: 2012 Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament
UBS5: 2014 Greek New Testament
NU: Both Nestle-Aland and the United Bible Society
SBLGNT: 2010 Greek New Testament ()
THGNT: 2017 The Greek New Testament by Tyndale House
GENTI: 2020 Greek-English New Testament Interlinear
JOHN 7:53-8:11 2019 Greek-English New Testament Interlinear (GENTI WH NU TGNT) [WP]
53 [[Καὶ ἐπορεύθησαν ἕκαστος εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ,
8 Ἰησοῦς δὲ ἐπορεύθη εἰς τὸ Ὄρος τῶν ᾿Ελαιῶν. 2 Ὄρθρου δὲ πάλιν παρεγένετο εἰς τὸ ἱερόν, καὶ πᾶς ὁ λαὸς ἤρχετο πρὸς αὐτόν, καὶ καθίσας ἐδίδασκεν αὐτούς. 3 Ἄγουσιν δὲ οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι γυναῖκα ἐπὶ μοιχείᾳ κατειλημμένην, καὶ στήσαντες αὐτὴν ἐν μέσῳ 4 λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Διδάσκαλε, αὕτη ἡ γυνὴκατείληπται ἐπ’ αὐτοφώρῳ μοιχευομένη· 5 ἐν δὲ τῷ νόμῳ ἡμῖν Μωυσῆς ἐνετείλατο τὰς τοιαύτας λιθάζειν· σὺ οὖν τί λέγεις; 6 τοῦτο δὲ ἔλεγον πειράζοντες αὐτόν, ἵνα ἔχωσιν κατηγορεῖν αὐτοῦ. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς κάτω κύψας τῷ δακτύλῳ κατέγραφεν εἰς τὴν γῆν. 7 ὡς δὲ ἐπέμενον ἐρωτῶντες αὐτόν, ἀνέκυψεν καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ὁ ἀναμάρτητος ὑμῶν πρῶτος ἐπ’ αὐτὴν βαλέτω λίθον· 8 καὶ πάλιν κατακύψας ἔγραφεν εἰς τὴν γῆν. 9 οἱ δὲ ἀκούσαντες ἐξήρχοντο εἷς καθ’ εἷς ἀρξάμενοι ἀπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, καὶ κατελείφθη μόνος, καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἐν μέσῳ οὖσα. 10 ἀνακύψας δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῇ Γύναι, ποῦ εἰσίν; οὐδείς σε κατέκρινεν; 11 ἡ δὲ εἶπεν Οὐδείς, κύριε. εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Οὐδὲ ἐγώ σε κατακρίνω· πορεύου, ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν μηκέτι ἁμάρτανε.]]
John 7:53-8:11 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
7:53–8:11 —— 
John 7:53–8:11 is included in NA28 and UBS5 enclosed within double square brackets evidencing the doubt of its originality. WH has it after John’s gospel. It is included in TR as 7:53–8:11. The following witnesses do not contain John 7:53–8:11, P39vid P66 P75 א Avid, B, CVid L N T W Δ Θ Ψ 0141 33 ita,f syrc,s,p copsa,bo,ach2 geo Diatessaron Origen Chrysostom Cyril Tertullian Cyprian MSSaccording to Augustine
John 7:53-8-11 New King James Version (NKJV)
53 And everyone went to his own house.
Jesus the Light of the World
8 But Jesus went to the Mount of Olives.
2 Now early in the morning He came again into the temple, and all the people came to Him; and He sat down and taught them. 3 Then the scribes and Pharisees brought to Him a woman caught in adultery. And when they had set her in the midst, 4 they said to Him, “Teacher, this woman was caught in adultery, in the very act. 5 Now Moses, in the law, commanded us that such should be stoned. But what do You say?” 6 This they said, testing Him, that they might have something of which to accuse Him. But Jesus stooped down and wrote on the ground with His finger, as though He did not hear.
