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BIBLICAL TRAINING ACADEMY—Apologetic Defense of the faith, the Bible, and Christianity


Textual Criticism

Jacob ben Chayyim (c. 1470 – c. 1538) Old Testament Textual Criticism Scholar

The first rabbinic Bible—i.e., the Hebrew text furnished with full vowel points and accents, accompanied by the Aramaic Targums and the major medieval Jewish commentaries—was edited by Felix Pratensis and published by Daniel Bomberg (Venice, 1516/17). The second edition, edited by Jacob ben... Continue Reading →

Johann Jakob Griesbach (1745 – 1812) New Testament Textual Criticism Scholar

Johann Jakob Griesbach (1745 – 1812), German biblical textual critic, was born at Butzbach, a small town in the state of Hesse-Darmstadt, where his father, Konrad Kaspar (1705–1777), was pastor. Griesbach's fame rests upon his work in New Testament criticism, in which he inaugurated a new... Continue Reading →

OTTC GENESIS 10:24 “Arphaxad fathered Shelah” or “Arphaxad fathered Cainan, and Cainan fathered Sala [Shelah]”

The MT has the reading “Arphaxad fathered Shelah” in verse 24 of Genesis chapter 10. On the other hand, the Greek Septuagint (LXX) has “Arphaxad fathered Cainan, and Cainan fathered Sala [Shelah]” in verse 24 of Genesis chapter 10. ... Continue Reading →

NTTC LUKE 9:2 “and he sent them out to proclaim the kingdom of God and to heal [the sick (τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς)]”

While Metzger's point is well taken that this was Luke's style to have an infinitive followed by an object, when we have two variant readings, this suggests to us that we have ... Continue Reading →

OTTC GENESIS 10:23 “Mash” or “Meshech”?

Major Critical Texts and Manuscript Abbreviations of the Old Testament AC: Aleppo Codex AT: Aramaic Targum(s) B.C.E.: Before Common Era BHS: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Edited by Karl Elliger and Wilhelm Rudolph. Stuttgart, 1984. B 19A: Codex Leningrad c.: Circa, about, approximately... Continue Reading →

Gregory-Aland Numbering

Caspar René Gregory published another cataloging system in 1908 in Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments, which is the system still in use today. Gregory divided the manuscripts into four groupings: papyri, uncials, minuscules, and lectionaries. This division is partially arbitrary. The first... Continue Reading →

Kurt Aland (1915 – 1994) New Testament Textual Criticism Scholar

Kurt Aland, FBA (28 March 1915 – 13 April 1994) was a German theologian and biblical scholar who specialized in New Testament textual criticism. He founded the Institut für neutestamentliche Textforschung (Institute for New Testament Textual Research) in Münster and served as its first director from 1959–83. He was one of... Continue Reading →

Caspar René Gregory (1846 – 1917) New Testament Textual Criticism Scholar

The Life of Caspar René Gregor Gregory was born in Philadelphia. After completing his bachelor's degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 1864, he studied theology at two Presbyterian seminaries: in 1865–1867 at the Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, and in 1867–1873 at the Princeton Theological... Continue Reading →

Ezra Abbot (1819 – 1884) New Testament Textual Criticism Scholar

Ezra Abbot (April 28, 1819, Jackson, Maine – March 21, 1884, Cambridge, Massachusetts) was an American biblical scholar. Life and Writings He graduated from Bowdoin College in 1840. In 1847, at the request of Prof. Andrews Norton, he went to Cambridge, where he was principal of a public school... Continue Reading →

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