How Many Greek New Testament Papyri Manuscripts Do We Have and How Early Are They?

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640px-Papyrus_37_-_verso
Papyrus 37 – verso
Edward D. Andrews
EDWARD D. ANDREWS (AS in Criminal Justice, BS in Religion, MA in Biblical Studies, and MDiv in Theology) is CEO and President of Christian Publishing House. He has authored ninety-two books. Andrews is the Chief Translator of the Updated American Standard Version (UASV).

The Importance of the Papyrus Manuscripts

The earliest sources for the Greek New Testament are the papyri in codex (book-like) form. Of course, this designation came from the medium on which they were inscribed. At present, there have been over 139 of these discovered, with eighty of these manuscripts dating between 100 – 300 C.E., with the number increasing 21 more papyri from 290-390 C.E., with a total of 139, dating between 100-500 C.E. These biblical papyri range from a very small fragment to codices, which may be incomplete, but still contain large portions of several New Testament books. They are noted in literature with the Black letter character also known as Gothic script 𝔓, or by an upper- or lowercase “P” followed by a superscript Arabic number. (e.g., 𝔓52𝔓66, and 𝔓75).

The chart below has all of the Papyri listed. If you see the papyri siglum (e.g. P66, P75, P108) is linked, this means that there is an article for that papyrus manuscript. If you see a superscripted + next to the papyrus and it is linked that is another article on the same papyrus manuscript (e.g., P66+ and P75+). Click on the papyrus siglum for one article and the + symbol for the second article. Below the chart is some basic information on some of the more prominent papyri.

The P52 PROJECT THE NEW TESTAMENT DOCUMENTS 4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUS

Distribution of Papyri by Century and Type

DATE ALEX WEST CAES BYZ
100-150/175 C.E. 7Q4? 7Q5? P4/64/67 P32 P46 P52 P66+ P75+ P77/103 P101 P87 P90 P98 (bad shape, differences) P109 (too small) P118 (too small) P137 0189

P. Oxyrhynchus 405

P. Egerton 2

P104 0 0
175-250 C.E. P1 P5 P13 P20 P23 P27 P30 P35 P39 P40 P45 P47 P49/65 P71 P72 P82 P85 P95 P100 P106 P108 P111 P110 P113 P115 P121 (too small) P125 P126 (too small) P133 P136 0220 0232
P. Oxyrhynchus 406
P. Egerton 3
P29 (Metzger Western & Aland Free; too small to be certain) P38 P48 P69 0171 0212 (mixed) P107 (Independent) 0 0
250-300 C.E. P8 P9 P12 P15 P16 P17 P18 P19 P24 P28 P50 P51 P53 P70 P78 P80 P86 P88 P89 (too small) P91 P92 P114 P119 P120 P129 (too small) P131 P132 too small) P134 0162 0207 0231
P. Antinoopolis 54
P37 (Free, mostly Western) 0 0
290-390 C.E. P3 P6 P7 P10 P21 P54 P62 P81 P93 P94 P102 (too small) P117 (too small) P122 (too small) P123 P127 P130 (too small) P139 (too small) 057 058 059 / 0215 071 0160 0163 0165 0169 0172 0173 0175 0176 0181 0182 0185 0188 0206 0214 0217 0218 0219 0221 0226 0227 0228 0230 0242 0264 0308 0312
P. Oxyrhynchus 4010
P. Oxyrhynchus 5073
P21 (mixed) P25 (independent) P112 (independent) P127 (independent; like no other) 0 0
4th – 6th Century C.E. P11 P14 P33/P58 P56 P57 P63 P105 (too small) P124 0254 069
P. Oxyrhynchus 1077? (dates to 550 C.E.)
9781949586121 BIBLE DIFFICULTIES THE NEW TESTAMENT DOCUMENTS
Image of the front (recto) of Papyrus 1
Image of the front (recto) of Papyrus 1

P1 (Papyrus 1 – P. Oxy. 2)

Contents: Matt. 1:1–9, 12, 14–20

Date: 250 C.E.

