Dr. Don Wilkins, Senior Translator of the New American Standard Bible

While I cannot address this subject at length,  it needs to be addressed, to lay the foundation for you, the reader. My approach here is to assume that you have no knowledge of Bible translation issues, or the process of translating from the Original Languages (OL) of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, into what we call the Receptor Language (RL), such as English. However, this does not mean that we will pass over all the elements of this subject because some of them are essential to the issues of literal translation. Therefore, it is necessary to start with a chapter on the Bible translation process. Below, in this chapter, you will find each step that is taken in the process of translating a section of text. If it is not covered in that area, we will also offer the reader a few examples of how we are to translate idioms, figurative language, as well as special terms such as justification, sanctification, and redemption, among other things. This chapter will then end with some examples of overstepping the translation process, what that looks like, and a few examples of when it is appropriate to go beyond what we are going to call the final step of the process of Bible translation.

The Texts

Before the actual process can begin, the proper OL texts must be obtained. For the Old Testament (OT), the standard Hebrew/Aramaic text is the Masoretic text published as Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS). I mention Aramaic because there are several chapters in Daniel and a few passages elsewhere originally written in Aramaic, not Hebrew.

For the New Testament (NT), the standard text is the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum (NA), although the new Greek New Testament published by the Society of Biblical Literature (SBLGNT) may prove to be a serious competitor (more about this in chapter 6). Generally the latest edition of the NA and the Biblia Hebraica are preferred, but textual criticism decisions made by translators (see below) can affect the preference.

The Tools

It would be nice to think that a Bible translator is fluent in the original languages of the Bible, but I have to admit that I have never met such a person (including myself), and do not expect to in this life. Memorizing either the OT or the NT in their OL’s would be quite an accomplishment but would not render you fluent in the OL’s themselves. To do so, you would have to do the same thing that a modern language student does: live several years in the land where the language is spoken by native speakers. Those lands may still exist, but, unfortunately, all the native speakers are long gone.

The best that we can do is choose one or more lexicons for each OL that give us word meanings or point us in the right directions, and grammars that explain to us how the words are put together to form concepts, such as clauses of one kind or another. How do we know they are right, you might ask. The level of certainty or probability varies, but at least we know that these experts have done a great deal of research, AND–just as important, they usually tell us when they are uncertain about something. Having said that, I’m happy to tell you that we have lexicons which have risen to the top as standards, like the standard texts.

For the OT, I would maintain that the standard lexicon is the Koehler-Baumgartner Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. The previous standard was the Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (short title) by Brown, Driver, and Briggs. For the NT, the standard lexicon is the Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (short title) by Bauer, Danker, Arndt, and Gingrich. Only the unabridged versions of these lexicons, please! There are other lexicons worth consulting, but any serious translation work requires these. They are both hefty works; if what you are using could not double as an effective doorstop, then it is not big enough. The good news is, they are both available as software, with point-and-click access to words (the standard texts are also available as software).

I wish I had good news about OL grammars, i.e. that there are clear standards. There certainly are a good number of grammars available, and some observers may sing the praises of a few of them. I’ll have a good deal to say about advanced grammars in a future work, but for now I’ll just say that I have had reasonable success with two old advanced-level grammars. For Hebrew, Davidson’s Hebrew Syntax, and for Greek, Smyth’s Greek Grammar. I know that critics will probably groan, and particularly protest that Smyth is a classical Greek grammar, after all! True enough about Smyth, but I make no apology for him. Many may take issue with me, but NT Greek is essentially classical in its grammar, and Smyth did an excellent job in writing his grammar. The result is that I find it highly applicable to NT Greek.

Decisions, Decisions

Now that we have the essential tools–and we are, of course, assuming that the translator has the necessary expertise to use them–certain decisions must be made. Some or even most may be out of the translator’s hands because of marketplace or time constraints. Hypothetically, if the translator were independently wealthy and relatively young, he or she could decide the philosophy of translation, the time limit (if any), and the degree of effort to be expended.

In real-world situations, the person or company who pays for the translation decides most of these things. The philosophy includes such matters as literal vs. dynamic/functional equivalence and priorities. Time is money, and the time permitted will dictate how much effort can be expended on the translation process.