7 So when they continued asking Him, He raised Himself up and said to them, “He who is without sin among you, let him throw a stone at her first.” 8 And again He stooped down and wrote on the ground. 9 Then those who heard it, being convicted by their conscience, went out one by one, beginning with the oldest even to the last. And Jesus was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst. 10 When Jesus had raised Himself up and saw no one but the woman, He said to her, “Woman, where are those accusers of yours? Has no one condemned you?” 11 She said, “No one, Lord.” And Jesus said to her, “Neither do I condemn you; go and sin no more.”
John 7:53–8:11 is not found in most early Greek NT manuscripts and other later manuscripts (P39vid P66 P75 א Avid, B, CVid L N T W Δ Θ Ψ 0141 33 it,f syrc,,p copsa,,ach2 geo) It was also not contained in the Diatessaron Origen Chrysostom Cyril Tertullian Cyprian MSSaccording to Augustine. It was not an original part of the Gospel of John. The following manuscripts contain John 7:53-8:11 D (F) G H K M U Γ itaur,c,,e syrh, copmss Maj MSSaccording to Didymus; E 8:2–11 with asterisks; Λ 8:3–11 with asterisks; f1 after John 21:25; f13 after Luke 21:38; 1333 8:3–11 after Luke 24:53; 225 after John 7:36. English Bible translations that include the pericope after 7:52 are the KJV NKJV RSV NRSV ESV NASB NIV TNIV NEB REBmg NJB NAB NLT HCSB NET.
Again, John 7:53-8:11 is not part of the original of the Gospel of John or any Gospel for that matter. The reader of the Bible needs to simply read from John 7:52 to John 8:12 for the continuous narrative. John 8:12 begins Jesus’ answer to the Pharisees. Going back, the officers who failed to arrest Jesus said, “No one ever spoke like this man!” The religious leaders become filled with anger, so they react as most do when having no response, they begin to ridicule, misrepresent, and call names. They taunt: “You have not also been deceived, have you? Not one of the rulers or of the Pharisees has put faith in him, have they? But this crowd that does not know the law is accursed.” At this point. Nicodemus enters the conversation, who also is a Pharisee and part of the Sanhedrin, endeavoring to come to the defense of Jesus. This is the same Nicodemus, who had come to Jesus in the cover of night and expressed faith in him some two and a half years before. Now this Pharisee, Nicodemus openly says: “Our law does not judge a man unless it first hears from him and knows what he is doing, does it?” The other Pharisees are now outraged that one of their own had come to the defense of Jesus. They mockingly remarked to Nicodemus, “You are not also from Galilee, are you? Search and see that no prophet arises from Galilee.” While it is true that the Scriptures do not explicitly state that a prophet would come out of Galilee, Isaiah actually does point to the Messiah as coming from there, saying, “The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles, the people dwelling in darkness have seen a great light, and for those dwelling in the region and shadow of death, on them a light has dawned.” More important, Jesus was born specifically in Bethlehem Ephrathah (Mic 5:2) about 10 kilometers (6 mi) south of the city of Jerusalem, and he was an offspring of King David. It is highly likely that the Pharisees were aware of where Jesus was born, who his ancestor was, and where he lived throughout his childhood. However, they were busy spreading the misconceptions that people had about Jesus. (John 7:32-52; Isaiah 9:1-2; Matthew 4:13-17) Jesus responds to their mocking of Nicodemus about Galilee saying, “I am the light of the world. He that follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.” Jesus’ response can very well be taken from the prophecy by Isaiah the prophet at 9:1-2 and Matthew would mention this prophecy as well in his Gospel (4:13-17). Therefore, both Isaiah 9:1-2 and John 8:12 give us the same image of the Messiah coming as the light for the common Jew who has been walking in spiritual darkness dwelling in the region and shadow of death thanks to these Pharisees who have kept them there and who now because of Jesus Christ, they have “the light of life.”
The Pharisees object: “You are bearing witness about yourself; your witness is not true.”
In answer, Jesus replies: “Even if I do bear witness about myself, my witness is true, for I know where I came from and where I am going, but you do not know where I come from or where I am going.” He adds: “I am the one who bears witness about myself, and the Father who sent me bears witness about me.” – John 8:13-18.