Discovered: Oxyrhynchus, Egypt

Housing Location: University of Pennsylvania Museum (E 2746)

Physical Features: The manuscript is a fragment of one leaf, one column per page; 12 cm x 25 cm; 37–38 lines per page; reformed documentary hand. The words are written continuously without separation. There are no accents or breathings marks. The nomina sacra are written in abbreviated forms:

01[7]

Luke 6.4-16
Luke 6:4-16

Papyrus 1 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering) designated by “P1“, “ε 01 (von Soden)”, is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the Gospel of Matthew dating palaeographically to the middle of the 3rd century (c. 175 – 225 C.E.). It is currently housed at the University of Pennsylvania Museum (E 2746) and was discovered in Oxyrhynchus, Egypt.

Textual Character: The copyist of P1 stayed faithful to the very reliable exemplar that he was using. In places where there are major variants, P1 has a close agreement with the Alexandrian family, particularly Codex Vaticanus, from which it scarcely differs.[8]

Description

The manuscript is a fragment of one leaf, one column per page, 27-29 lines per page, roughly 14.7 cm (6 in) by 15 cm (6 in). The original codex was arranged in two leaves in a quire.

The surviving text of Matthew are verses 1:1-9, 12, and 14-20. The words are written continuously without separation. Accents and breathing marks are absent, except one rough breathing in line 14 of the recto. The nomina sacra are written in abbreviated forms:

Papyrus 1 Nomina Sacra

4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUS The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2

P4/64/67 (Papyrus 4/64/67 – Suppl. Gr. 1120/Gr. 17/P. Barcelona 1)

P4

Contents: Luke 1:58–59; 1:62–2:1, 6–7; 3:8–4:2, 29–32, 34–35; 5:3–8; 5:30–6:16

Date: 150–175 C.E.

Discovered: Coptos, Egypt in 1889

Housing Location: Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Suppl. Gr. 1120

Physical Features: P4 is one the earliest manuscripts of the Gospel of Luke and contains extensive sections of the first six chapters: 1:58-59; 1:62-2:1; 2:6-7; 3:8-4:2; 4:29-32, 34-35; 5:3-8; 5:30-6:16

Textual Character: P4 is of the Alexandrian text-type and agrees with P75 and B 93 percent of the time. The copyist of P4 was likely a professional scribe. “P4 and P75 are identical in forty complete verses, with only five significant exceptions (Luke 3:22, 36; 5:39; 6:11, 14).”[9] Comfort and Barret in their book Text of the Earliest NT Greek Manuscripts inform us that P4 came from the same codex as P64/67.

Papyrus 64 Magdalen
Papyrus 64 “Magdalen”

P64

Contents: Matthew 3; 5; 26

Date: 150–175 C.E.

Discovered: Coptos, Egypt

Housing Location: Barcelona, Fundación Sant Lluc Evangelista, Inv. Nr. 1; Oxford, Magdalen College, Gr. 18

Physical Features: The fragments have writing on both sides, which indicates that they came from a codex as opposed to a scroll.

Textual Character: P64 is of the Alexandrian text-type, evidencing a strong affinity with Alexandrian features, “agreeing slightly more with א than with B.”[10]

Papyrus 67Papyrus 67 P67 “Magdalen” papyrus

Contents: Matt. 3:9, 15; 5:20–22, 25–28

Date: 150–175 C.E.

Discovered: Coptos, Egypt

Housing Location: Barcelona, Fundación Sant Lluc Evangelista, Inv. Nr. 1; Oxford, Magdalen College, Gr. 18

Physical Features: The fragments have writing on both sides, codex style.

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Textual Character: P67 is of the Alexandrian text-type, evidencing a strong affinity with Alexandrian features, determined by Roca-Puig to have a close affinity to א.[11] Comfort and Barret show that this P4/64/67 has affinities with a number of the late 2nd century papyri.[12] Comfort says, “T. C. Skeat[13] makes a convincing case for the claim that P4/P64/P67 once belonged to a four-Gospel codex. This would make P4/P64/P67 the earliest extant four-Gospel codex.” In reference to their common identity, Roberts wrote of P4, P64, and P67:

There can, in my opinion, be no doubt that all these fragments come from the same codex which was reused as packing for the binding of the late third-century codex of Philo (= H. 695). An apparent discrepancy was that ʼΙησοῦς appeared as  ,] in the Paris fragments and as ι̅η̣̅ in the Oxford fragments; the correct reading in the latter, however, is, as can be checked in the photograph.[14]

Roberts made the above statement at a lecture to the British Academy in 1977. In 1987, he reaffirmed that this was still his position in his publication, The Birth of the Codex. There is nothing on record that suggests Roberts ever changed his position that P4, P64, and P67 are parts of the same Gospel codex.