Another decision is whether the work is to be done by one person (solo) or a committee. There are advantages and disadvantages to both, and the decision will make a big difference in the procedures followed. For example, a single translator will take a simple approach and should be able to work more efficiently than a committee. The style should be fairly consistent overall, not requiring editing for consistency.

The committee approach, by comparison, should involve a number of committees working simultaneously and churning out more work. Typically different people on each committee are assigned different passages (or sometimes the same passage) to translate, and then the translations are reviewed by the committee as a whole, and eventually a version is agreed upon after changes are recommended and either accepted or rejected. The latter stages are unnecessary for the solo translator and thus make the overall committee process less efficient by comparison, but the final product is that of multiple experts and may, therefore, be better than that of the solo translator. It depends on the talents and abilities of the people involved. The committee approach provides at least a greater impression of credibility. However, some solo translations have done as well or better than some committee translations in the marketplace.

Committee and solo approaches aside, it is an unfortunate truth that the excellence of the product will depend in part on the degree of effort expended, and that the latter will depend mainly on the time allowed for the work. The time limit in turn may be dictated by the publisher’s budget, the marketplace, or both. The translators’ skills are another limiting factor.

I can cite two examples of areas that could be impacted by these factors. One is the analysis of the OL texts. This is particularly clear for the NT. A quick look at any page in the NA text reveals as much footnote information under the text as there is text–sometimes even more. These notes point out alternate readings in the ancient manuscripts. They may not affect doctrine or theology, but they do result in changes in the wording of the original texts, and the notes are there to allow translators to decide whether to choose an alternate reading or to accept the reading chosen by the editors for the text. As a translator for the NASB I have the time to evaluate alternate readings whenever I consider it necessary, and I assume that the same is true for translators of the other major versions. But if that is not the case, then a translator has to be content with the reading chosen for the text by the NA editors (or the chosen reading from another Greek New Testament).

The other example is that of determining the meaning of a difficult word. We have already discussed lexicons as a tool for this task. On a higher level, however, the translator ideally should not trust any lexicon, not even the unabridged ones. Lexicographers, i.e. the people who write lexicons, get their information by studying all the relevant literature they can access. What makes the unabridged lexicons so big and heavy is that they list references to the passages where words are found. When I was naïve and bought my first big Greek lexicon, I was disappointed because I expected to find a treasure chest full of different definitions and explanations that were missing from my smaller lexicons. Instead, I found limited definitions and a lot of references to Greek works, with very short quotations. I eventually learned that if I wanted to know what the word meant, I was supposed to look it up in those works and read it in context.

And that’s not all. Thanks to very elaborate research projects that have been going on for decades, we now have access by computer to virtually all the ancient Greek literature in existence. To fully understand the meanings of some NT words, we need to look at the ancient literature outside the NT, and most of this literature has not been translated. A great deal of it has yet to be studied even by the lexicographers. I am one of those translators privileged to be able to read it because of my training, but I was a glutton for punishment when it came to learning Greek. Most scholars doing NT research today took a different educational route.

So in determining word meanings, funding and the translators’ skills may limit the work of translation to a careful reading of the lexicons. That’s not bad; I would classify it as “acceptable,” but it could obviously be better. In my work, I do a complete search of any word that is difficult to nail down in its exact meaning in a particular passage. I check the references I find in the standard NT lexicon, but I also use the tools that cover Greek literature outside the NT. It would be far more preferable if we could find an ancient Greek from the first century who was somehow frozen in a glacier before he died, and then thaw him out alive and ask him what these words meant. For our present purposes, I’m going to assume just an acceptable reading knowledge of the OL’s for the translators, based on the standard lexicons and good grammars.

Personal Preparation

Before starting the process of translation, it is absolutely essential that the translator prepares him- or herself spiritually and emotionally. I know you’re thinking that I was just obligated to include the spiritual side because we’re talking about Bible translation, but no, there really are spiritual commitments and attitude changes that are needed for this endeavor.

The main requisite is also a point of theology: to understand that no translation is inspired, therefore, none is necessarily error-free or beyond improvement. I mentioned this earlier. The KJV translators clearly understood this, as one can see from their preface. I have never said anything like, “I’m so glad that God gave me this particular wording to express the OL.” I have often heard Christian songwriters say that God gave them a song, and I assume that they are trying to give God the credit when a song turns out well. Maybe some of them actually mean that God somehow dictated the song to them. They can say whatever they want; I just know that I cannot say the same about translation.