Philip W. Comfort writes,
A minute few are so bold as to argue that John 7:53-8:11 was actually in the original. New Testament textual scholar James Snapp, Jr is just one such person. He has written a book, A Fresh Analysis of John 7:53-8:11, maintaining that the pericope adulterae was originally part of the Gospel of John. It is available as an e-book on Amazon. In our effort to be fair and balanced, see also, David Alan Black and Jacob N. Cerone, eds., The Pericope of the Adulteress in Contemporary Research (London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2016), which includes contributors arguing for and against the authenticity of the passage.
The Gish Gallop is the logical fallacy tactic of drowning your opponent in a flood of weak arguments or pieces of evidence in order to prevent any rebuttal because of feeling overwhelmed by the compilation of evidence. The secondary objective is to give the impression that there is so much evidence for what is being argued, how could it not be true. However, an analogy when it comes to textual criticism might go like this. The textual scholar using the Gish Gallop logical fallacy has a dump truck full of pennies while the other textual scholar has a few stacks of one-hundred-dollar bills on a table. While the dump truck full of pennies certainly looks impressive to the unaware Churchgoer, who actually desires that textual scholar’s outcome, it does not add up to more money than the few stacks of one-hundred-dollar bills on a table. You see, it takes 10,000 pennies to equal just one of those one-hundred-dollar bills. Some Alexandrian manuscripts individually (P39vid [200-250 C.E.] P66 [150 C.E.] P75 [175-200 C.E.] א [c. 330-360 C.E.] B [c. 300-325 C.E.] ) have more value than even the one-hundred-dollar bill in our analogy. Then, when they are combined together to support a particular reading, well it is going to take more than a hypothetical possibility and a dump truck load of weak manuscript evidence, or the use of many words in saying something, in an effort to give the appearance of much evidence.
All New Testament textual scholars should investigate both external and internal evidence in selecting the reading which is most likely the original. And all textual scholars should do this on a variant-unit by variant-unit basis. All evidence should be looked at for each variant-unit. This is referred to as Reasoned Eclecticism. However, most textual scholars who use this approach actually tips the scales in giving priority of place to internal over external evidence, which is more subjective. This author’s approach to New Testament Textual Criticism is the Documentary Approach. This approach should investigate both external and internal evidence in selecting the reading which is most likely the original. And all textual scholars should do this on a variant-unit by variant-unit basis. All evidence should be looked at for each variant unit. However, this approach actually tips the scales in giving priority of place to external over internal evidence, which is more objective.
On this, Philip W. Comfort writes,
In my view, an eclectic approach that gives greater weight to external (documentary) evidence is best. Such an approach labors to select a premier group of manuscripts as the primary witnesses for certain books and/or sections of the New Testament, not for the entire New Testament, since each book of the New Testament was, in its earliest form, a separate publication. Once the best manuscripts for each book or group of books in the New Testament are established, these manuscripts need to be pruned of obvious errors and singular variants. Then these should be the manuscripts used for determining the most likely original wording. The burden of proof on textual critics is to demonstrate that the best manuscripts, when challenged by the testimony of other witnesses, do not contain the original wording. The part of this process that corresponds to Aland’s “localness” (internal evidence) is that the text must be determined on a variant-unit basis. However, my view of the “genealogical” (external evidence) aspect is that it must be preestablished for an entire book and not re-created verse by verse, which results in a very uneven documentary presentation. Of course, internal criticism will have to come into play when documentary evidence is evenly divided, or when some feature of the text strongly calls for it. And, on occasion, it must be admitted that two (or more) readings are equally good candidates for being deemed the original wording.
Variant Reading(s): differing versions of a word or phrase found in two or more manuscripts within a variation unit (see below). Variant readings are also called alternate readings.
