Don Wilkins_02
DR. DON WILkINS: B.A. UC Irvine, M.Div. Talbot Seminary, Th.M. Talbot Seminary, M.A. UCLA, Ph.D. UCLA. He has worked with The Lockman Foundation (TLF) as a senior translator since 1992 on the NASB.

In translation philosophy, the goal of DE/FE is to produce a translation that is the “functional equivalent” of the OL text. As I said earlier, I take strong exception to the use of the term “equivalent,” regardless of whether it is used to describe interpretive translation or literal translation. But for the purpose of this chapter, let’s assume that a translation can succeed at being equivalent overall to the original text.

“Functional” equivalence as a philosophy assumes that it is possible to create a translation with the exact same meaning as the OL text, without matching the grammatical forms found in the original or using words that match the meanings of the OL words, as established or recommended by lexical research. Of course, it also assumes that a translation done as a formal equivalent differs from a functional equivalent to such an extent as to be contrasted with it. In other words, two such translations will belong to these two separate categories, and there is a dichotomy between them.

The question is, are these assumptions justified? I think it is possible to evaluate the assumptions about word meanings and the two separate categories without great effort. First, the meanings of OL words as they were understood in ancient times have been researched and provided in standard lexicons, so I think there are only three possible options for OL translation: 1) use one of the meanings in the lexicon for the word in question; 2) use a synonym or a phrase that matches one of the meanings listed; or 3) use a word or phrase that is not a match (either entirely or partially). Option three will be chosen either when the translator has information about the meaning that is better than that available to the lexicographer(s), or when the translator chooses to interpret the word in a different way based on his understanding of the context.

King James Bible The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2 Do We Still Need a Literal Bible-2

I should add in regard to the second option that sometimes the lexicon lists meanings that are phrases, so I am referring instead to the substitution of a phrase for a word. An example of a phrase actually given as a formal translation can be found under the entry for phroneo in BDAG. This happens to provide us an opportunity for illustration in regard to Romans 12:16, because the NIV translator to whom I referred earlier, Bill Mounce, used it during his lecture in October 2013.[1]

In his lecture, Mounce quoted the NASB’s “Be of the same mind toward one another,” commenting disparagingly that it felt to him like a “cult” mentality, with everyone having to think exactly alike. He then quoted the NIV’s “Live in harmony with one another,” calling it “a really good translation” and maintaining, “That’s what ‘same’ means in this context.” As he noted in the lecture, “same” is in the Greek.

If we consult BDAG, we find “think the same thing, i.e. be in agreement, live in harmony” recommended for the passage, all of which are of course phrases, and in this case include not only the Greek word but its object as well. “Thinking the same thing” leaves room for interpretation, and the lexicographers did not see it as implying agreement on everything, which led them to suggest “live in harmony” in particular, the translation preferred by Mounce.

I am entirely willing to admit that “live in harmony” sounds good; so does world peace. But this is not the question; rather, what is the most accurate meaning of the Greek, given its usage in ancient times and the context here? It happens that Greek has a wealth of words for thinking. This particular word focuses on one’s frame of mind. In addition to that, BDAG cites two extra-biblical passages from the first and second centuries that use the word in the same construction as we find in Romans 12:16. In one, the writer (Dio Chrysostom) laments that he does not believe it possible to find any two men in the city of Tarsus who think alike. In the other, the apologist Justin Martyr asserts that Scripture never contradicts itself, and he declares that if any Scripture is posited that does seem contradictory to another, he will take the position that he does not properly understand it. He then adds that he will strive to convince others who think the Scriptures contradictory to instead assume the same frame of mind (literally phronein the same thing) as his.

So it turns out that “Be of the same mind” lines up well with the extra-biblical passages recommended by BDAG, even though “live in harmony” is one of the translations recommended. Mounce’s inference that this means everyone in the church must think exactly alike is his own. Granted, as I said, “live in harmony” sounds good. Is anything lost by it as a translation? It depends on how we understand it. The Greek verb is all about thought. I can, however, live “in harmony” with people who disagree with me about virtually everything. We just need good fences, as the saying goes (“Good fences make good neighbors”). Indeed, I dare say that if we want to, we can even get along well with people who are heretics to our belief system. If this were not the case, I doubt that John would have felt it necessary to admonish his readers on the matter (2 John 10-11).

For me, the ultimate test of accurate translation is always the possibility of accurate back-translation: that is, what is the probability of translating from the English translation back into the OL from which it was translated if one did not know what the OL said? In this case, I would save very high for “be of the same mind,” but questionable for “live in harmony.”

Please Help Us Keep These Thousands of Blog Posts Free for All


Given the three options, then, for literal translation, the first option is preferred most of the time, and frequently the second option is preferred and exercised with considerable care to maintain “equivalence.” The third option is rarely chosen and then is not considered legitimate unless the translator has better information than the lexicographer(s). As I have explained previously, this can happen when the translator is able to examine texts where the word is used outside the Bible, i.e. texts that were not available to the lexicographer(s). Over time, it seems inevitable that the standard lexicons will be revised to account for these additional texts.

It is also possible, I believe, for the translator to have a legitimate disagreement with the lexicographer(s) based on evidence–as opposed to subjective interpretation. The illustration above of phroneo in Romans 12:16 exemplifies this to some extent, in that I consider “think the same thing” too basic a concept to fit, but “live in harmony” too general and one that loses sight of the main idea, which in this case is thought. These two translations were listed by BDAG, as well as “be in agreement,” which is close but not a prize-winner.

As for the functionally equivalent translation, the fact of the matter is that very often the first two options will be preferred as well, though sometimes with greater freedom when a phrase is chosen (option two).[2]  In addition to all the “little” words like the articles (“the,” “a/an”) and pronouns that occur routinely in the OL text, the DE/FE translator will very often find that the meanings chosen by the translator of a literal version will be agreeable to him- or herself as well. This is a word-for-word agreement that ironically exists between literal and DE/FE translations.

Consider just one example, the word “altar.” It is hard to imagine a synonym or synonymous phrase that is either better or needed. The word occurs 381 times in the NASB, 380 times in the ESV, 376 times in the HCSB, 381 times in the NIV, and 408 times in the NLT, where it obviously would have been replaced or paraphrased if it were considered awkward or difficult. Even the more restricted term “bronze altar” occurs in all the translations in almost all the same verses.

This across-the-board agreement of translation choices between Bibles with competing translation philosophies reveals at the outset a flaw in the assumption of a dichotomy between literal and DE/FE translations. It soon becomes apparent that one translation is not categorically a formal equivalent and another a categorically functional equivalent, but that the differences have to be examined at a verse-by-verse (or even line-by-line) level.

Of course, the differences, which do occur often, are due to functionally equivalent translation allowing the translator greater flexibility in choosing phrases (option two), and–especially–meanings based on subjective interpretation (option three). This seems to have been the case, for example, in the NIV’s rendering of “works” in Rom. 8:28.[3] It simply is not the equivalent of the original Greek, and there are no objective grounds for thinking that the formal lexical meaning is incorrect.

If we recall the instruction that Eugene Nida’s professors gave him to translate the meaning of a passage and not just the words,[4] I have to conclude that there really is no such thing as a functional equivalent at the level of the OL word, i.e. an “equivalent” word or phrase that is in any sense contrary to the formal meaning. Indeed, “equivalent” and “contrary” do not go together well. I would add that if the meaning of the passage depends on the subjective interpretation of some of the words, contrary to their formal meanings, then it follows that the interpreted meaning probably will be incorrect.