I am not suggesting that God never, ever guides a translator to a wording that God himself prefers.[1] If he does, however, we have no way of knowing it. The point of the requisite is that we have to be willing to change any translation we do, either to correct it or improve it. This can be a very hard thing emotionally, so part of the translator’s preparation should be a determination not to become emotionally committed to any translation he, or she does. I try to imagine that once my translation of a word or phrase is on my monitor screen; it is no longer mine. It is just raw data to use or tear apart as needed. There are times when I sense that the Holy Spirit may be restraining me from emotional commitment to my work. It’s a mental and physical uneasiness that I feel, something that would not respond to an aspirin or an antacid.

Another requisite for Bible translation is to be willing to keep on working beyond the point of mental exhaustion. In this case, too, there are times when I sense that the Holy Spirit may be guiding me. I feel a strong mental nudge to investigate one or two more sources when I’m convinced that I am finally done with my research on something. It is not just a willingness, but a compulsion to walk that extra mile, and it often makes a difference in the final outcome.

I’ll just mention one more requisite; then we’ll move on to the translation process itself. To be effective in doing the job, you have to be able to play nice with others, unless of course you are working solo entirely and paying all the bills yourself. The translator who is not emotionally committed to his own work will be in a better position to work with others because he or she will be better-prepared to accept criticism. If the work is by committee, I strongly recommend posting signs outside the doors reading, “Kindly Leave All Egos Here.” Unless someone is almost supernaturally gifted (I’m not referring to spiritual gifts), his or her work will receive criticism, and eventually it may very well turn ugly. Again, I have found it a very good idea to try to think of the work I have submitted as no longer mine (legally, it isn’t if you don’t hold the copyright). Another way to look at the situation: if there’s no crying in baseball, there certainly is no place for crying in translation.

Finally, The Process

At this point, all the necessary decisions have been made, and I will note how some of them actually affect the process, especially in regard to the issue of literal vs. dynamic/functional equivalent (DE/FE) translations. I begin with the philosophy of the translation, addressing just one element of it: whether the translation is to be interpretive or non-interpretive.

To simplify the discussion from this point on, I hope you will forgive me if I use the traditional (and possibly outdated) male gender pronouns, with the understanding between us that women and men are equally well-suited to the work. The translator needs to be competently bi- to quadrilingual in the OL’s of the Bible (depending on his assignment) and the target or receptor language (RL) of the people for whom he is translating. It really is a shame that we cannot resurrect native speakers from first century Palestine and from various OT times and places to explain to us exactly what they understood from the Scriptures. We have to be content with knowing as much as we possibly can about the OL’s. At the same time, a competent translator needs to be equal to a native speaker of the RL in fluency. Indeed, I maintain that the greatest scholar of ancient Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic (GHA from now on) in the world who is not fluent in the RL is not by himself qualified to do the work of translation.

Now then, whether the translation is to be interpretive or non-interpretive, all translators should agree on the first step: to translate for themselves and read through a passage in the OL as many times as necessary for them to be entirely comfortable with it. How much translation the individual translator needs to do will, of course, depend on his skill and familiarity with the passage. At some point, every expert in the biblical OL’s had to look up the words in a passage for their meanings, identify all the grammatical aspects of every word, and properly organize the words according to the grammatical information.

Being “entirely comfortable” with the passage means that it is just as easy for the translator to read it in the OL as reading anything in his own first language. This is especially important for Greek because Greek writers had a good deal more flexibility in word order than we find in English and many other languages, thanks to the complex grammatical indicators in ancient Greek. To beginning Greek students, a complex passage can seem almost like a jigsaw puzzle in which the words have to be rearranged to make sense, and once they have done that they feel as if they have “solved” the puzzle. In truth, they have missed a very important part of the meaning because emphasis and de-emphasis can be expressed by word order. A competent translator must be comfortable with the word order in the OL, and attempt to express the corresponding nuances in the RL.

