This article is meant to add context to the Byzantine text that was starting to be standardized in the 12th-century C.E. [Byzantine Kr/family 35 Text-Form] During the 12th century, the civilization of the Byzantine Empire experienced a period of intense change and development. This has led some historians to refer to a 12th-century 'Renaissance' in Byzantine cultural and intellectual achievement.
Forerunners The Catholic Church would love everyone to forget the seeds of discontent that were present in her midst many years before Peter Waldo. For example, there was Bishop Agobard of Lyons, France (779-840 C.E.), who had come out strongly against image worship, churches dedicated to saints and church liturgy, which was not in agreement with... Continue Reading →
People living in the Western world generally accept the concept of a true separation of the institutions of church and state. Hundreds of years of Western tradition have demonstrated the wisdom of keeping these institutions separated and the danger that ensues when the ecclesiastical and civil institutions are melded into one. That is not the... Continue Reading →
Before we look at the rise of Muslim terrorism in our world, we need to understand the worldview conflict between Islam and western values. The Muslim religion is a seventh-century religion. Think about that statement for a moment. Most people would not consider Christianity a first-century religion. While it began in the first century, it... Continue Reading →
Islam involves both doctrine (beliefs) and duties (practice). Muslims are to believe and act according to the revelation given to Muhammad and written down in the Qur’an. They are to do this as an act of submission to the will of Allah. After all, the word Islam means “submission” and the word Muslim describes someone... Continue Reading →
Since there are more than a billion and a half Muslims in the world, it is not surprising that the beliefs of Muslims are quite diverse. Most Muslims accept the following six basic religious articles of faith. The first basic belief is that there is no God but Allah. Before Muhammad came on the scene,... Continue Reading →
Any social or political movement usually takes on the attributes and characteristics of its founder. That is also true of a religion. In order to understand the Muslim religion, we need to begin with Muhammad. Islam is a monotheistic religion based upon the holy book, the Qur’an, which its followers believe was sent by God... Continue Reading →