Focusing on agreement between formal and functional equivalents, what is true for word meanings is also true for grammatical constructions. Most of the time a DE/FE translator will find no reason to take exception to the formal construction found in the OL, other than to adapt it to English word order as needed.

For example, there are few grammatical constructions more basic and common than the simple sentence with a subject, verb, and object. The Bible contains thousands of them, and seldom can the word order be changed in English without the meaning of the sentence being botched or obscured. Recall, specifically, my word-for-word translation of Is. 40:19 earlier.[5] It is necessarily a little awkward, but an interlinear-style translation of the same verse would switch the subject and object in the first clause, completely confusing the meaning.[6] Since English is so dependent on word order to express grammatical relationships, it is inevitable that literal and DE/FE English translations will mostly agree on the structure of these sentences. Even when the word order is altered for emphasis (either to reflect the OL text or as an interpretive decision by the translator), care will be taken not to confuse subject and object.

So in point of fact, there is no categorical dichotomy between literal and DE/FE translations in regard to word meanings and grammatical structures. For both, there will be a great deal of agreement, and an accurate appraisal will require comparisons on a verse-by-verse basis. Furthermore, I maintain that translations of individual words that are contrary to the formal, lexical meanings without objective justification do not qualify to be considered “equivalents,” so to treat them as such is begging the question.


However, it remains for us to examine whether grammatical structure or style in an RL translation that differs from the structure of the OL text can be considered functionally equivalent. Some differences are unavoidable, such as word order because of the relative inflexibility of English compared to the OL’s of the Bible. Even ancient Hebrew, which is primitive in its structure compared to NT Greek, has a marker lacking in English that can provide greater flexibility in the placement of the direct object, for example. Emphasis (and de-emphasis) is conveyed by non-routine word order, as we saw for example in the case of Is. 40:19.[7] When emphatic word order in the OL text cannot be duplicated in the English translation, the emphasis is lost, and therefore some of the meaning is lost.[8]

A classic example of this loss is found in John 1:1. The word order of the final clause in the Greek is, “God was the Word.” Because of the structure of the Greek, we know that “the Word” is the subject, and English dictates that as such it must go first. So all trusted translations of which I am aware read, “the Word was God.” None of them, unfortunately, have a way to convey the fact that “God” is emphasized by the OL word order. In ordinary writing, there are ways to emphasize words or course, but these are considered unacceptable for as dignified a work as the Bible.

Another difference that seems unavoidable is one to which I referred earlier: our handling of Greek participles.[9] Both formal equivalency and DE/FE translators assign contextual meanings to these participles when in fact they often are not so specific in the text. In most of these cases, I think the participle could be left in its natural, ambiguous form. However, while this would be good, standard English, it would probably also be targeted as awkward English by critics. At the very least, the public would need to be informed of the reason for the changes, which would appear to detract from clarity.

Then, of course, there are all the cases where the formal equivalent maintains the grammatical structure of the OL, while the DE/FE translation substitutes something for it. One of the more complex cases was the 1984 NIV wording of John 14:31 that we discussed previously.[10] Undoubtedly the translators of that edition considered their version of the verse a dynamic or functional equivalent of the OL text; but when it was reexamined for the 2011 revision, the translators evidently agreed that the 1984 wording was not an equivalent after all.[11] It is one thing for a formal-equivalency translator like myself to criticize the 1984 version; but it is much more significant that the NIV translators changed what they had to a reading that did a better accounting of the OL grammatical structure.

Let me offer two other examples, the first of which is quite simple: 1 Corinthians 2:4. Here is a word-for-word translation:

[A]nd my word and my preaching [were] not in persuasive words of wisdom but in demonstration of Spirit and of power….

Note that there is no verb in the Greek, and “were” makes the best sense in the context. Also, the Greek preposition translated “in” is capable of several meanings, including “with” and “by.” I capitalized “Spirit” as a contextual interpretation because it seems likely that Paul would refer to the Holy Spirit rather than to his human spirit. This is a typical situation where both capitalization and the lack of it point to an interpretation, so the translator has no choice but to interpret. The absence of the article (“the”) with “Spirit” could be used as an argument in favor of Paul’s human spirit, but sometimes “Spirit” (referring to the Holy Spirit) is found without the article (e.g. 1 Cor. 12:3).


The NASB and the ESV both retain the grammatical structure of the Greek. The NASB reads,

[A]nd my message and my preaching were not in persuasive words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power.

A note is included on “message” providing the literal “word.” The article is added to “Spirit” for more natural English. The ESV reading is very close to the NASB’s:

[A]nd my speech and my message were not in plausible words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power….

No notes are provided. I find “plausible” an odd word to use here since “persuasive” is the simple meaning, and “plausible” is a weaker concept. However, we are focusing on the structure of the Greek, and we can see that both translations follow it.

Now let’s compare the HCSB:

My speech and my proclamation were not with persuasive words of wisdom but with a powerful demonstration by the Spirit….

The translators chose to start a new sentence with the verse and for that reason deleted the first “and.” They also chose “with” instead of “in” for the Greek preposition, which is entirely legitimate and seems to fit about as well as “in.” However, the translators departed from the structure of the OL for the last four words in the Greek. This is further evidence of the hybrid character of the HCSB that I noted earlier.[12] First, the noun “power” at the end of the verse is converted to an adjective modifying “demonstration.”

The phrase “powerful demonstration” may sound better than “demonstration…of power,” but as we saw in discussing Mounce’s preference for “live in harmony” above,[13] what really matters is whether it is accurate as a translation. I can honestly and objectively say, no. Let me explain why.

You have probably inferred by now that I not only think in terms of back-translation, but that I enjoy reverse-engineering translations, i.e. figuring out the steps that led to a particular translation. It is a little like solving a crime mystery, though of course no crime has been committed in these cases (unless one considers it criminal what some people have done in translating the Bible).


So in analyzing the HCSB wording here, the first thing that comes to mind is a Hebrew idiom (or “Hebraism”) in which a noun in the genitive construction–which we represent with “of”–is used as an adjective. “Fire of flame” is a good example; we would typically translate it “flaming fire.” Similarly, people are often described using “son” with a genitive noun that describes them, such as “son of man” and “sons of thunder.” Jesus once described Judas as “the son of destruction” (John 17:12), meaning that he was doomed.

As a Pharisaic scholar who studied under the great Gamaliel (Acts 22:3), Paul certainly could be expected to use a Hebrew idiom at any given time, and if we had “demonstration of power” here in the Greek, then “powerful demonstration” might be plausible. It might even be understood this way solely from a Greek viewpoint. However, we know that what we actually have after “demonstration” is “of Spirit and of power.” A translator cannot legitimately ignore “of Spirit” and jump to “power.” Either both terms must be handled the same way, or if one of them is turned into an adjective, it would have to be “Spirit” rather than “power.” That would make little or no sense here, so only the first alternative is left, and if both terms are made adjectives, we would have, “…with a Spiritual [or spiritual] and powerful demonstration….”

To fully understand what the HCSB translators did, however, let’s assume that it is somehow possible to jump over “Spirit” and attach only “power” to “demonstration.” In the Greek, “Spirit” and “power” have the same grammatical form and are linked by “and,” which indicates that they are being used the same way. We see this in the repetition of “of” with each term in the NASB and ESV. This grammatical balance was completely ignored in the HCSB. We already know that “demonstration” was turned into an adjective; to “Spirit” the translators added the preposition “by,” making the Spirit the agent performing the demonstration.