Variation Unit: any portion of text that exhibits variations in its reading between two or more different manuscripts. It is important to distinguish variation units from variant readings. Variation units are the places in the text where manuscripts disagree, and each variation unit has at least two variant readings. Setting the limits and range of a variation unit is sometimes difficult or even controversial because some variant readings affect others nearby. Such variations may be considered individually, or as elements of a single reading. One should also note that the terms “manuscript” and “witness” may appear to be used interchangeably in this context. Strictly speaking “witness” (see below) will only refer to the content of a given manuscript or fragment, which it predates to a greater or lesser extent. However, the only way to reference the “witness” is by referring to the manuscript or fragment that contains it. In this book, we have sometimes used the terminology “witness of x or y manuscript” to distinguish the content in this way.
TERMS AS TO HOW WE SHOULD OBJECTIVELY VIEW THE DEGREE OF CERTAINTY FOR THE READING ACCEPTED AS THE ORIGINAL
The modal verbs are might have been (30%), may have been (40%), could have been (55%), would have been (80%), must have been (95%), which are used to show that we believe the originality of a reading is certain, probable or possible.
The letter [WP] stands for Weak Possibility (30%), which indicates that this is a low-level proof that the reading might have been original in that it is enough evidence to accept that the variant might have been possible, but it is improbable. We can say the reading might have been original, as there is some evidence that is derived from manuscripts that carry very little weight, early versions, or patristic quotations.
The letter [P] stands for Plausible (40%), which indicates that this is a low-level proof that the reading may have been original in that it is enough to accept a variant to be original and we have enough evidence for our belief. The reading may have been original but it is not probably so.
The letter [PE] stands for Preponderance of Evidence (55%), which indicates that this is a higher-level proof that the reading could have been original in that it is enough to accept as such unless another reading emerges as more probable.
The letter [CE] stands for Convincing Evidence (80%), which indicates that the evidence is an even higher-level proof that the reading surely was the original in that the evidence is enough to accept it as substantially certain unless proven otherwise.
The letter [BRD] stands for Beyond Reasonable Doubt (95%), which indicates that this is the highest level of proof: the reading must have been original in that there is no reason to doubt it. It must be understood that feeling as though we have no reason to doubt is not the same as one hundred percent absolute certainty.
NOTE: This system is borrowed from the criminal just legal terms of the United States of America, the level of certainty involved in the use of modal verbs, and Bruce Metzger in his A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994), who borrowed his system from Johann Albrecht Bengel in his edition of the Greek New Testament (Tübingen, 1734). In addition, the percentages are in no way attempting to be explicit but rather they are nothing more than a tool to give the non-textual scholar a sense of the degree of certainty. However, this does not mean the percentages are not reflective of certainty.
- B. F. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort, Introduction to the New Testament in the Original Greek: Appendix (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1882)
- Biblical Studies Press, The NET Bible First Edition Notes (Biblical Studies Press, 2006)
- Bruce Manning Metzger, United Bible Societies, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (4th Rev. Ed.) (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994),
- Eberhard Nestle and Erwin Nestle, Nestle-Aland: NTG Apparatus Criticus, ed. Barbara Aland et al., 28. revidierte Auflage. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012).
- Dirk Jongkind, ed., The Greek New Testament: Apparatus (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2017).
- Dirk Jongkind, ed., The Greek New Testament (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2017), Matt. 6:8.
- Eberhard Nestle and Erwin Nestle, Nestle-Aland: Novum Testamentum Graece, ed. Barbara Aland et al., 28. revidierte Auflage. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012)
- Philip Wesley Comfort, A COMMENTARY ON THE MANUSCRIPTS AND TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Academic, 2015).
- Philip W. Comfort, New Testament Text and Translation Commentary: Commentary on the Variant Readings of the Ancient New Testament Manuscripts and How They Relate to the Major English Translations (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 2008).
- Philip Wesley Comfort and David P. Barrett, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts: Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts, 2 Volume Set The (English and Greek Edition) (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Academic, 2019)
- Roger L. Omanson and Bruce Manning Metzger, A Textual Guide to the Greek New Testament: An Adaptation of Bruce M. Metzger’s Textual Commentary for the Needs of Translators (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2006).
- Wallace B., Daniel (n.d.). Retrieved from The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts: http://csntm.org/
- Wilker, Wieland (n.d.). Retrieved from An Online Textual Commentary on the Greek Gospels: http://www.willker.de/wie/TCG/index.html