English Bible Versions King James Bible KING JAMES BIBLE II
Folios 13-14 with part of the Gospel of Luke
Folios 13-14 with part of the Gospel of Luke

P45 (P. Chester Beatty I)

Contents: It contains sections within Matthew 20-21 and 25-26; Mark 4-9 and 11-12; Luke 6-7 and 9-14; John 4-5 and 10-11; and Acts 4-17.

Date: 200 – 225 C.E.

Discovered: Its origin is possibly the Fayum or ancient Aphroditopolis (modern Atfih) in Egypt (see Comfort, 157-9).

Housing Location: It is currently housed at the Chester Beatty Library, except for one leaf containing Matt. 25:41-26:39, which is at the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna (Pap. Vindob. G. 31974). It was purchased by Chester Beatty of Dublin, Ireland, in 1931.

Physical Features: It has portions of thirty pages, but it is estimated that the original codex had 224 pages. Comfort tells us, “The first and last pages are blank and unnumbered, but pagination numbers are extant for 193 and 199. Approximately 20 cm broad x 25 cm high (5–6 cm thick, without binding); an average of 36–37 lines per page.” (Comfort and Barrett, 155)

Textual Character: P45 is an eclectic text-type and a Category I. In the Gospel of Mark, it reflects the Caesarean family, while the other Gospels reflect a mixture of Western and Alexandrian. In the book of Acts, it largely reflects the Alexandrian family, with some minor variants from the Western family.

APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot APOSTOLIC FATHERS I AM John 8.58
P46
A folio from P46 containing 2 Corinthians 11:33-12:9. As with other folios of the manuscript, text is lacunose at the bottom.

Papyrus 46 P46 P. Chester Beatty II

Contents: P46 contains most of the Pauline epistles, though with some folios missing. It contains (in order) “the last eight chapters of Romans; all of Hebrews; virtually all of 1–2 Corinthians; all of Ephesians, Galatians, Philippians, Colossians; and two chapters of 1 Thessalonians. All of the leaves have lost some lines at the bottom through deterioration.”[15]

Date: 150 C.E.[16]

Discovered: Comfort says, “the Fayum, Egypt, or perhaps in the ruins of a church or monastery near Atfih (ancient Aphroditopolis).” (p. 203)

Housing Location: Ann Arbor, Mich.: the University of Michigan, Special Collections Library (P. Mich. inv. 6238).

Physical Features: In the original form, it would have had 52 folios,[17] which equals 104 leaves, 208 pages. However, in its current condition, 9 folios are missing. It is 15 cm x 27 cm, with 25–31 lines per page, a single column of 26 – 32 lines of text per page. Its pagination is 1 – 199.[18] P46 was written by a professional scribe.

Textual Character: P46 is an Alexandrian text-type / Category I. It is similar to Minuscule 1739.

P47
Papyrus 47: Rev. 13:16-14:4

Papyrus 47 P47

Contents: Rev. 9:10–11:3; 11:5–16:15; 16:17–17:2.

Date: 250 – 300 C.E.

Discovered: P47 (along with P45 and P46) it was discovered in the Fayum of Egypt or perhaps in the ruins of a church or monastery near Atfih, ancient Aphroditopolis.[19]

Housing Location: Dublin, Ireland: Chester Beatty Library.[20]

Physical Features: P47 has thirty leaves (60 pages); 14 cm x 24 cm; 26–28 lines per page. It was written in a documentary hand.[21] Comfort states, “The consistent abbreviation of numerals shows that the scribe was practiced at making documents. A second corrector (c2) made some additional corrections and darkened many letters.”[22

Textual Character: P47 is an Alexandrian text-type Category I. It most closely resembles Sinaiticus but is similar to two other manuscripts of Revelation: P18 (250-300) and P24 (c. 300). Kenyon was first to examine the manuscript, saying, “It is on the whole closest to א and C, with P next, and A rather further away.”[23] However, after further investigation of P47, it has been shown that it “is allied to א, but not to A or to C, which are of a different text type.”[24] Comfort says, “We know that A, C, and P115 … form one early group for Revelation, while P47 and א form another.”[25]

The Epistle to the Hebrews Paul PAUL AND LUKE ON TRIAL
P52
P52 – John 18:31–33, 37–38

Papyrus 52 P52

Contents: John 18:31–33, 37–38.