How would they come by such an idea? It happens that the genitive construction can be interpreted this way. So the HCSB translators chose two different interpretations of the genitive construction that occur elsewhere but were not possible together in the combination that we see here. Changing the grammatical structure of the OL text resulted in a translation that sounded good (I think), but was in no way equivalent to it.

You may wonder whether anything was lost in this process, or anything added to the meaning of the passage that did not belong. We have to consider, first, what Paul was actually saying. Let’s assume that “Spirit” was, in fact, the Holy Spirit. We have already maintained that “Spirit” and “power” are being used the same way because of the grammatical balance. While the Spirit could have been the one performing the demonstration, the same idea would not make sense for the impersonal “power,” so it follows that Paul’s preaching or actions demonstrated the Spirit and power. With that, we immediately see that “powerful” is not implied with “demonstration,” and that the Spirit was not the one demonstrating as portrayed in the HCSB.

Moving on to the NIV as a DE/FE translation, we will not see anything more creative for this passage than we just saw in the HCSB. The NIV reads,

My message and my preaching were not with wise and persuasive words, but with a demonstration of the Spirit’s power….

In comparison with the HCSB, I think we do see a little more paraphrasing here (i.e. in terms of quantity, not quality). First, we find “wise and persuasive words” instead of “persuasive words of wisdom.” To me, this is a classic case of stylistic change for its own sake within the flexible boundaries of the DE/FE philosophy. The term “persuasive” matches the Greek, as we have seen, but the Greek noun “wisdom” has been changed by the translators to the adjective “wise.” I’m sure many people would say that it is functionally equivalent to the Greek.

BIBLICAL CRITICISM - Beyond the Basics THE NEW TESTAMENT how-to-study-your-bible1 How to Interpret the Bible-1

It is very unlikely that I could back-translate from this wording into the original Greek, but aside from that, the first word I read is “wise,” which sounds fine. What is wrong with using wise words in preaching? Then I see “persuasive,” which could refer either to the same wise words, or to other words that were not necessarily wise, but were persuasive. “Persuasive” hints of being corrupt, like a sales pitch that does not tell the full story.

Now let’s consider what Paul actually says in the literal “persuasive words of wisdom.” The first word I see is “persuasive,” and instead of being an addition to “wise” (NIV), it sorts out from all the wise words those that are distinctly persuasive. So the attribute of persuasion is given center stage, and Paul’s point is that, unlike the great orators of his time, he deliberately avoided rhetorical devices to convince his listeners.

Someone may argue that this is a slight nuance, but I would counter that we are talking about equivalence, and “wise and persuasive” is not equivalent to the Greek. What is perhaps worse, in this case, is that there appears to be no good reason to rephrase the OL, unless the change is for simpler English, and even minor simplification has a higher priority than accuracy in the NIV translation philosophy.

Let’s move on to “a demonstration of the Spirit’s power….” Here, the NIV translators tampered with the Greek much less than their HCSB counterparts did. The term “Spirit’s” is the possessive form in English, and this is expressed in Greek mostly by the genitive case, which a beginning student would be taught to understand in English as “of” with the word in that case. Thus a back-translation would typically be, “of the power of the Spirit.” In the word-for-word translation above we actually have “of Spirit and of power,” so the NIV wording is a match to the actual Greek cases.

Of course Paul actually separates the terms “Spirit” and “power” from each other by his use of the conjunction “and.” As we already observed,[14] he is telling us that in his preaching or actions he somehow demonstrated both, and since the Greek for “power” could have reference to a miracle, I suspect that he demonstrated both miracles and the speaking ability that he gained from the Spirit. The NIV translators chose to ignore the conjunction and turn the two objects of Paul’s demonstration–the person of the Spirit and the power–into one, i.e. the Spirit’s power. They could say that this is a contextual interpretation focusing on the work of the Holy Spirit.

Let’s take a mental side road for a moment and explore the concept of “contextual interpretation.” In Bible study, contextual interpretation is a very good thing, even a necessity, for doing it properly. Preachers, who are usually pastors, have nothing valid to say without it. You may be getting the impression, however, that I am opposed to it when it is used as a tool for translation. In that case let me clarify that I am opposed to doing interpretive translation unless it is unavoidable, which includes passages where all translation options represent an interpretation. When interpretation is an unavoidable factor in the translation process, then to have any validity it absolutely must be consistent with the context.

The problem with contextual interpretation is similar to what we encounter with outlines of Scripture: like snowflakes, no two are exactly alike. Everyone seems to find something different in a context of several verses or more. So in the present case, the NIV translators are fully entitled to gather from the context what they feel it means or what they see as the main point. But it was unnecessary to change the structure of the OL here, and it is fair to say that the translators may have misinterpreted Paul’s intent.

What was gained or lost in the NIV translation of “Spirit’s power”? If I am a reader with nothing but the NIV in front of me, I see that the Spirit is powerful, and that is surely a good thing to know whether it was Paul’s point or not (perhaps Paul would agree). If I read the literal translation I only see that the Spirit is in some way present. On the other hand, as I pointed out, the literal suggests that Paul performed a miracle. If I am not sure what Paul means by “of Spirit and of power,” I have something to explore further. In contrast, “Spirit’s power” in the NIV is clear, and no exploration is encouraged.

Turning to the NLT, we might expect something only loosely connected to the OL, and that is what it delivers:

And my message and my preaching were very plain. Rather than using clever and persuasive speeches, I relied only on the power of the Holy Spirit.

The changes to “not in persuasive words of wisdom” probably would please any English stylist who prefers positive statements to negative. I myself tend to avoid negatives even to the point of attaching “un-” to an adjective or adverb if I can thereby get rid of a “not.” So kudos would go to “very plain” as a kind of antonym to “not persuasive words of wisdom.” However, I might not know exactly what “very plain” meant, if it were not followed by “Rather than using” etc. What we see from this point on is essentially a paraphrase of the NIV’s paraphrase, again avoiding “not.”

 We see one very significant difference here between NIV and NLT: instead of “but with a demonstration of the Spirit’s power,” the NLT has, “I relied only on the power of the Holy Spirit.” “I relied only on” bears no resemblance at all in meaning to “with a demonstration of,” which refers to proving something. Paul’s demonstration established his credibility for what he was preaching. Undoubtedly Paul did solely rely on the power of the Spirit in his preaching, but this is clearly not what he is talking about. The best explanation for the translators’ choice of wording is again contextual interpretation, and this illustrates what we just discussed in our digression on that topic. Interpreters will glean different nuances or points of view from the same context. If the translation philosophy allows interpretation to take precedence over literal meaning, we will see some unique variations in the RL text.


1 Corinthians 2:4 is a simple and non-controversial passage. Let me close this chapter with an analysis of two passages that are quite provocative and nearly identical, where a large part of the issue is the tense of the verbs: Matthew 16:19 and 18:18. Here is a WFW translation of 16:19:

I will give you the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, and whatever you bind on the earth will have been bound in the heavens, and whatever you loose on the earth will have been loosed in the heavens.

Matthew 18:18 is virtually identical in the binding and loosing:

Truly I say to you, whatever you bind on the earth will have been bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on the earth will have been loosed in heaven.

“Whatever” is singular in Matthew 16:19 and plural in 18:18, and there seems to be no significant difference in concept between “heavens” and “heaven,” or the article (“the”) is present or not.

Since the differences are so slight, I will just start with the NASB version of Matthew 18:18:

Truly I say to you, whatever you bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall have been loosed in heaven.

Typically it is the translator’s choice whether to use the article with “earth” and “heaven” or not. Other than that, the NASB reading is virtually word-for-word. The use of “shall” instead of “will” is an interpretive decision to emphasize the future-tense verbs or treat them as commands, which can be done (cp. OT commands with “he shall…”).