If the passage includes difficult words or relates to a controversial issue, it is advisable to do a thorough investigation of the keyword or words. Difficult words must be thoroughly searched by computer. The nearer other occurrences are contextually to the passage being translated, the better, but it is often the case that these words are rare. In the old days, the best a translator could do was to rely on the lexicon for references to other sources, and then hope that he could look up the other sources somewhere. As I said earlier, we now have amazing new tools, and the limits in using them are the research time required and the skill of the translator in being able to translate extra-biblical sources where the words in question occur.

As an example of this situation, consider the words “exercise authority over” in 1 Timothy 2:12. They translate the Greek word authenteo, which occurs nowhere else in the Bible. Several definitions are offered in the standard NT lexicon (BDAG), along with a number of references to extra-biblical sources. The exact meaning is important because Paul’s statement here is controversial, at least from a modern viewpoint. The question is what kind of leadership over men is forbidden to women within the church–if any.

If you are not familiar with the controversy, you may have found that last phrase, “if any,” puzzling. Those who advocate placing women in the highest levels of church leadership would argue that Paul does not actually bar them from these positions, however. The definitions found in BDAG all seem capable of taking a negative nuance, something like “usurping” authority.  If this is what Paul meant, then it is conceivable that women can act in authority over men provided that they are duly chosen or elected to do so, and do not abuse the privilege.

So to many translators, and the readers for whom they are translating, the definitions in the standard lexicon are going to be tantalizing and inadequate because they imply a possible negative connotation without clarifying it. The translators will want input from other lexicons, and they should check them, but they are unlikely to find adequate help there. For example, the standard, unabridged lexicon for classical Greek (Liddell and Scott, et al.) offers “having full power or authority over” for this verse (it covers the NT as well as classical sources). On the other hand, it also cites “to commit murder” for one classical source. You would think that no one would assume that meaning for the verse. I do, however, know of one researcher who did, since it clearly eliminated the alternative that Paul was forbidding women to be in positions of authority over men. Evidentally–according to that researcher–women can assume authority over men as long as they don’t commit homicide in the process.

But if we rule out murder as an option for authenteo in 1 Timothy 2:12, the only fruitful course of research left is to examine the use of the word in extra-biblical contexts. I have been able to do this thanks to my computerized resources in Greek, and I concluded that the word simply means to exercise one’s own authority in a given situation, without any negative connotation. Thus “exercise authority over” is a good translation, as far as I am concerned. My findings did not rule out negative implications that theoretically might be found from other elements in the context, though I see none. Moreover, other scholars are, of course, free to disagree with me; I would just expect them to examine the same sources that I did.

Once any problematic words or constructions in the OL are thoroughly researched, the translator(s) should be completely familiar and comfortable using only the NT or OT OL text at this stage in the translation process. Then, if the work is being done by committee, one or more members of the committee will be tasked with producing a translation of the assigned passage. I think it is fair to say that if the translation is to be a DE/FE, then it is interpretive in philosophy, and a formal decision to that effect may not be necessary. It will be understood, and every translator who does a first-draft translation will be trying to convey what he thinks the author meant, “thought-for-thought” (more on this in the next chapter). There are, of course, varying degrees of interpretive translation; some would classify the NIV as moderately interpretive, and place The Message on the far end of the scale.

Literal translation can also be interpretive, and sometimes is even forced to be (more on this in chapter 7). But I can attest that for the NASB at least, the goal is to be non-interpretive. The best way I can describe this is to say that when two or more meanings are possible for a passage, the translators attempt to word it in such a way that it is open to all possible (or at least reasonable) interpretations. Thus, the task for the translator is to write a first draft in which the meaning is not clearly one thing, or another if the meaning of the text in the OL is not clearly one or another. What could very well be the object of criticism in one committee (as in, “I can’t tell exactly what this is supposed to mean”) would be praised in a committee aiming for a non-interpretive translation.

Once the first draft of the passage is ready, the committee will then meet to discuss and critique the translation. They will also compare the translation with existing Bible versions. At some point, they will reach a consensus on what they consider the best translation possible thus far. Even then, it is far from being finalized. Of course, the solo translator has only to agree with himself about the best translation that he can do, but if he has any wisdom at all, he will seek constructive criticism along the way.

