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New Testament Textual Criticism

Papyrus 4/64/67 (P4/P64/P67) Alexandrian Text Type (150-175 C.E.)

Textual Character: P4 is of the Alexandrian text-type and agrees with P75 and B 93 percent of the time. The copyist of P4 was likely a professional scribe. “P4 and P75 are identical in forty complete verses, with only five significant exceptions (Luke 3:22, 36; 5:39; 6:11, 14).”... Continue Reading →

Johann Jakob Griesbach (1745 – 1812) New Testament Textual Criticism Scholar

Johann Jakob Griesbach (1745 – 1812), German biblical textual critic, was born at Butzbach, a small town in the state of Hesse-Darmstadt, where his father, Konrad Kaspar (1705–1777), was pastor. Griesbach's fame rests upon his work in New Testament criticism, in which he inaugurated a new... Continue Reading →

NTTC LUKE 9:2 “and he sent them out to proclaim the kingdom of God and to heal [the sick (τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς)]”

While Metzger's point is well taken that this was Luke's style to have an infinitive followed by an object, when we have two variant readings, this suggests to us that we have ... Continue Reading →

Gregory-Aland Numbering

Caspar René Gregory published another cataloging system in 1908 in Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments, which is the system still in use today. Gregory divided the manuscripts into four groupings: papyri, uncials, minuscules, and lectionaries. This division is partially arbitrary. The first... Continue Reading →

Kurt Aland (1915 – 1994) New Testament Textual Criticism Scholar

Kurt Aland, FBA (28 March 1915 – 13 April 1994) was a German theologian and biblical scholar who specialized in New Testament textual criticism. He founded the Institut für neutestamentliche Textforschung (Institute for New Testament Textual Research) in Münster and served as its first director from 1959–83. He was one of... Continue Reading →

Caspar René Gregory (1846 – 1917) New Testament Textual Criticism Scholar

The Life of Caspar René Gregor Gregory was born in Philadelphia. After completing his bachelor's degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 1864, he studied theology at two Presbyterian seminaries: in 1865–1867 at the Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, and in 1867–1873 at the Princeton Theological... Continue Reading →

Ezra Abbot (1819 – 1884) New Testament Textual Criticism Scholar

Ezra Abbot (April 28, 1819, Jackson, Maine – March 21, 1884, Cambridge, Massachusetts) was an American biblical scholar. Life and Writings He graduated from Bowdoin College in 1840. In 1847, at the request of Prof. Andrews Norton, he went to Cambridge, where he was principal of a public school... Continue Reading →

NTTC LUKE 8:43: “who [spent all her living on physicians] and could not be healed by anyone”

The longer reading is also suggestive of the synoptic parallel in Mark 5:26, which means that it is very much likely that a scribe condensed the words of Mark. The expanded reading ["spent all her living on physicians"] is supported by א A C L W Θ Ξ Ψ f1, 33 Maj. While the longer reading is found in the Nestle-Alans text, it is ... Continue Reading →

NTTC MATTHEW 5:25: “and the judge to the officer” Or “and the judge hand you over to the officer”

Those who favor the Byzantine, Majority Text and the Textus Receptus may try to argue that the repetition could have been original and then the Alexandrian copyists removed it from the manuscripts for the sake of brevity and simplicity, which is Characteristic of the Alexandrian text type ... Continue Reading →

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