What is interesting about the Greek is that the verbs of binding and loosing are complicated constructions that produce the future perfect passive. “Whatever you bind/loose” refers to future actions, and the future perfect passive indicates that when a decision is made on earth, it will have already been made in heaven.  Some expositors believe the timing is important because it means that the church leadership (Jesus mentions the church in v. 17; Peter in 16:18) does not control God’s decisions, since his anticipates theirs. I think it provides the leaders great comfort in knowing God has already made a difficult decision that they in effect repeat.

I should quickly add that church leadership is never infallible, nor do they have God on speed dial (or any kind of dialup). The decision may even be a bad one; God has sometimes punished people through leading them to bad decisions. Still, I think it is comforting to know that the decisions required of church leadership are a reflection of God’s own decisions, whether the results prove to be positive or negative.

Let’s return to the Greek. As I said, this verbal construction is complicated, and it is seldom seen. The concept is one that we encounter almost every day, however. We have two future events: X and Y. By the time X takes place, Y will have already taken place. For example, if my wife has told me more than once that she wants me to check the air pressure in her tires before she drives somewhere later, and I feel as though she is nagging me, I might reply, “By the time you’re ready to leave, your tires will have been checked and the car will be ready.” I would be careful about my tone of voice, of course.

Please Help Us Keep These Thousands of Blog Posts Free for All


So let’s see how the ESV handles this verse:

Truly, I say to you, whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

This may at first glance look identical to the NASB, but notice that the ESV has “shall be” instead of “shall have been.” The difference is significant. “Shall be” is the simple future passive, not the future perfect passive, and there is no indication that the binding and loosing in heaven will take place before that on earth. God’s decisions are represented as echoing those of the church leadership, as he acts either simultaneously with the leadership or at a later time.

This is a very big difference, letting the leaders lead as God follows, validating their decisions. Is there justification for the simple future passive here? Greek verbs usually do not have all the grammatical forms that are possible for a verb so one question would be whether these verbs have a simple future passive form, making the more complicated forms found here unnecessary. The answer is, yes. The verb for binding has a form that does not occur in the NT, but it is found elsewhere, and the verb for loosing has a future passive that does occur in the NT.

Therefore we know that Jesus (or Matthew) could have expressed what he says here and in 16:19 in a simple construction that would be properly translated as it is in the ESV text (“shall be”). To their credit, the ESV translators have a note providing “shall have been” as an alternative. Nevertheless, given the fact that we do not find the simple “shall be” in the text when it could have been, I think it is fair to say that the readings in the text and the notes should have been switched, if “shall be” were acknowledged at all. And it is certainly fair to say that “shall be” is not a “functional equivalent” for “shall have been.”

In the HCSB we find paraphrases. Here is Matthew 18:18:

I assure you: Whatever you bind on earth is already bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth is already loosed in heaven.

We first find “I assure you” for “Truly I say to you.” The two concepts are related but different; “assure” is basically a promise or guarantee of something, often said to comfort a person who is worried. “Truly I say” means that the speaker is telling the truth as opposed to lying. Jesus used this terminology frequently, but we see no one else in the NT using it.

The paraphrase that I find significant is, “is already.” The HCSB translators were sensitive to the theological issue and wanted it to be very clear that event Y (God’s decision) precedes event X (a decision by church leadership). To assure  the reader of this, they replaced the future “shall” with “is” and added the adverb “already.” Thus the element of futurity is completely discarded. As far as Jesus’ disciples are concerned, all of the church’s decisions have already been made by God.

I do not have a problem with the theology to which the translators seem to be catering here, because I think it can be harmonized with Jesus’ words. But I can find nothing in the context that provides any basis for the translation. It appears to be based entirely on theology.

The HCSB translators redeem themselves somewhat by including notes providing us with a future passive wording. However, as we have seen, this wording is not really justified. What I would prefer to see instead are notes supplying the literal future perfect passives.

The NIV version of the verse is nearly identical to the ESV, so we can deal with it easily:

Truly I tell you, whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.

I should point out that this is the 2011 edition. Interestingly, the 1984 edition had “I tell you the truth,” which was close to the OL except that the word for “truth” is not a noun. The change to “Truly” made it a literal translation. Of course what we said about the future passive in regard to the ESV applies here as well because the NIV also has the future passive in the text. Not only that, to their credit, the NIV translators, like their ESV colleagues, included a note providing “shall have been” as an alternative. The only problem I have with either camp is that the notes are “Or” notes: they present the future perfect passives as options when in fact, they are the literal Greek.


So then, for this verse, the NIV does just as well as the ESV and better than the HCSB in terms of fidelity to the OL. It remains for us to examine the NLT, which reads:

I tell you the truth, whatever you forbid on earth will be forbidden in heaven, and whatever you permit on earth will be permitted in heaven.

 This NLT begins as the 1984 NIV did, with a minor alteration to the Greek for “truly.” I might have expected something more like the HCSB’s “I assure you.” But the elephant in the room as far as the translation of this verse is concerned is the word “bound” and its companion “loosed,” and as a looser translation than the NIV, I would have been disappointed to find the NLT keeping these two terms intact.

Once the restraint of accuracy to the OL is removed or loosened, these two words all but beg to be adapted to clearer English. Did you notice how I just used “loose” in a different way from its meaning in the verse? These are abstract meanings, so what exactly does the word mean as Jesus used it here? The NLT translators have provided us answers for both words that seem to make good sense. They probably derived these meanings from the ancient rabbis, who described forbidden practices as “bound,” and permitted practices as “loosed.”

The translators also include notes providing the literal meanings of these words, though they introduce them with “Or” instead of “Lit,” which is giving too much credence to the substitutions. Also, the literal future perfect passive construction is not noted, but we would not necessarily expect this level of care to be taken in the NLT.

If “forbidden” and “permitted” make good sense, is there any reason for a DE/FE translation like the NIV to keep the literal meanings, which sound awkward and obscure by comparison? For that matter, should I as an NASB translator consider the substitutions, which can be covered by notes? The rabbinical usage gives me a solid historical precedent. On the other hand, obscurity can sometimes be a good thing in Bible translation, as long as the translation accurately represents the OL. It can keep us from committing ourselves to an understanding of the text that is simple but wrong, and it can send us to good experts or sources to find the correct understanding.

I think the concepts of “forbidden” and “permitted” are promising for Matthew 16:19 and 18:18, but they bring with them some unwanted baggage. At the outset, it is easy for a person unacquainted with the Bible to think that Jesus is saying that questionable behavior on earth will either be forbidden or permitted in heaven, depending on how the church leadership rules on it. For example, if the church rules that dancing is permissible, then there will be dancing in heaven; but if it is forbidden by the church, then it will also be outlawed in heaven.

Then, I am not sure that forbidding and permitting covers all the decisions that church leaders have to make. It would be a little like requiring the answer to every question to be either “yes” or “no.” I can certainly see that “binding” and “loosing” are opposites, and I know that decisions amount to choosing between competing alternatives. So perhaps I am better off understanding the OL terms here as competing alternatives and nothing more, at least until information surfaces that allow me to form a better interpretation.

Before concluding our analysis, let’s examine the beginning of Matthew 16:19: “I will give you the keys of the kingdom of the heavens…” (WFW translation). It is a very interesting statement, with plenty of room for interpretation and rich in possible implications for theology. So we might expect a lot of creativity when we compare translations. Yet, once we allow the singular “heaven” for “the heavens,” the uniformity of wording from one translation to the next is striking. The NLT differs by adding “And” at the beginning, but that is hardly significant and may be based on a different reading in the manuscripts.

