Papyrus is a tall, aquatic reed, the pith of which is cut into strips, laid in a crosswork pattern, and glued together to make a page for writing. The papyrus rolls of Egypt have been used as a writing surface since the early third millennium BC.
The original text of the NT is the “published” text—that is, the text as it was in its final edited form and released for circulation in the Christian community.
Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus is a fifth-century Greek manuscript of the Bible, sometimes referred to as one of the four great uncials.
Textual criticism of the New Testament is the identification of textual variants. or different versions of the New Testament, whose goals include identification of transcription errors, analysis of versions, and attempts to reconstruct the original text.
Papyrus 23 is designated P23. It is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the Epistle of James, it contains only James 1:10-12,15-18. The manuscript paleographically has been assigned to 175-225 A.D.
Why do people feel compelled to end with this assertive doxology? Probably for the same reason that motivated some early scribes to add it.
Papyrus 22 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), designated by P22, is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the Gospel of John, only containing extant John 15:25-16:2, 21–32. The manuscript has been paleographically assigned to 200-250 A.D.
Papyrus 17 (P17) is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the Epistle to the Hebrews, but only contains verses 9:12-19.