Date: 100 – 125 C.E.[26]

Discovered: Fayum or Oxyrhynchus, Egypt, believed to have been circulated in both areas.

Housing Location: John Rylands Library in Manchester, England.

Physical Features: One leaf; 18 cm x 22 cm; 18 lines per page; written in a reformed documentary hand.

Textual Character: P52 is hardly enough to suggest which text type it belongs to. The Alands list it as Category I, or what they call “normal.”[27]

P52 is the oldest manuscript of the New Testament known today. It measures 21/2 by 31/2 inches and contains only a few verses of the fourth gospel, John 18:31-33 (recto, the front), 37, and 38 (verso, the back). Bernard P. Grenfell acquired it around 1920, yet it went unnoticed until 1934 when paleographer C. E. Roberts took notice of the fact that it contained the Gospel of John. Roberts had evaluated the fragment, dating it to the beginning of the second century C.E. While other paleographers disagreed, other renowned scholars reached the same conclusion, including Frederic Kenyon, W. Schubart, Harold I. Bell, Adolf Deissmann, Ulrich Wilcken, and W. H. P. Hatch. P52 is very important because It establishes that the Gospel of John was written in the first century.[28]

P66
First page, showing John 1:1-13 and the opening words of v.14

Papyrus P66

Contents: John 1:1–6:11; 6:35–14:26, 29–30; 15:2–26; 16:2–4, 6–7; 16:10–20:20, 22–23; 20:25–21:9, 12, 17. It does not include the pericope of the adulteress (7:53–8:11), earliest witness not to include this spurious passage.

Date:  150 C.E.

Discovered: Jabal Abu Mana.

Housing Location: Bodmer Library, Geneva.

Physical Features: 39 folios, equaling 78 leaves, 156 pages; 14.2 × 16.2 cm; 15-25 lines per page; pagination numbers from 1 to 156. The handwriting suggests that it was the work of a professional scribe.

Textual Character: P66 is a free text, with both Alexandrian and Western elements. In recent studies, Berner[29] and Comfort[30] maintain that P66 has preserved the work of three individuals: the original scribe (professional), a thoroughgoing corrector (diorthōtēs), and a minor corrector. However, in studies that are more recent James Royse argues that, aside from the possible exception of John 13:19, the corrections are all by the hand of the original professional scribe.[31]

The manuscript also contains, consistently, the use of Nomina Sacra. For example, in at least ten places one finds “[t]he common symbol …, the staurogram, which is made up of the superimposed letters tau (T) and rho (P) as an abbreviation for stauros / stauroō.”[32] The Staurogram was initially used as an abbreviation for the Greek words (σταύρος) stauros and (σταυρόω) stauroō in very early NT MSS, such as P45, P66, and P75, somewhat like a nomen sacrum.[33]

P72
Two sides of the Papyrus Bodmer VIII

P72

Contents: 1 Peter 1:1–5:14; 2 Peter 1:1–3:18; Jude 1–25.

Date: c. 300 C.E.

Discovered: uncertain.

Housing Location: Cologny / Geneva, Switzerland; Vatican City, Bibl. Bodmeriana; Bibl. Vaticana.

Physical Features: P72 is “three parts of a 72-page codex; 14.5 cm x 16 cm; 16–20 lines per page. 1 and 2 Peter are paginated 1–36; Jude is paginated 62–68.”[34] It is in the documentary hand, meaning a person who was trained in preparing documents copied it. The manuscript contains “several marginal topical descriptors, each beginning with περι.” (Ibid.) The nomina sacra are used. This document also contains the Nativity of Mary, the apocryphal correspondence of Paul to the Corinthians, the eleventh Ode of Solomon, Melito’s Homily on the Passover, a fragment of a hymn, the Apology of Phileas, and Psalms 33 and 34.