Keep in mind that for committee work, there are a number of different committees working on different parts of the Bible at the same time, all following the same procedures, and the number of translators involved depends largely on the publisher’s budget. This obviously takes a lot of coordination and administration, so it can be a large and expensive undertaking.

Once drafts of assigned books are agreed upon, they are sent out for review. Also, depending on the translation philosophy and the budget, English stylists may be brought in to make improvements. But reviews by diverse people of various occupations are essential, generally the more reviewers, the better. This is just as true for a solo translation. The reviewers are instructed to make changes to the text as they see fit.

Exactly what happens to the reviews when they are returned is up to the publisher or whoever is paying the bills. Since the reviewers may have no knowledge of the OL’s, it may make sense to have someone independent of the committees screen the reviews to see what suggestions are viable and save valuable committee time. A general editor can be designated to make final decisions about the reviews and the entire translation itself, or the reviews can simply be sent back to the corresponding committees for their consideration. Hopefully, by that time the translators will have adjusted to the critical atmosphere well enough to be able to read the reviews without getting nosebleeds.

I can tell you from my own experience that while I do not look forward to a letter from a reader critical of the way something was translated in the NASB, I do always give the reader a fair hearing (i.e. reading). Scholars have egos, but to do their jobs they have to be able to accept criticism and determine whether or not they have made a mistake. Once again, I commend the KJV translators for their comments about mistakes. If a translator has difficulty admitting a mistake and correcting it, he (or she) needs to get into a different line of work.

Once every comment from a reviewer has been addressed, and every mistake corrected, the translator is still not done.  There is still the “proof” stage, when the printer provides the publisher with the text just as it will look in the final product. I do not know what happens between the final, fully-corrected text that goes to the printer and the proof that comes back, but I know from experience that more mistakes are always discovered. This is a process that ancient copyists (scribes) never had to deal with. It is as though the same forces that somehow cause wire, string, or rope to form knots inexplicably where there was none when it was carelessly laid down somewhere also cause mistakes to appear in the text that were inexplicably missed previously. It doesn’t seem to matter how many times the text was rechecked before going to the printer. The translator will be consulted for some of these problems, and then, finally, he is finished.


Why do we need revisions of Bible translations? Minor revisions are needed just to fix errors that somehow manage to survive the final proofing process. Fortunately, these errors are about as rare as you would expect, like getting a compliment from the IRS.

There are three primary reasons for revisions: changes in the original languages (OL’s), changes in the receptor language (RL), and changes in textual criticism. All of these changes inevitably happen over time, leading to a revision every ten to twenty years, sometimes sooner. There might also be changes in the philosophy of the translation, though if they are too substantial the end product will be a new translation, not a revision.

Mentioning changes in the OL’s probably raise a question mark in your mind. We are, after all, dealing with dead languages, so how can they change? If the analogy does not repel you, imagine doing an autopsy on a body that is carefully preserved over decades so that new technology can be employed as it is invented. DNA serves as an excellent example; it was always present in the body, but until the 1980’s the technology did not exist to identify bodies using DNA.

I can only wish that we had something as reliable as DNA profiling to identify ancient word meanings in OL’s. We do not, but for Greek at least we have been developing something like the DNA database. As precise as DNA is, it is useless to identify people if their DNA profiles are not archived somewhere. In that event, the most the forensic scientist can hope for is to find a familial match that will narrow down the range of candidates.

As I noted earlier, at one level translators use standard lexicons of OL’s to determine word meanings. In the old days, the most that was available was a library of original OL sources that a translator could use to check references in these lexicons. No one library would likely have every source, and worse, the standard lexicons themselves would not necessarily cite every relevant source because the lexicographers themselves might not have unlimited access to all existing sources. The situation has completely changed now, thanks to computer databases. I myself, working in my home office, can access relevant sources that are not even covered by the lexicons. So potentially, at least, I can now find a match to a difficult word in a source outside the Bible that will help me nail down its meaning in the Bible.