The grammatical construction of the Greek is simple and, whatever Jesus meant by “keys,” the meaning of the Greek word is clear, so this is one of many cases where the DE/FE translators had no reason to deviate from a formal equivalency approach. They certainly could have substituted something for the cryptic “keys”; I note, for example, that The Message adds the phrase “complete and free access,” and further describes the “keys” as “keys to open any and every door: no more barriers between heaven and earth….” So how many doors are there into heaven, I wonder? Or was Peter given a giant ring with keys to all the rooms housing the redeemed in heaven, like a building superintendent?

My point is that if readers had nothing other than a DE/FE translation, they would have no way of knowing when the translation is a faithful representation of the OL and when it is not–with the possible exception of a very free translation (e.g. The Message) that constantly shows evidence of paraphrasing. It can be difficult to predict how translators will handle a passage within the DE/FE parameters.

To sum up, when we reduce the Bible to individual words and grammatical constructions, there are many places where both DE/FE translations and formal equivalency translations closely correspond to the OL’s. Active verbs usually remain active, passives remain passive, subject and object nouns in the OL’s remain so in the translations, the formal definitions in the standard lexicons are followed, and so forth. What we just saw in the handling of the “keys” in Matthew 16:19 is a somewhat surprising example. So when translators make a categorical distinction between DE/FE and literal translations, it is not an absolute but one that is a matter of degree. They all know this, and this fact alone pokes some holes in the artificial dichotomy between the two types of translations.

When there are differences that DE/FE translators call “functional equivalents,” however, the question is whether they really are equivalent in meaning to the OL, and the samples that we have examined are not. I am certain that we could go on examining many more passages and would arrive at the same conclusion. There may appear to be similarities, but the equivalency breaks down when we look at the details. What we have in its place is contextual interpretation by the translators. In effect, they have answered the call of Nida’s professors to provide the reader with the meaning of a passage, and not just a translation of the words.[15]

Like the scribes of old, translators are learned men and women, and their opinions of what a passage means has value. Nevertheless, I think the reader needs and deserves to know what the passage actually says, even if it is difficult to understand. As we have seen, contextual interpretation that ignores or deviates from the OL does not provide that, and since this kind of interpretation is a basic element of DE/FE translation, there is little or no “equivalency” to the OL in these passages at all. So on this score, the distinction between DE/FE translations and literal translations truly is a false dichotomy. The real distinction is between translations whose philosophies permit this kind of contextual interpretation in place of literal translation and translations that formally correspond to the OL as much as possible.

BIBLICAL CRITICISM - Beyond the Basics REASONABLE FAITH how-to-study-your-bible1 How to Interpret the Bible-1

Please Help Us Keep These Thousands of Blog Posts Free for All




Christian Living

Herein Andrews will answer the “why.” He will address whether God is responsible for the suffering we see. He will also delve into whether God’s foreknowledge is compatible with our having free will. He will consider how we can objectively view Bible evidence, as he answers why an almighty, loving and just God would allow bad things to happen to good people. Will there ever be an end to the suffering? He will explain why life is so unfair and does God step in and solve our every problem because we are faithful? He will also discuss how the work of the Holy Spirit and the indwelling of the Holy Spirit should be understood in the light of wickedness. Lastly, Andrews will also offer biblical counsel on how we can cope when any tragedy strikes, …

Let God Use You to Solve Your PROBLEMSLet God Use You to Solve Your PROBLEMS: GOD Will Instruct You and Teach You In the Way You Should Go

GOD knows best. Nobody surpasses him in thought, word, or action. As our Creator, he is aware of our needs and supplies them abundantly. He certainly knows how to instruct us. And if we apply divine teaching, we benefit ourselves and enjoy true happiness. Centuries ago, the psalmist David petitioned God …


Whom do we lean upon when facing distressing situations, making important decisions, or resisting temptations? With good reason, the Bible admonishes us: “Trust in the Lord with all your heart and do not lean on your own understanding. In all your ways know him, and he will make straight your paths.” (Prov. 3:5-6) Note the expression …

THE POWER OF GODTHE POWER OF GOD: The Word That Will Change Your Life Today 

Yes, God will be pleased to give you strength. He even gives “extraordinary power” to those who are serving him. (2 Cor. 4:7) Do you not feel drawn to this powerful Almighty God, who uses his power in such kind and principled ways? God is certainly a “shield for all those who take refuge in him.” (Psalm 18:30) You understand that he does not use his power to protect you from all tragedy now. He does, however, always use his protective power to ensure the outworking of his will and purpose. In the long run, his doing so is in your best interests. Andrews shares a profound truth …


All of us will go through difficult times that we may not fully understand. The apostle Paul wrote, “in the last days difficult times will come.” (2 Tim. 3:1) Those difficulties are part of the human imperfection (Rom. 5:12) and living in a fallen world that is ruled by Satan (2 Cor. 4:3-4). But when we find ourselves in such a place, it’s crucial that we realize God has given us a way out. (1 Cor. 10:13) Edward Andrews writes that if we remain steadfast in our faith and apply God’s Word correctly when we go through difficult times, we will not only grow spiritually, but we will …

AMERICA IN BIBLE PROPHECY_UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN BIBLE PROPHECY: The Kings of the North & South of Daniel and the Seven Kings of Revelation 

Why should you be interested in the prophecy recorded by Daniel in chapter 11 of the book that bears his name? The King of the North and the King of the South of Daniel are locked in an all-out conflict for domination as a world power. As the centuries pass, turning into millenniums, …

YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE: Why and How Your Christian Life Makes a DifferenceYOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE: Why and How Your Christian Life Makes a Difference

The theme of Andrews’ new book is YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE. As a Christian, you touch the lives of other people, wherein you can make a positive difference. Men and women of ancient times such as David, Nehemiah, Deborah, Esther, and the apostle Paul had a positive influence on others …

TURN OLD HABITS INTO NEW HABITS: Why and How the Bible Makes a DifferenceTURN OLD HABITS INTO NEW HABITS: Why and How the Bible Makes a Difference

Many have successfully conquered bad habits and addictions by applying suggestions found in the Bible and by seeking help from God through prayer. You simply cannot develop good habits and kick all your bad ones overnight. See how to establish priorities. Make sure that your new habits …

GOD WILL GET YOU THROUGH THIS: Hope and Help for Your Difficult TimesGOD WILL GET YOU THROUGH THIS: Hope and Help for Your Difficult Times

It may seem to almost all of us that we are either entering into a difficult time, living in one, or just getting over one and that we face one problem after another. This difficulty may be the loss of a loved one in death or a severe marriage issue, a grave illness, the lack of a job, or …

FEARLESS: Be Courageous and Strong Through Your Faith In These Last DaysFEARLESS: Be Courageous and Strong Through Your Faith In These Last Days

The world that you live in today has many real reasons to be fearful. Many are addicted to drugs, alcohol, bringing violence into even the safest communities. Terrorism has plagued the world for more than a decade now. Bullying in schools has caused many teen suicides. The divorce rate …

JOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the WorldJOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the World

John 3:16 is one of the most widely quoted verses from the Christian Bible. It has also been called the “Gospel in a nutshell,” because it is considered a summary of the central theme of traditional Christianity. Martin Luther called John 3:16 “The heart of the Bible, the Gospel in …

THE BOOK OF JAMES: CPH New Testament Commentary, Vol. 17 (An Apologetic and Background Exposition of the Holy Scriptures) CPH New Testament CommentaryTHE BOOK OF JAMES (CPH New Testament Commentary 17)