THE LIFE OF Paul by Stalker-1 Paul PAUL AND LUKE ON TRIAL

Textual Character: P72 is of the Alexandrian text-type and the Alands have it as Category I. It is a free text, with certain uniqueness, often lacking careful attention in the transcription of a moderately reliable exemplar. P72 resembles P50.

lacunae-in-p75-john-14-141

Papyrus P75

Contents: Luke 3:18–22; 3:33–4:2; 4:34–5:10; 5:37–6:4; 6:10–7:32, 35–39, 41–43; 7:46–9:2; 9:4–17:15; 17:19–18:18; 22:4–24:53; John 1:1–11:45, 48–57; 12:3–13:1, 8–10; 14:8–29; 15:7–8. It does not contain the adulterous story found at John 7:53–8:11.[35]

Date: 175 – 225 C.E.

Discovered: Pabau, Egypt.

Housing Location: Cologne-Geneva, Switzerland: Bibliotheca Bodmeriana.

Physical Features:

Textual Character: P75 is Alexandrian text-type and the Alands have it as Category      I, strict text. The text is closer to Codex Vaticanus than to Codex Sinaiticus. It agrees with P111 (200-250).

It bears repeating what we discussed on pages 53 and 74 ff. P75 (c.175–225) contains most of Luke and John and has vindicated Westcott and Hort for their choice of Vaticanus as the premium manuscript for establishing the original text. After careful study of P75 against Vaticanus, scholars found that they are just short of being identical. In his introduction to the Greek text, Hort argued that Vaticanus is a “very pure line of very ancient text.”[36] Of course, Westcott and Hort were not aware of P75 that would be published in 1961, about 80 years later.

The discovery of P75 proved to be the catalyst for correcting the misconception that early copyists were predominately unskilled. As we established earlier, either literate or semi-professional copyist produced the vast majority of the early papyri, and some copied by professionals. The few poorly copied manuscripts simply became known first, giving an impression that was difficult for some to discard when the enormous amount of evidence surfaced that showed just the opposite. Of course, the discovery of P75 has also had a profound effect on New Testament textual criticism because of its striking agreement with Codex Vaticanus.

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[8] Philip W. Comfort and David P. Barrett, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts. Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers Incorporated, 2001, p. 39

[9] Ibid. p. 43

[10] Ibid., pp. 50–53

[11] Ibid., pp. 50–53

[12] P. Oxy. 224, 661, 2334, 2404 2750, P. Ryl. 16, 547, and P. Vindob G 29784

[13] Colin H. Roberts and T. C. Skeat, The Birth of the Codex(London: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1987), 40–41, 65.

[14] Colin H. Roberts, Manuscript, Society, and Belief in Early Christian Egypt, Schweich Lectures 1977 (London: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1979), 13.

[15] Michael Marlowe, Papyrus 46; http://www.bible-researcher.com/papy46.html

[16] Thus, it is my opinion that P46 belongs to an era after a.d.81–96 (the era posited by Kim)—perhaps the middle of the second century.

Dating P46 to this era allows time for the formation of the Pauline corpus to have occurred and for an archetypal collection to have been produced and to circulate in Egypt. Zuntz figured that an archetypal Pauline corpus was formed by A.D. 100 in Alexandria.6 Thus, an Alexandrian copy such as P46 could have been produced shortly thereafter and been used by Egyptian Christians in Alexandria and other nearby towns such as Aphroditopolis …. (Comfort and Barret, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts 2001)

[17] A folio is sheet of papyrus, parchment, or paper folded once to give two leaves or four pages.

[18] Pagination is page numbers, i.e., the sequential numbers given to pages in a book or document, and is one of the signs of a professional scribe.

[19] Comfort and Barret, The Text of the Earliest NT MS, 335.

[20] “Liste Handschriften”. Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 26 August 2011.

[21] A documentary hand is the work of one, who has the basic understanding and skills in preparing documents.

[22] Comfort and Barret, The Text of the Earliest NT MS, 335.

[23] Frederic G. Kenyon, The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri, fasc. 3.1,Pauline Epistles and Revelation, Text (London: Emery Walker, 1934), xiii.

[24] Aland and Aland, Text of the New Testament, 59.

[25] Comfort and Barret, The Text of the Earliest NT MS, 335.

