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Textual Variants

NTTC LUKE 9:2 “and he sent them out to proclaim the kingdom of God and to heal [the sick (τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς)]”

While Metzger's point is well taken that this was Luke's style to have an infinitive followed by an object, when we have two variant readings, this suggests to us that we have ... Continue Reading →

OTTC GENESIS 10:23 “Mash” or “Meshech”?

Major Critical Texts and Manuscript Abbreviations of the Old Testament AC: Aleppo Codex AT: Aramaic Targum(s) B.C.E.: Before Common Era BHS: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Edited by Karl Elliger and Wilhelm Rudolph. Stuttgart, 1984. B 19A: Codex Leningrad c.: Circa, about, approximately... Continue Reading →

Gregory-Aland Numbering

Caspar René Gregory published another cataloging system in 1908 in Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments, which is the system still in use today. Gregory divided the manuscripts into four groupings: papyri, uncials, minuscules, and lectionaries. This division is partially arbitrary. The first... Continue Reading →

OTTC GENESIS 10:4: “Dodanim” or “Rodanim”?

Most of the MT has the reading “Dodanim” in verse 4 of chapter 10. On the other hand, the Greek Septuagint (LXX) and the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) and some Hebrew manuscripts have “Rodanim” in verse 4 of chapter 10. “Rodanim” is also found in the Masoretic Text (MT) at 1 Chronicles 1:7. However, many of the Hebrew manuscripts, as well as the Syriac Peshitta and the Latin Vulgate read “Dodanim.” ... Continue Reading →

OTTC HOSEA 14:2: Is “bulls” (MT) or “fruit” (LXX; 14:3) the original reading of the Hebrew text?

The MT has the reading “bulls” (פָרִים; farim) in verse 2 of chapter 14. On the other hand, the LXX: Greek Septuagint reads “fruit”  (καρπὸν; fruit) in verse 2 of chapter 14. The Septuagint continues to be very much important today and is used by textual scholars to help uncover copyists’ errors that might have crept into the Hebrew manuscripts either intentionally or unintentionally. ... Continue Reading →

NTTC LUKE 8:43: “who [spent all her living on physicians] and could not be healed by anyone”

The longer reading is also suggestive of the synoptic parallel in Mark 5:26, which means that it is very much likely that a scribe condensed the words of Mark. The expanded reading ["spent all her living on physicians"] is supported by א A C L W Θ Ξ Ψ f1, 33 Maj. While the longer reading is found in the Nestle-Alans text, it is ... Continue Reading →

OTTC GENESIS 9:10: Is the second “all the beasts of the earth” the original reading of the Hebrew text?

The BHS/MT has the reading “to all the beasts of the earth” in verse 10 of chapter 9. On the other hand, the Greek Septuagint (LXX) does not include “to all the beasts of the earth” in verse 10 of chapter 9. The verbal repetition in the Hebrew test is obviously for emphasis. The Septuagint continues to be very much important today and is used by textual scholars to help uncover copyists’ errors ... Continue Reading →

NTTC MATTHEW 5:25: “and the judge to the officer” Or “and the judge hand you over to the officer”

Those who favor the Byzantine, Majority Text and the Textus Receptus may try to argue that the repetition could have been original and then the Alexandrian copyists removed it from the manuscripts for the sake of brevity and simplicity, which is Characteristic of the Alexandrian text type ... Continue Reading →

OTTC GENESIS 4:8: “Let us go out into the field”?

The bracketed clause “let us go over into the field” is not found in the Codex Leningrad B 19A and the Aleppo Codex, nor is it found in the QT Qumran Texts (Dead Sea Scrolls; Scroll 4Q2). However, the reading is included in older Septuagint manuscripts and in SP, SYR, and VG. Continue Reading →

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