The Collation and Classification of Manuscripts

One of the vital and until recently, more tedious, tasks in the work of textual criticism was that of collating every extant Greek manuscript or fragment of the New Testament. We may be overjoyed at the abundance of sources available to us, which include the papyri, the codices, and even citations in the fathers; without collation, however, we would have no practical way to access and use them.

What Do We Know About Books, Reading, and Writing; Literacy In Early Christianity?

Rome was a complex society. Levels of literacy were fluid because of the conditions of the day being as culturally and ethnically diverse as it was. The Roman Empire from the first century to the fourth century was as culturally and ethnically diverse as New York City and its five boroughs: the Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. "Jesus was born in such a literate, well-documented period." - Paul Barnett, Is the New Testament Reliable? (2003, 20).

Papyrus 52 (P52): The “Ambiguity and Uncertainty” of Modern-Day Evangelical Bible Scholars Redating Early Papyri

What has happened to our modern-day evangelical Bible scholars? Daniel B. Wallace wrote, "The new generation of evangelical scholars is far more comfortable with ambiguity and uncertainty than previous generations." This is pessimistic, not optimistic. It has a tone of excitement about telling the Christian readers that they cannot really have confidence in anything textual scholars do, i.e., cannot have confidence in the trustworthiness of their New Testament.

Why Do the Many New Testament Quotations and References to the Greek Old Testament Instead of the Hebrew Not Mean the NT or OT Authors Made a Mistake?

Hands down, the Greek Septuagint version is the most important of the early versions of the Old Testament Hebrew Scriptures. In fact, it is the first translation from The Greek Septuagint LXX (meaning, “Seventy”). The translation from Hebrew into Greek began about 280 B.C.E.* According to tradition (more on this below), there were 72 Jewish scholars of... Continue Reading →

Why Do We Not Need the Original Bible Manuscripts?

There was something different about this library of sixty-six books that had been penned over a 1600 year period. The authors came from every walk of life from lowly fishermen and shepherds to a military general, a physician, a tax collector, kings, and the like. These 40+ men were moved along by the Holy Spirit so that what they produced was not theirs alone but belong to one author, the Creator of all things, God himself.

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