NTTC MATTHEW 4:24: “suffering from … torments, the demon-possessed” or “suffering from … tormented demon-possessed”

The Reading Culture of Early Christianity From Spoken Words to Sacred Texts 400,000 Textual Variants 02

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Edward D. Andrews
EDWARD D. ANDREWS (AS in Criminal Justice, BS in Religion, MA in Biblical Studies, and MDiv in Theology) is CEO and President of Christian Publishing House. He has authored over 120 books. Andrews is the Chief Translator of the Updated American Standard Version (UASV).

Major Critical Texts of the New Testament

Byz RP: 2005 Byzantine Greek New Testament, Robinson & Pierpont
TR1550: 1550 Stephanus New Testament
Maj: The Majority Text (thousands of minuscules which display a similar text)
Gries: 1774-1775 Johann Jakob Griesbach Greek New Testament
Treg: 1857-1879 Samuel Prideaux Tregelles Greek New Testament
Tisch: 1872 Tischendorf’s Greek New Testament
WH: 1881 Westcott-Hort Greek New Testament
NA28: 2012 Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament
UBS5: 2014 Greek New Testament
NU: Both Nestle-Aland and the United Bible Society

TGNT: 2017 The Greek New Testament by Tyndale House
GENTI: 2019 Greek-English New Testament Interlinear

The P52 PROJECT THE NEW TESTAMENT DOCUMENTS 4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUS

MATTHEW 4:24 2019 Greek-English New Testament Interlinear (GENTI WH TGNT SBLGNT)  [CE]
24 καὶAnd ἀπῆλθενwent off the ἀκοὴhearing αὐτοῦof him εἰςinto ὅληνwhole τὴνthe Συρίαν·Syria; καὶand προσήνεγκανthey brought αὐτῷto him πάνταςall τοὺςthe ones κακῶςbadly ἔχονταςhaving ποικίλαιςto various νόσοιςdiseases καὶand βασάνοιςtorments συνεχομένους,being afflicted, δαιμονιζομένουςbeing demon-possessed καὶand σεληνιαζομένουςbeing moonstruck/epileptics καὶand παραλυτικούς,paralytics, καὶand ἐθεράπευσενhe healed αὐτούς.them. 

MATTHEW 4:24 2012 Nestle-Aland / Stephanus New Testament (NU TR) [P]
 24 καὶAnd ἀπῆλθενwent off the ἀκοὴhearing αὐτοῦof him εἰςinto ὅληνwhole τὴνthe Συρίαν·Syria; καὶand προσήνεγκανthey brought αὐτῷto him πάνταςall τοὺςthe ones κακῶςbadly ἔχονταςhaving ποικίλαιςto various νόσοιςdiseases καὶand βασάνοιςtorments συνεχομένους,being afflicted, καὶand δαιμονιζομένουςbeing demon-possessed καὶand σεληνιαζομένουςbeing moonstruck/epileptics καὶand παραλυτικούς,paralytics, καὶand ἐθεράπευσενhe healed αὐτούς.them. 

9781949586121 BIBLE DIFFICULTIES THE NEW TESTAMENT DOCUMENTS
Matthew 4:24 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
24 And a report about him went in the whole of Syria; and they brought him all the sick, those suffering from various diseases and tormented demon-possessed and epileptic and paralyzed persons, and he healed them.
Matthew 4:24 English Standard Version (ESV)
24 So his fame spread throughout all Syria, and they brought him all the sick, those afflicted with various diseases and pains, those oppressed by demons, those having seizures, and paralytics, and he healed them.
Matthew 4:24 New American Standard Bible (NASB)
24 And the report of him went forth into all Syria: and they brought unto him all that were sick, holden with divers diseases and torments, possessed with demons, and epileptic, and palsied; and he healed them.

GENTI TGNT SBLGNT WH τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας, ποικίλαις νόσοις καὶ βασάνοις συνεχομένους, δαιμονιζομένους
those suffering from various diseases and tormented demon-possessed
B C* (Δ) ƒ13 892; Eus

Variant/TR NU τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας ποικίλαις νόσοις καὶ βασάνοις συνεχομένους [καὶ] δαιμονιζομένους
“those suffering from various diseases and torments, the demon-possessed”
(א C2 D K W Γ ƒ1 33. 565. 579. 700. 1241. 1424. l 844. l 2211 Maj latt sa mae)

NOTE: The superscript * This siglum refers to the original before it has been corrected. The superscript 1 This siglum refers to the corrector who worked on the manuscript before it left the scriptorium.

4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUS The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2

What are the original words, what is the correct translation, and what is the correct meaning? The original wording “those suffering from various diseases and tormented demon-possessed” (τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας, ποικίλαις νόσοις καὶ βασάνοις συνεχομένους, δαιμονιζομένους) in verse 24 of chapter 4 of Matthew is found in the earliest significant manuscripts (B C* (Δ) ƒ13 892; Eus) and GENTI TGNT SBLGNT WH. We have a variant, “those suffering from various diseases and torments, the demon-possessed” (τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας ποικίλαις νόσοις καὶ βασάνοις συνεχομένους [καὶ] δαιμονιζομένους) is found in (א C2 D K W Γ ƒ1 33. 565. 579. 700. 1241. 1424. l 844. l 2211 Maj latt sa mae) and TR NU.

It is no easy task here in deciding which reading was the original one. Both readings have early and weighty manuscript support and neither of them could be considered a difficult reading because they both make perfect sense. What tipped the scales for The Greek-English New Testament Interlinear (GENTI) was the more significant manuscript, Codex Vaticanus.

APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot APOSTOLIC FATHERS

The meaning is changed when the fourth και (“and”) is included in this sentence or excluded from the sentence. This is not a significant change in meaning. Nevertheless, it is a change in translation and meaning. When the και (“and”) is included, the verse reads, “They brought to him all the sick, those suffering from various diseases and torments, the demon-possessed, those having seizures, and paralytics, and he healed them.” When the και (“and”) is excluded, the verse reads, “They brought him all the sick, those suffering from various diseases and tormented demon-possessed and epileptic and paralyzed persons, and he healed them.” The original reading “those suffering from various diseases and tormented demon-possessed” indicates that the ones who were suffering from torments were, in fact, the same persons who were demon-possessed. On the other hand, the variant reading that adds the και (“and”) “those suffering from various diseases and torments, the demon-possessed …” indicates that there were two different kinds of people, those suffering from torments and the demon-possessed.

English Bible Versions King James Bible KING JAMES BIBLE II

Variant Reading(s): differing versions of a word or phrase found in two or more manuscripts within a variation unit (see below). Variant readings are also called alternate readings.

Variation Unit: any portion of text that exhibits variations in its reading between two or more different manuscripts. It is important to distinguish variation units from variant readings. Variation units are the places in the text where manuscripts disagree, and each variation unit has at least two variant readings. Setting the limits and range of a variation unit is sometimes difficult or even controversial because some variant readings affect others nearby. Such variations may be considered individually, or as elements of a single reading. One should also note that the terms “manuscript” and “witness” may appear to be used interchangeably in this context. Strictly speaking “witness” (see below) will only refer to the content of a given manuscript or fragment, which it predates to a greater or lesser extent. However, the only way to reference the “witness” is by referring to the manuscript or fragment that contains it. In this book, we have sometimes used the terminology “witness of x or y manuscript” to distinguish the content in this way.

How to Interpret the Bible-1 INTERPRETING THE BIBLE how-to-study-your-bible1

TERMS AS TO HOW WE SHOULD OBJECTIVELY VIEW THE DEGREE OF CERTAINTY FOR THE READING ACCEPTED AS THE ORIGINAL

The modal verbs are might have been (30%), may have been (40%), could have been (55%), would have been (80%), must have been (95%), which are used to show that we believe the originality of a reading is certain, probable or possible.

The letter [WP] stands for Weak Possibility (30%), which indicates that this is a low-level proof that the reading might have been original in that it is enough evidence to accept that the variant might have been possible, but it is improbable. We can say the reading might have been original, as there is some evidence that is derived from manuscripts that carry very little weight, early versions, or patristic quotations.

The letter [P] stands for Plausible (40%), which indicates that this is a low-level proof that the reading may have been original in that it is enough to accept a variant to be original and we have enough evidence for our belief. The reading may have been original but it is not probably so.

The letter [PE] stands for Preponderance of Evidence (55%), which indicates that this is a higher-level proof that the reading could have been original in that it is enough to accept as such unless another reading emerges as more probable.

The letter [CE] stands for Convincing Evidence (80%), which indicates that the evidence is an even higher-level proof that the reading surely was the original in that the evidence is enough to accept it as substantially certain unless proven otherwise.

The letter [BRD] stands for Beyond Reasonable Doubt (95%), which indicates that this is the highest level of proof: the reading must have been original in that there is no reason to doubt itIt must be understood that feeling as though we have no reason to doubt is not the same as one hundred percent absolute certainty.

NOTE: This system is borrowed from the criminal just legal terms of the United States of America, the level of certainty involved in the use of modal verbs, and Bruce Metzger in his A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994), who borrowed his system from Johann Albrecht Bengel in his edition of the Greek New Testament (Tübingen, 1734). In addition, the percentages are in no way attempting to be explicit but rather they are nothing more than a tool to give the non-textual scholar a sense of the degree of certainty. However, this does not mean the percentages are not reflective of certainty.

SOURCES

  • B. F. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort, Introduction to the New Testament in the Original Greek: Appendix (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1882)
  • Bruce Manning Metzger, United Bible Societies, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (4th Rev. Ed.) (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994),
  • Eberhard Nestle and Erwin Nestle, Nestle-Aland: NTG Apparatus Criticus, ed. Barbara Aland et al., 28. revidierte Auflage. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012).
  • Dirk Jongkind, ed., The Greek New Testament: Apparatus (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2017).
  • Dirk Jongkind, ed., The Greek New Testament (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2017), Matt. 6:8.
  • Eberhard Nestle and Erwin Nestle, Nestle-Aland: Novum Testamentum Graece, ed. Barbara Aland et al., 28. revidierte Auflage. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012)
  • The NET Bible. Garland, TX: Biblical Studies Press, 2006
  • Philip Wesley Comfort, A COMMENTARY ON THE MANUSCRIPTS AND TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Academic, 2015).
  • Philip W. Comfort, New Testament Text and Translation Commentary: Commentary on the Variant Readings of the Ancient New Testament Manuscripts and How They Relate to the Major English Translations (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 2008).
  • Philip Wesley Comfort and David P. Barrett, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House, 2001)
  • Wallace B., Daniel (n.d.). Retrieved from The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts: http://csntm.org/
  • Wilker, Wieland (n.d.). Retrieved from An Online Textual Commentary on the Greek Gospels: http://www.willker.de/wie/TCG/index.html

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