I can do the same thing in studying the grammatical structure of a phrase or clause in the Bible. In one instance that I’m especially happy about, I was dealing with a phrase that contemporary scholars considered “bad Greek,” as they often call the apparent anomalies found in the NT. These are people who almost always have limited personal experience in reading Greek themselves, and consider anything that does not fit their own standards to be “bad.” My response to them is that none of us alive in modern times will ever be the equal of an ordinary person of even modest intellect who lived in the first century and was fluent in the Greek of that period. The people of that time knew what the rules really were for “good” Greek, and if you know the rules, you are also entitled to break them now and then for special effect. In this case, the “anomaly” proved to be standard Greek, but at a level too advanced for most critics.

Our database of ancient Greek continues to expand, making ongoing research fruitful and leading to ever more accurate translation. To a lesser extent we are also learning more about Hebrew and Aramaic word meanings, mainly as we compare related Semitic languages. And our sophisticated software enables complex grammatical research in Hebrew and Aramaic as well as in Greek.

So it seems clear that God wants us to do more accurate translation of his word from the OL’s increasingly; it is undeniable that he has given us exciting new tools to use. Why now, at this time in world history? So far the greater accuracy has not resulted in any doctrinal changes, nor can I see that ever happening. But the Bible has come under attack in modern times, and I believe that God is providing us with the necessary means to defend it.

Incidentally, many of the changes in our understanding of the OL’s are likely to be seen only in literal translations. They are just too subtle to result in revisions to DE/FE’s. So one can argue that accuracy to the OL’s is best seen in a literal translation.

Over time there are inevitable changes to the RL, which for our purpose is English (I can only address American English). A favorite example for many people is how the word “gay” has changed, but as a matter of fact this word only occurred once in the KJV, at James 2:3 where it translated a Greek word referring literally to bright or shining clothing, and “bright” was an original meaning of “gay.” “Gay” never occurs in the NASB or the NIV by contrast.

One of the words that I have had to deal with as an NASB translator was “dumb.” “Dumb” originally referred to someone who was unable to speak, and insensitive people probably thought of others with this disability as stupid. At some point in the history of the language, “dumb” came to be regularly understood  as synonymous with “stupid” or “unintelligent,” perhaps because there seem to be many more people like that than there are people unable to speak.

The original NASB translators (I worked with some of them but was not one) found “dumb” in the ASV referring to the inability to speak, and at that time they did not feel that the word would be confusing or problematic for readers. It was also in the KJV, which at the time was still very well read. But when we worked on the Update of the NASB (1995) we felt strongly that “dumb” would immediately bring to mind mental deficiency and that the speech disability might not even occur to some readers. So we decided that “mute” was a better choice.

There are also grammatical constructions that are correct English and were common in the past, but now may be misinterpreted by readers. I can cite the phrase “that the Scripture might be fulfilled” as an example. The writers of the New Testament point out events that are fulfillments of prophecy using this language. When they are referring to their own (present) time, they use a Greek phrase translated “may be fulfilled,” which probably sounds fine to most readers. When referring to time past, the Greek handles the change of tense easily, but the English, not so much. You might not realize it, but “might” is the past tense of “may.” Wait, didn’t I just use “might” in the present tense when I wrote, “You might not”? Yes, I did. It turns out that “might” does double duty: it indicates a greater level of uncertainty than “may,” and it also serves as the past tense of “may.”

When I wrote, “You might not,” I was using the greater-uncertainty “might” to be polite. We use it this way all the time. In contemporary English, it is used much less often as the past tense of “may.” But in the phrase, “might be fulfilled,” it is just expressing the past tense of “may” with the same, exact meaning. The problem is that since we almost always use “might” in the present tense to express a greater uncertainty than “may,” many readers could get the impression that “might be fulfilled” was potentially uncertain, making the prophecy in question somehow uncertain. This is not implied in the OL.

You may think that this is splitting hairs and that the possibility of confusion over “might be” is extremely small for the average reader who pays any attention at all to the context, and you may be right. It certainly does not seem as problematic as the word “dumb” by comparison. However, the NASB translators, after much consideration and prayer, came to the conclusion that it was important to avoid even the slightest implication that the fulfillment of prophecies in these contexts was uncertain. Therefore, the decision was made to avoid “might” in the 1995 Update when it previously occurred in these constructions.