[26] “This dating is derived from comparing P52 to manuscripts such as P. Fayum 110 (A.D. 94), the Egerton Gospel (A.D. 130–150), P. Oslo 22 (a.d.127), P. London 2078 (reign of Domitian, A.D. 81–96), and P. Berolinenses 6845 (ca. A.D. 100). Though each of these manuscripts bears significant resemblance to P52, P. Berolinenses 6845 is the closest parallel, in Roberts’s opinion. Another manuscript shares many similarities with P52, P. Oxy. 2533. The editors of P. Oxy. 2533 said that its handwriting could be paralleled with first-century documents, but since it had the appearance of being second century, they assigned it a second-century date. Thus, both P. Oxy. 2533 and P52 can safely be dated to A.D. 100–125. However, its comparability to manuscripts of an even earlier period (especially P. Berol. 6845), pushes the date closer to a.d. 100, plus or minus a few years. This is extremely remarkable, especially if we accept the consensus dating for the composition of the Fourth Gospel: A.D. 80–85. This would mean that P52 may be only twenty years removed from the original.” – (Comfort and Barret, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts 2001)

[27] Aland and Aland, Text of the New Testament, 99.

[28] Professor Ferdinand Christian Baur (1792 – 1860) argued that the apostle John did not write the Gospel of John in the last days of the first-century, but rather about 160 C.E. P52 was found in Egypt, far from Ephesus, the home congregation of John. The fact that it is dated to about 110-125 C.E., and had circulated as far down as Egypt, establishes that it was written in the first century.

[29] Karyn Berner, “Papyrus Bodmer II, P66: A Reevaluation of the Correctors and Corrections,” (master’s thesis, Wheaton College, 1993).

[30] Philip W. Comfort, “The Scribe as Interpreter: A New Look at New Testament Textual Criticism according to Reader-Reception Theory” (D.Litt. et Phil. diss., University of South Africa, 1996).

[31] James R. Royse, Scribal Habits in Early Greek New Testament Papyri (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2008), 409-21.

[32] Eerdmans and Brill The Encyclopedia of Christianity (2005) Volume 3, Page 637

[33] Hutado, Larry (2006). “The staurogram in early Christian manuscripts: the earliest visual reference to the crucified Jesus?” In Kraus, Thomas. New Testament Manuscripts. Leiden: Brill. pp. 207–26

[34] (Comfort and Barret, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts 2001, 479)

[35] The manuscripts Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Vaticanus, and P66 support this omission.

[36] B. F. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort, Introduction [and] Appendix, Vol. 2 of New Testament in the Original Greek (London: Macmillan and Company, 1881), 251.

[37] Information within the chart comes from Philip Comfort’s The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts (2001), Kurt and Barbara Aland’s The Text of the New Testament (1987) Categories, at least normal, strict, and free belong to the Alands, while  reliable, fairly reliable, and unreliable belong to comfort. Cf. chart above, p. 76.

[38] Somewhat carelessly written.

[39] P37 frequently agrees with P45. In a dissertation study under Barbara Aland, Kyoung Shik Min developed a category called “Transmission Quality,” which sorts out the errors attributed to the individual scribe. In this study, Min concludes that P37 produced a “free” text, but that the scribe’s exemplar was a “normal” text. – Kyoung Shik Min, Die früheste Überlieferung des Matthäusevangeliums (Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2005).

[40] Related to D.

[41] Carelessly written, category I because of date.

[42] It is not possible to assign any text-type to Matthew in P45. (Hill and Kruger 2012, 91)

[43] Related to D.

[44] Too brief for certainty.

[45] Category I because of age.

[46] Characteristic of precursors of the D-text; therefore, Category IV.

[47] 1, 2 Peter normal text, Jude free text, both with certain peculiarities

[48] In 1988, in The Text of the New Testament, P77 was said by the Alands to be “at least normal” by a “careless scribe” (p. 101). However, in 2002 Barbara Aland classified P77 as strict, which would agree with Comfort, who says that it was produced by a trained scribe. It is believed that P103 belongs to the same codex as P77, which is why Comfort came to a different conclusion. Comfort says that the additional fragments affirm the proto-Alexandrian character of the manuscript, showing more agreement with א than with B. Both papyrus fragments also confirm that the manuscript was produced by a trained scribe. (p. 610) According to Roberts, P77 was written “in an elegant hand [and] has what was or became a standard system of chapter division, as well as punctuation and breathing marks.”

[49] Category I because of date.

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