There are many textual variants in the Hebrew Old Testament and the Greek New Testament. What are textual variants? And how well do our modern translations inform their readers about these variants?
Papyrus 32 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), designated by P32, is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the Epistle to Titus, it contains only Titus 1:11-15; 2:3-8.
Wettstein rendered service to textual criticism by his collection of various readings and his methodical account of the manuscripts and other sources.
The sad state of affairs is that textual scholarship as a whole is unwittingly or knowingly moving the goalposts for some unknown reason. In textual criticism, it is now the earliest knowable text, the sociohistorical approach to New Testament Textual Studies, and, the newest trend of trying to redate our earliest NT papyri.
The Codex Alexandrinus (London, British Library, Royal MS 1. D. V-VIII; Gregory-Aland no. A or 02, Soden δ 4) is a fifth-century Christian manuscript of a Greek Bible, containing the majority of the Greek Old Testament and the Greek New Testament. It is one of the four Great uncial codices.
In the days of Westcott and Hort, the argument was that the Alexandrian scribes removed what we have in the Byzantine manuscripts, while the other argument was that the Byzantine scribes added and altered. How could we ever solve it once and for all?
ζητειτε την βασιλειαν αυτου
“seeking his kingdom”
ζητειτε την βασιλειαν του θεου
“seeking the kingdom of God”
If the WH NU reading is correct, then it is possible that this disciple of Jesus was zealous for the law or was “a zealous nationalist prior to his call to follow Jesus.
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
Some eminent papyrologists, H. Hunger and O. Montevecchi, have affirmed Marcan identification. Still the debate of positive Marcan identification goes on; Some papyrologists argue for it,6 some argue against it, and one scholar has come up with a new identification altogether, namely Zechariah 7:4-5. In addition to proposing Marcan identification for 7Q5, O’Callaghan proposed identification of 1 Timothy 3:16-4:1 for 7Q4.