This brings us to changes in textual criticism (TC). I referred briefly to the analysis of OL texts above, and I will say more about TC in chapter 6. If the translators of an English Bible have been tasked with choosing the best readings–i.e. those most likely to be the original–in the OL texts, then they will have to follow a particular set of rules or guidelines, and a particular collection of ancient manuscripts. The other possibility, which is probably less likely, is that the translators have been assigned a particular modern edition of the ancient manuscripts to follow. In that case, they do not choose any alternate readings.

There are two phenomena that can lead to changes in each of these cases: discovery of a new reading in an ancient manuscript and a change in the philosophy or methodology of TC. New readings can occur in an actual biblical manuscript, or in a Bible quotation found in an ancient manuscript of a church father or liturgical manual of some kind. We undoubtedly are running out of ancient manuscripts to discover, but new findings continue to occur. As for the second phenomenon, the science/art of TC is still in a state of flux, due in part to modern technology. Its goal has remained pretty much the same: to find the original word of God, or autograph, contained in the existing manuscripts. We are trying to chisel away everything that is not the original divine word. Some textual critics maintain that the goal actually is to find the prototype that accounts for all ancient manuscripts of the Bible in existence, whether that prototype is the autograph or not. As far as I am concerned, this is not a useful distinction for our purposes. I will say more about it in chapters 3 and 6.

Though textual scholars of the Bible may have essentially the same goal, current changes in philosophy and methodology seem to guarantee that the readings in the standard OL texts of the Bible will continue to change for decades to come. And to be clear, I am not talking about the feud between the defenders of the KJV/NKJV ancient manuscripts and the advocates of the more ancient manuscripts upon which most modern translations are based. If anything, these two warring parties are tending to find a little common ground, though they still maintain their principal differences. New methodology has the potential to affect both parties, and it will certainly have an impact on translations based on the more ancient manuscripts.

The only way translators today can avoid the possibility of changes due to TC is to reject all future changes to the OL texts. There are jolly good fellows who have ruled that the 1611 KJV is the inspired translation of the Bible, so they have done something like this by virtually freezing the OL texts in the state that they were when the KJV translators consulted them. Other translators of different persuasions (or their publishers) could decide, for example, that a particular edition of the NA Greek text is to be their standard and will remain so regardless of all other editions that are published after it.

I have to admit that the idea of freezing the OL texts appeals to a part of my brain, the part that does not specialize in patience and intellectual honesty. But my unshakable belief that the inspired word of God can be reconstructed from the ancient manuscripts prevents me from taking this easy way out. I simply have no way of knowing whether new manuscript findings of significance will come to light or TC will undergo necessary modifications due to technology or other factors. It would be a little like refusing to reexamine a cold case after the discovery of DNA evidence.


[1] I actually have a friend who often tries to convince me that God has used me in this way, but I have managed to convince him that I will never believe such a thing, no matter how much he does.





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Why should you be interested in the prophecy recorded by Daniel in chapter 11 of the book that bears his name? The King of the North and the King of the South of Daniel are locked in an all-out conflict for domination as a world power. As the centuries pass, turning into millenniums, …

YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE: Why and How Your Christian Life Makes a DifferenceYOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE: Why and How Your Christian Life Makes a Difference

The theme of Andrews’ new book is YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE. As a Christian, you touch the lives of other people, wherein you can make a positive difference. Men and women of ancient times such as David, Nehemiah, Deborah, Esther, and the apostle Paul had a positive influence on others …

TURN OLD HABITS INTO NEW HABITS: Why and How the Bible Makes a DifferenceTURN OLD HABITS INTO NEW HABITS: Why and How the Bible Makes a Difference

Many have successfully conquered bad habits and addictions by applying suggestions found in the Bible and by seeking help from God through prayer. You simply cannot develop good habits and kick all your bad ones overnight. See how to establish priorities. Make sure that your new habits …

GOD WILL GET YOU THROUGH THIS: Hope and Help for Your Difficult TimesGOD WILL GET YOU THROUGH THIS: Hope and Help for Your Difficult Times

It may seem to almost all of us that we are either entering into a difficult time, living in one, or just getting over one and that we face one problem after another. This difficulty may be the loss of a loved one in death or a severe marriage issue, a grave illness, the lack of a job, or …

FEARLESS: Be Courageous and Strong Through Your Faith In These Last DaysFEARLESS: Be Courageous and Strong Through Your Faith In These Last Days