…about God and his personal revelation, allowing it to change our lives by drawing closer to God. The Book of James volume is written in a style that is easy to understand. The Bible can be difficult and complex at times. Our effort herein is to make it easier to read and understand, while …

THE OUTSIDER: Coming-of-Age In This MomentTHE OUTSIDER Coming-of-Age In This Moment

THE OUTSIDER is a Coming-of-Age book. SECTION 1 Surviving Sexual Desires and Love will cover such subjects as What Is Wrong with Flirting, The Pornography Deception, Peer Pressure to Have Sexual Relations, Coping With Constant Sexual Thoughts, Fully Understanding Sexting, Is Oral Sex …


Who should read THIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING? Anyone who is struggling with their walk as a young person. Anyone who has a friend who is having difficulty handling or coping with their young life, so you can offer them the help they need. Any parent who has young ones. And …

WAGING WAR: A Christian's Cognitive Behavioral Therapy WorkbookWAGING WAR: A Christian’s Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Workbook

Waging War is a guide to start the youth with the most basic information and work pages to the culmination of all of the facts, scripture, and their newly gained insight to offer a more clear picture of where they are and how to change their lives for the better. Every chapter will have …


DOZENS OF QUESTIONS WILL BE ANSWERED: Why is prayer necessary? What must we do to be heard by God? How does God answer our prayers? Does God listen to all prayers? Does God hear everyone’s prayers? What may we pray about? Does the Father truly grant everything we ask for? What kind …

HUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For UsHUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For Us

There are many reasons the Christian view of humanity is very important. The Christian view of humanity believes that humans were created in the image of God. We will look at the biblical view of humanity. We are going to look at the nature of man, the freedom of man, the personality of …

FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition]FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition] 

In FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART – SO I A M, Edward D. Andrews offers practical and biblical insights on a host of Christian spiritual growth struggles, from the challenge of forgiveness to eating disorders, anger, alcoholism, depression, anxiety, pornography, masturbation, same-sex …

APPLYING GOD'S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]APPLYING GOD’S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]

There is a genuine happiness, contentment, and joy, which come from reading, studying and applying God’s Word. This is true because the Scriptures offer us guidance and direction that aids us in living a life that coincides with our existence as a creation of Almighty God. For example, we …

PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]

THERE IS ONE MAJOR DIFFERENCE between Christian living books by Andrews and those by others. Generally speaking, his books are filled with Scripture and offer its readers what the Bible authors meant by what they penned. In this publication, it is really God’s Word offering the counsel, …

Walking With Your God_Second EditionWALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD: Putting God’s Purpose First in Your Life [Second Edition]

A clean conscience brings us inner peace, calmness, and a profound joy that is seldom found in this world under the imperfection of fallen flesh that is catered to by Satan, the god of the world. Many who were formerly living in sin and have now turned their life over to God, they now know this amazing relief and are able today to hold a good and clean conscience as they carry out the will of the Father. WALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD, has been written to help its readers to find that same joy, to have and maintain a good, clean conscience in their lives. Of course, it is incapable of covering every detail that one would need to consider and apply in their lives …

WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS: How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?

This book is primarily for WIVES, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. WIVES will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: WIVES BE SUBJECT TO …

HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?

This book is primarily for HUSBANDS, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. HUSBANDS will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: HUSBANDS LOVE …


Technological and societal change is all around us. What does the future hold? Trying to predict the future is difficult, but we can get a clue from the social and technological trends in our society. The chapters in this book provide a framework as Christians explore the uncharted territory in our world of technology and social change.


Government affects our daily lives, and Christians need to think about how to apply biblical principles to politics and government. This book provides an overview of the biblical principles relating to what the apostle Paul calls “governing authorities” (i.e., government) with specific chapters dealing with the founding principles of the American government. This includes an examination of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the Federalist Papers.


Economics affects our daily lives, and Christians need to think about how to apply biblical principles to money, investment, borrowing, and spending. They also need to understand the free enterprise system and know how to defend capitalism. Chapters in this book not only look at broad economic principles, but a section of the book is devoted to the challenges we face in the 21st century from globalization and tough economic times. A section of the book also provides an in-depth look at other important social and economic issues (gambling, welfare) that we face every day

A Dangerous JourneyA DANGEROUS JOURNEY: Those Who Become Jesus’ Disciples 

Do you desire to follow Jesus Christ and transform the culture around you? Are you sure you know what it means to be a disciple and follow a dangerous revolutionary who often comforts the afflicted and afflicts the comfortable? Jesus Christ is not the mild status quo rabbi you may have been taught in your local church. He is dangerous and anyone who follows him is on a dangerous journey. The demands he places upon you and the challenges you will encounter are necessary on the journey. The journey with Jesus Christ is not for the fainthearted. If you are really serious about joining Jesus Christ in the transformation of the culture around you, here is a raw outlook on what to expect on this DANGEROUS JOURNEY.

Christian Apologetics and Evangelism


Was the Gospel of Mark Written First? Were the Gospel Writers Plagiarists? What is the Q Document? What about Document Q?  Critical Bible scholars have assumed that Matthew and Luke used the book of Mark to compile their Gospels and that they consulted a supplementary source, a document the scholars call Q from the German Quelle, or source.  From the close of the first century A.D. to the 18th century, the reliability of the Gospels was never really brought into question. However, once we enter the so-called period of enlightenment, especially from the 19th century onward, some critical Bible scholars viewed the Gospels not as the inspired, inerrant Word of God but rather as the word of man, and a jumbled word at that. In addition, they determined that the Gospels were not written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, saying the Gospels were written after the apostles, denying that the writers of the Gospels had any firsthand knowledge of Jesus; therefore, for these Bible critics such men were unable to offer a record of reliable history. Moreover, these critical Bible scholars came to the conclusion that the similarities in structure and content in the synoptic (similar view) Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke), suggests that the evangelists copied extensively from one other. Further, the critical Bible scholars have rejected that the miracles of Jesus and his resurrection ever occurred as recorded in the Gospels. Lastly, some have even gone so far as to reject the historicity of Jesus himself.


Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or the church, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” Ours is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the truthfulness of his Word, the Bible. A SUBSTANTIAL PORTION of REASONABLE FAITH is on healing for the elements of emotional doubt. However, much attention is given to more evidenced-based chapters in our pursuit of overcoming any fears or doubts that we may have or that may creep up on us in the future.

THE GREAT TEACHER Jesus ChristTHE GREAT TEACHER JESUS CHRIST: What Made Jesus Christ’s Teaching, Preaching, Evangelism, and Apologetics Outstanding Effective?

How can you improve your effectiveness as teachers? Essentially, it is by imitating THE GREAT TEACHER: Jesus Christ. You may wonder, ‘But how can we imitate Jesus?’ ‘He was the perfect, divine, Son of God.’ Admittedly, you cannot be a perfect teacher. Nevertheless, regardless of your abilities, you can do your best to imitate the way Jesus taught. THE GREAT TEACHER: Jesus Christ will discuss how you can employ all of his teaching methods.

THE APOSTLE PAULTHE TEACHER THE APOSTLE PAUL: What Made the Apostle Paul’s Teaching, Preaching, Evangelism, and Apologetics Outstanding Effective?

How can you improve your effectiveness as teachers? Essentially, it is by imitating THE TEACHER the Apostle Paul. You may wonder, ‘But how can we imitate Paul?’ ‘He was an inspired author, who served as an apostle, given miraculous powers.’ Admittedly, Paul likely accomplished more than any other imperfect human. Nevertheless, regardless of your abilities, you can do your best to imitate the way Paul taught. THE TEACHER the Apostle Paul will discuss how you can employ all of his teaching methods.

