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BIBLICAL TRAINING ACADEMY—Apologetic Defense of the faith, the Bible, and Christianity

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NT Textual Criticism

NTTC MATTHEW 3:11a: I baptize you with water for repentance, but the one who is coming [after me] is mightier than I

Harmonization is a group of variants where we have scribal changes in an effort to make a passage of Scripture agree more closely with a similar or parallel passage in another book. Most of these changes take place in ... Continue Reading →

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NTTC MATTHEW 3:7: the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to the baptism

“… coming to the baptism” א* B cop Origen; “… coming to his baptism” א1 C D L W 0233 f1, 33 565 579 700. 892 1241 1424 Maj it syr cop. The earliest textual support and likely the original reading of Matthew is ... Continue Reading →

NTTC MATTHEW 2:18: weeping and great mourning

Lucian of Antioch (c. 240-312 C.E.), a Christian presbyter (minister), theologian, and martyr, produced the Syrian text, renamed the Byzantine text. About 290 C.E., some of his associates made various subsequent alterations, which deliberately combined elements from earlier types of text, and this text ... Continue Reading →

NTTC MATTHEW 2:5: Micah the Prophet, Isaiah the Prophet, or just the prophet?

Here at Matthew 2:5, we have one thirteen century Greek manuscript (ms. nr. 4 saec. XIII bibliotheca Paris, Bibl. Nat., Gr. 84) and a couple of ancient versions (syrhmg copbo), who ... Continue Reading →

CODEX VATICANUS: End of Mark’s Gospel

Codex Vaticanus (03, B) contains the Gospels, Acts, the General Epistles, the Pauline Epistles, the Epistle to the Hebrews (up to Hebrews 9:14, καθα[ριει); it lacks 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and Revelation. It is written on 759 leaves of... Continue Reading →

NTTC MATTHEW 1:25: she gave birth to [her firstborn] son

The harmonization of passages is likely an intentional change by a copyist, who is seeking have a passage agree with a similar passage from another book. Again, these are generally found in what are known as the Synoptic Gospels,* names Matthew, Mark, and Luke. ... Continue Reading →

DETERMINING THE ORIGINAL READING: The Principles and Practice of New Testament Textual Criticism

The Practice of Textual Criticism Determine the Original Reading Note: The following are critical texts: the TR stands for Textus Receptus text (1550), WH stands for Westcott and Hort text (1881), and NU stands for the Nestle-Aland text (28th ed.... Continue Reading →

NTTC MATTHEW 1:23: they [or you] shall call his name Immanuel

WHNU reads καὶ καλέσουσιν τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἐμμανουήλ (and they shall call his name Immanuel). This is supported by the... Continue Reading →

Was Mark 16:9-20 Written by Mark?

Mark 16:17-18 New King James Version (NKJV) 17 And these signs will follow those who believe: In My name they will cast out demons; they will speak with new tongues; 18 they will take up serpents; and if they drink anything deadly, it will by... Continue Reading →

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