The world that you live in today has many real reasons to be fearful. Many are addicted to drugs, alcohol, bringing violence into even the safest communities. Terrorism has plagued the world for more than a decade now. Bullying in schools has caused many teen suicides. The divorce rate …

JOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the WorldJOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the World

John 3:16 is one of the most widely quoted verses from the Christian Bible. It has also been called the “Gospel in a nutshell,” because it is considered a summary of the central theme of traditional Christianity. Martin Luther called John 3:16 “The heart of the Bible, the Gospel in …

THE BOOK OF JAMES: CPH New Testament Commentary, Vol. 17 (An Apologetic and Background Exposition of the Holy Scriptures) CPH New Testament CommentaryTHE BOOK OF JAMES (CPH New Testament Commentary 17)

…about God and his personal revelation, allowing it to change our lives by drawing closer to God. The Book of James volume is written in a style that is easy to understand. The Bible can be difficult and complex at times. Our effort herein is to make it easier to read and understand, while …

THE OUTSIDER: Coming-of-Age In This MomentTHE OUTSIDER Coming-of-Age In This Moment

THE OUTSIDER is a Coming-of-Age book. SECTION 1 Surviving Sexual Desires and Love will cover such subjects as What Is Wrong with Flirting, The Pornography Deception, Peer Pressure to Have Sexual Relations, Coping With Constant Sexual Thoughts, Fully Understanding Sexting, Is Oral Sex …


Who should read THIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING? Anyone who is struggling with their walk as a young person. Anyone who has a friend who is having difficulty handling or coping with their young life, so you can offer them the help they need. Any parent who has young ones. And …

WAGING WAR: A Christian's Cognitive Behavioral Therapy WorkbookWAGING WAR: A Christian’s Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Workbook

Waging War is a guide to start the youth with the most basic information and work pages to the culmination of all of the facts, scripture, and their newly gained insight to offer a more clear picture of where they are and how to change their lives for the better. Every chapter will have …


DOZENS OF QUESTIONS WILL BE ANSWERED: Why is prayer necessary? What must we do to be heard by God? How does God answer our prayers? Does God listen to all prayers? Does God hear everyone’s prayers? What may we pray about? Does the Father truly grant everything we ask for? What kind …

HUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For UsHUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For Us

There are many reasons the Christian view of humanity is very important. The Christian view of humanity believes that humans were created in the image of God. We will look at the biblical view of humanity. We are going to look at the nature of man, the freedom of man, the personality of …

FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition]FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition] 

In FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART – SO I A M, Edward D. Andrews offers practical and biblical insights on a host of Christian spiritual growth struggles, from the challenge of forgiveness to eating disorders, anger, alcoholism, depression, anxiety, pornography, masturbation, same-sex …

APPLYING GOD'S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]APPLYING GOD’S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]

There is a genuine happiness, contentment, and joy, which come from reading, studying and applying God’s Word. This is true because the Scriptures offer us guidance and direction that aids us in living a life that coincides with our existence as a creation of Almighty God. For example, we …

PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]

THERE IS ONE MAJOR DIFFERENCE between Christian living books by Andrews and those by others. Generally speaking, his books are filled with Scripture and offer its readers what the Bible authors meant by what they penned. In this publication, it is really God’s Word offering the counsel, …

Walking With Your God_Second EditionWALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD: Putting God’s Purpose First in Your Life [Second Edition]

A clean conscience brings us inner peace, calmness, and a profound joy that is seldom found in this world under the imperfection of fallen flesh that is catered to by Satan, the god of the world. Many who were formerly living in sin and have now turned their life over to God, they now know this amazing relief and are able today to hold a good and clean conscience as they carry out the will of the Father. WALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD, has been written to help its readers to find that same joy, to have and maintain a good, clean conscience in their lives. Of course, it is incapable of covering every detail that one would need to consider and apply in their lives …

WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS: How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?

This book is primarily for WIVES, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. WIVES will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: WIVES BE SUBJECT TO …

HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?

This book is primarily for HUSBANDS, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. HUSBANDS will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: HUSBANDS LOVE …

Christian Apologetics


How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …


Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …


Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's "Misquoting Jesus" [Third Edition]MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …


church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …


Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.