King James BibleTHE KING JAMES BIBLE: Do You Know the King James Version?

The King James Bible was originally published in 1611. Some have estimated that the number of copies of the King James Version that have been produced in print worldwide is over one billion! There is little doubt that the King James Version is a literary masterpiece, which this author has and will appreciate and value for its unparalleled beauty of expression. This book is in no way trying to take away from what the King James Version has accomplished. The King James Version is a book to be commended for all that it has accomplished. For four centuries, when English-speaking people spoke of “the Bible,” they meant the King James Version. The question that begs to be asked of those who favor the King James Bible is, Do You Know the King James Version? What do most users of the King James Bible not know about their translation? Whether you are one who favors the King James Version or one who prefers a modern translation, Andrews will answer the questions that have long been asked for centuries about the King James Bible and far more.



How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …

Agabus CoverDEFENDING AGABUS AS A NEW TESTAMENT PROPHET: A Content-Based Study of His Predictions In Acts by Sung Cho

Agabus is a mysterious prophetic figure that appears only twice in the book of Acts. Though his role is minor, he is a significant figure in a great debate between cessationists and continualists. On one side are those who believe that the gift of prophecy is on par with the inspired Scriptures, infallible, and has ceased. On the other side are those who define it as fallible and non-revelatory speech that continues today in the life of the church. Proponents of both camps attempt to claim …

WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIEWHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIE?: Should You Be Afraid of Death or of People Who Have Died?

People grow old, get sick, and die. Even some children die. Should you be afraid of death or of anybody who has died? Do you know what happens if we die? Will you ever see your dead loved ones again? “If a man dies, shall he live again?” asked the man Job long ago. (Job 14:14) Did God originally intend for humans to die? Why do you grow old and die? What is the Bible’s viewpoint of death? What is the condition of the dead? Are the dead aware of what is happening around them? What hope is there for the dead?


Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …


Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical criticism has done nothing more than weaken and demoralize people’s assurance in the Bible as being the inspired and fully inerrant Word of God and isdestructive in its very nature . Historical criticism is made up of many forms of biblical criticism that are harmful to the authoritative Word of God: historical criticism, source criticism, form criticism, redaction criticism, social-science criticism, canonical criticism, rhetorical criticism, structural criticism, narrative criticism, reader-response criticism, and feminist criticism. Not just liberal scholarship, but many moderate, even some “conservative” scholars have …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses: Examining the History of the Watchtower Translation and the Latest Revision

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses is going to challenge your objectivity. Being objective means that personal feelings or opinions do not influence you in considering and representing facts. Being subjective means that your understanding is based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or ideas. If the reader finds these insights offense, it might be a little mind control at work from years of being told the same misinformation repeatedly, so ponder things objectively …

REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES: Sharing CHRIST as You Help Others to Learn about the Mighty works of God

Use of REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES should help you to cultivate the ability to reason from the Scriptures and to use them effectively in assisting others to learn about “the mighty works of God.” – Acts 2:11. If Christians are going to be capable, powerful, efficient teachers of God’s Word, we must not only pay attention to what we tell those who are interested but also how we tell them. Yes, we must focus our attention on…

REASONING WITH THE WORLD’S VARIOUS RELIGIONS: Examining and Evangelizing Other Faiths

God’s will is that “all sorts of men should be saved and come to an accurate knowledge of truth.” (1 Tim. 2:4) God has assigned all Christians the task of proclaiming the Word of God, teaching, to make disciples. (Matt. 24:15; 28:19-20: Ac 1;8 That includes men and women who profess a non-Christian religion, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam to mention just a few. If there are Hindus, Buddhist or Muslims are in your community, why not initiate a conversation with them? Christians who take the Great Commission seriously cannot afford to ignore these religions…

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

THE CHURCH CURETHE CHURCH CURE: Overcoming Church Problems

In order to overcome and church problems, we must first talk about the different problems of the church. Many of the church problems today stem from the isms: liberalism, humanism, modernism, Christian progressivism, theological liberalism, feminism, higher criticism, and biblical criticism. Moreover, many are simply not a biblically grounded church regardless of how much they claim to be so. The marks of a true Christian church would be like the different lines that make up a church’s fingerprint, a print that cannot belong to any other church. The true Christian church contains their own unique grouping of marks, forming a positive “fingerprint” that cannot belong to any other church. William Lange Craig wrote, “Remember that our faith is not based on emotions, but on the truth, and therefore you must hold on to it.” What truth? Jesus said to the Father in prayer, “Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth.” (John 17:17) Are you doing the will of the Father? Is your church doing the will of the Father? – Matthew 7:21-23; 1 John 2:15-17.

FLEECING THE FLOCK_03FLEECING THE FLOCK: Setting the People of God Free From the Lies of Tithing

Evangelist Norman Robertson claims that “Tithing is God’s way of financing His kingdom on the earth.” He asserts that “It is His system of economics which enables the Gospel to be preached.” Not bashful about telling his followers of their duty to give, he flatly states: ‘Tithing isn’t something you do because you can afford it. It is an act of obedience. Not tithing is a clear violation of God’s commandments. It is embezzlement.’ Most likely you accept that giving should be part of Christian worship. However, …

Deception In the ChurchDECEPTION IN THE CHURCH: Does It Matter How You Worship?

DECEPTION IN THE CHURCH by Fred DeRuvo asks Does It Matter How You Worship? There are 41,000 different denominations that call themselves “Christian” and all would claim that they are the truth. Can just any Christian denomination please God? Can all be true or genuine Christianity if they all have different views on the same Bible doctrines? DeRuvo will answer. He will focus on the largest part of Christianity that has many different denominations, the charismatic, ecstatic Signs and Wonders Movements. These ecstatic worshipers claim … DeRuvo will answer all these questions and more according to the truth of God’s Word.—John 8:31-32; 17:17.

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

How to Study Your BibleHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are not studiously inclined? Realize that the primary difference between a serious Bible student and a less serious Bible student is usually diligence and effort, not being a gifted student. Being a gifted Bible student alone is not enough. Efficient methods of Bible study are worth learning, for those seeking to become serious Bible students. The joy missing from many Bible students is because they do not know how to study their Bible, which means they do not do it well. Perhaps you dislike Bible study because you have not developed your study skills sufficiently to make your Bible study enjoyable. Maybe you have neglected your Bible study simply because you would rather be doing something else you enjoy.

How to Study by TorreyHOW TO STUDY: Study the Bible for the Greatest Profit [Updated and Expanded]

How can we find more enjoyment in studying the Bible? How can we make our study periods more productive? What circumstances contribute to effective personal study? How can we derive real benefit and pleasure from our Bible reading? From what activities can time be bought out for reading and studying the Bible? Why should we watch our spiritual feeding habits? What benefits come from reading and studying the Scriptures? There is a great and constantly growing interest in the study of the English Bible in these days. However, very much of the so-called study of the English Bible is unintelligent and not fitted to produce the most satisfactory results. The authors of this book already have a book entitled “HOW TO STUDY: Study the Bible for the Greatest Profit,” but that book is intended for those who are willing to buy out the time to put into thorough Bible study.

Deep Bible Study Cover_Torrey-1DEEP BIBLE STUDY: The Importance and Value of Proper Bible Study [Updated and Expanded]

Why is personal and family Bible study so important in our life now? How can we apply the Word of God in our lives? How can we use the Bible to help others? How can we effectively use the Scriptures when teaching others? How can we make decisions God’s way? How can Bible principles help us to decide wisely? Why should we have faith in God and his word? The Psalmist tells us, God’s Word “is a lamp to my foot, and a light for my path.” (Psalm 119:105) Since the Bible is a gift from God, the time and effort that we put into our personal Bible Study is a reflection of how much we appreciate that gift. What do our personal Bible study habits reveal about the depth of our appreciation of God’s Word? Certainly, the Bible is a deep and complex book, and reading and studying are not easy at times. However, with time and effort, we can develop a spiritual appetite for personal Bible study. (1 Peter 2:2)

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

Correctly interpreting the Bible is paramount to understanding the Word of God. As Christians, we do not want to read our 21st-century worldview INTO the Scriptures, but rather to takeOUT OF the Scriptures what the author meant by the words that he used. The guaranteed way of arriving a correct understanding of God’s Words is to have an accurate knowledge of the historical setting, cultural background, and of the people, governments, and religious leaders, as well as the place and time of the New Testament writings. Only with the background, setting, and context can you grasp the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has eloquently said, “It concerns Him who, being the holiest among the mighty, and the mightiest among the holy, lifted with His pierced hands empires off their hinges, turned the stream of centuries out of its channels, and still governs the ages.” …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of one of the greatest Christians who ever lived. …

The TRIAL and Death of Jesus_02THE TRIAL AND DEATH OF JESUS CHRIST: Jesus’ Final Ministry at Jerusalem [Updated and Expanded] 

With solid scholarship and exceptional clarity, beginning in Gethsemane, Stalker and Andrews examine Jesus’ trial and crucifixion. Their work is relevant, beneficial and enjoyable because they cover this historical period of Jesus’ life in an easy to understand format. Stalker’s expressive and persuasive style provides a great resource to any Bible study of the events leading to the death of Jesus Christ. THE TRIAL AND DEATH OF JESUS CHRIST is an academicish book written with a novelish style.

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzzword. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …


church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelation begins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …


Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT The Christian Worldview

An Encouraging Thought elucidates the ways in which Tolkien’s The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are informed by and communicate a biblical worldview. This book will help readers appreciate the ways in which a biblical worldview informs Tolkien’s work, to the end that their own faith may be confirmed in strength, focused in understanding, deepened in joy, and honed in its ability to communicate the Gospel.

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Daily Devotionals

40 day devotional (1)40 DAYS DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS Coming-of-Age In Christ

If you’ve struggled in the world of difficulties that surround you, you’re not alone. Maybe you have looked for help, and you have been given conflicting answers. 40 DAYS DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS: Coming-of-Age In Christ, can help you. Its advice is based on answers that actually work, which are found in the Bible. God’s Word has helped billions over thousands of years to face life’s challenges successfully. Find out how it can help you! 40 DAYS DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS includes seven sections, with several chapters in each. It includes the following sections: Sexual Desires and Love, your friends, your family, school, recreation, your health. You need advice you can trust! 40 DAYS DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS will give you that. This author has worked with thousands of youths from around the world. The Bible-based sound advice helped them. Now you can discover how it can help you.


Young ones and teens, you are exposed to complex problems that your parents may not understand. Young Christians, you are bombarded with multiple options for solving everyday problems through social media. Where do you turn to find answers? Where can you look to find guidance from Scripture? In order to provide a Christian perspective to problem-solving, the author of this devotional book decided to take a different approach.


This devotional book follows the author’s own faith journey back to God. Significant life events can shake our world and distort our faith. Following life’s tragedies, a common reaction is to become angry with God or to reject Him altogether. Examples of tragedies or traumas include life-changing events such as physical or sexual assault, destruction of one’s home, the tragic death of a loved one, diagnoses of terminal diseases, divorce, miscarriages, or being a victim of a crime. Tragedies or traumas can cause feelings of anxiety, depression, shame, and guilt.


Throughout the book, common themes emerge to support caregivers. The reader will find interesting Bible Scriptures, offering a Christian perspective, for handling issues that may arise. These inspiring passages will assist the caregiver in finding peace and faith as they travel their journey as a caregiver. Although caregivers may not know how long they will play this role, they take on the responsibility without any question. Taking care of others is often mentioned in the Bible and, as noted in this devotional, this self-sacrificing, highly valued, and often challenging service will ultimately be rewarded.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL Daily Musings From the Old Testament

Humans must breathe in the air of our atmosphere to survive. Many cities because of pollution face a dangerous level of contamination in their air. However, an even more deadly air affects both Christians and nonChristians. Ordinary methods or devices cannot detect this poisonous air.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musing From the New Testament

Paul counseled, “Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth.” (Col. 3:2) It is, for this reason, Marshall has penned the DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musings From the New Testament, which can help us be protected against Satan’s efforts at controlling our mind and heart.  For each day of the year, DAILY DEVOTIONAL provides a Daily Bible Reading and comments for consideration.

BREAD OF HEAVEN: Daily Meditations on Scripture

BREAD OF HEAVEN helps the reader to have a greater understanding of the timeless truths of Scripture and a deeper appreciation of the grandeur of God. It offers meditations on selected Scriptures which will draw the reader’s attention upwards to the Savior.

Christian Fiction

Oren Natas_JPEGOREN NATAS: Satan Incarnate As the Antichrist

AN APOCALYPTIC NOVEL: As you are no doubt are aware, Jerry B. Jenkins and Tim LaHaye in 1995 wrote a novel entitled “Left Behind.” Jerry and Tim had some prior success with a major publisher and were able to get their novel published. The Left Behind novel was published by Tyndale House beginning in 1995 within a multiple volumes Left Behind series resulting in sales exceeding 60 million books. In 1992 Don Alexander wrote the storyline embedded in Left Behind. He copyrighted the novel in 1992 under the title “Oren Natas” [who is the Anti-Christ in his storyline]. The entire novel is contained in a single volume. It is a novel written depicting a colorful and witty cast of characters who live through all the “end time” Bible prophecies.

Sentient-FrontTHE SENTIENT a Novel

A routine classified telepathic interrogation of a potential terrorist, followed by an assignment that doesn’t go as planned thrusts Tabatha – the world’s only telepathic human – into the public eye. The exposure leads an evil neuro-scientist requesting a meeting with her in hopes of luring her to his cause as well as unveiling a deadly creative work that has spanned three decades of research and development.

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] See above note 6 p. 44. Mounce begins his discussion of the word in this verse a little after the six-minute mark.

[2] We saw an example of this in the NLT’s use of “formed in a mold” for “cast” above (p. 67).

[3] See above, p. 49.

[4] See p. 50.

[5] See p. 72 above.

[6] See note 21 above. I emphasize once again that interlinear translations are not to be confused with word-for-word translations, as they have been by some who have used the acronym “WFW” as a designation for interlinears.

[7] See p. 74.

[8] The significance of a loss of emphasis might not seem obvious, because the limitations of English have accustomed us generally to do without it in works of high literary quality like the Bible, and even in lesser works like modern novels. The significance becomes obvious, however, in spoken English where voice inflection (a change of volume or tone) is so important in conveying meaning or intent. To do the same thing in written English usually requires the use of italic or boldface print, often considered unacceptable. Even when used (as it is occasionally in this book), it must be used sparingly in works of quality.

[9] See pp. 41-43.

[10] See pp. 66-69.

[11] See pp 68-69.

[12] See note 16 p. 60.

[13] See pp. 86-87.

[14] See p. 96

[15] See p. 50.