Edward D. Andrews, Chief Translator of the Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

This category can be somewhat confusing because the papyrus manuscripts were written in uncial letters.[50] However, “uncial” is a term used to designate only the parchment manuscripts, written in uncial letters. For a very long time papyrus was used for penning literary works, while parchment was used for business papers, notebooks, and the first drafts of an author’s works. Some very significant Bible manuscripts extant today were originally penned on parchment.

Parchment began to displace papyrus in writing manuscripts from about the fourth century to the fifteenth century C.E. Even though papyrus was used by secular literature up to the seventh century, Christians started using parchment as early as the second century, with continued growth into the third, and almost completely by the fourth century. Constantine the Great ordered 50 copies of the Bible, commissioned in 331, which were produced in the Greek language and on parchment. Constantin von Tischendorf, the discoverer of Codex Sinaiticus, believed that Sinaiticus and Vaticanus were among these fifty Bibles prepared by Eusebius in Caesarea. However, Metzger writes, “there are, however, one or two indications which point to Egypt as the place of origin of Codex Vaticanus, and the type of text found in both codices is unlike that by Eusebius.”[51] The Institute for New Testament Textual Research (INTF)[52] reports 322 uncial manuscripts of the Greek New Testament, dating from the fourth century C.E. to the tenth-century C.E.

In 325 C.E., Emperor Constantine legalized Christianity, giving it equal status to the pagan religions. It was then much easier to have manuscripts copied. Christianity had been treated like a dissident, rebellious, seditious and destabilizing movement up until this time. Christians were persecuted and martyred on the grounds that their beliefs destabilized the pagan religions of the Roman government, thus calling the empire itself into question. Constantine’s actions made it possible for Christians to worship and to copy their manuscripts freely.

The Greek uncial manuscripts of the New Testament are different from other ancient New Testament texts for the following reasons:

  • The New Testament papyri were written on papyrus and are generally earlier (1st – 4th centuries C.E.)
  • The New Testament minuscule, as the name indicates, were written in minuscule letters and generally later (9th – 15th centuries C.E.)
  • Lectionaries were usually written in minuscule (but some in uncial) letters and generally later, on parchment, papyrus, or paper (from the 6th century)
  • The uncials were written in majuscule letters on parchment (1st – 10th centuries)

In 1751, textual scholar Johann Jakob Wettstein (1693-1754) was aware of only twenty-three uncial codices of the Greek New Testament. A little over 100 years later, in 1859, renowned textual scholar Constantin von Tischendorf (1815-1874) had brought the number of uncial codices to sixty-four. Some sixty years later, in 1909, Caspar René Gregory (1846-1917) identified 161 uncial codices. Some 210 years from Wettstein, in 1963, Kurt Aland (1915-1994) increased the count to 250 uncial codices. In the 1989, second edition of Kurt and Barbara Alands publication The Text of the New Testament, the authors listed 299 uncial codices.

Wettstein gave us one of the modern methods of classifying these uncial codices. He used the Latin capital letters to identify the uncials. For example, Codex Alexandrinus was given the letter “A,” Codex Vaticanus was designated “B,” with Codex Ephraemi being given the designation “C,” and Codex Bezae was classified with “D.” The last letter to be used by Wettstein in the classification uncial codices was “O.” As time passed, the number of uncial manuscripts became larger than the Latin alphabet, so future textual scholars exhausted the Greek and Hebrew alphabets. It was Caspar René Gregory who moved on to assign manuscripts numerals that began with an initial 0. Codex Sinaiticus received the number 01, Alexandrinus received 02; Vaticanus was given 03, Ephraemi was designated with 04, and Bezae received the number 05, to mention just a few. By the time of Gregory’s death in 1917, the number had reached 0161, with Ernst von Dobschütz increasing the number of uncials codices to 0208 by 1993. As of June 1, 2010, the number of codices had reached 0323 in the Gregory-Aland system, a forgotten 4th– or 5th-century Greek fragment of the Gospel of John in the Syrus Sinaiticus,[53] dating paleographically to 300-499 C.E., cataloged by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research (INTF) in Münster, Germany.[54]


Important Uncial Manuscripts

Luke 11:2

Codex Sinaiticus (01, א) alone has a complete text of the New Testament. It is dated to c. 330–360 C.E.

The Codex Sinaiticus Project has described the Sinaiticus as “one of the most important books in the world.”[55] F. J. A. Hort felt that Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus (as well as a few other early manuscripts) represented a text that reflected the original writing. Textual scholars have repeatedly told the story of how Constantin von Tischendorf rediscovered codex Sinaiticus. We might begin with a short biography. Tischendorf was born in Lengenfeld, Saxony, near Plauen, in the year 1815. In 1834, he was educated in Greek at the University of Leipzig, and largely influenced by Georg Benedikt Winer. He soon took a special interest in New Testament criticism. However, Tischendorf became troubled by higher criticism of the Bible, which was at the root of German theologians’ efforts to undermine the Greek New Testament as not authentic. To the contrary, Tischendorf was certain that a study of early manuscripts would enable textual scholars to restore the originals. Accordingly, he went on a quest to research all known manuscripts himself, believing that he would find others throughout his travels.

Tischendorf spent four years searching through some of the finest libraries in Europe. It was in May of 1844 that he reached the Monastery of St. Catherine, located 4,500 feet above the Red Sea in Sinai. Gaining access to this impregnable fortress sanctuary was by way of a basket being lowered by a rope through a small opening in the wall.

Tischendorf in 1841
Tischendorf in 1841

Tischendorf was given permission to search their three libraries, which produced nothing noteworthy for some days. Then, as he was about to give up and continue his journey, he caught sight of exactly what he was looking for, ancient parchments, which filled a large basket in the hall of the main library. Likely shocking him to his very core, he listened as the librarian told him that they were going to be burned as two full baskets had already met the same fate. He spent hours on the manuscript, poring over the details and Tischendorf was shocked to find 129 leaves from the oldest manuscript that he had ever seen. It was a Greek translation of parts of the Hebrew Scriptures. The librarian gave him 43 sheets but denied him the rest.

Tischendorf came back in 1853 when he found a mere fragment of the same manuscript that we now know dates to c. 330–360 C.E. He “deposited in the library of the University of Leipzig, in the shape of a collection which bears his name, fifty manuscripts, some of which convinced him that the manuscript originally contained the entire Old Testament, but that the greater part had been long since destroyed.”[56] Codex Sinaiticus most likely consisted of 730 leaves. It was written in Greek uncial. Some six years later, Tischendorf returned to visit the monks at Mount Sinai for a third time. Just before he was scheduled to leave, he was shown the leaves that he had saved from the fire some fifteen years earlier, but also many others as well. They consisted of the entire Greek New Testament, as well as part of a Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament.

Eventually, Tischendorf was given permission to take the manuscript to Cairo, Egypt, to make a copy, and ultimately, he carried the manuscript to the czar of Russia, to whom it was presented as a gift from the monks. Today, it can be found in the British Museum alongside codex Alexandrinus. Modern textual scholars have identified at least three scribes (A, B, and C) who worked on Codex Sinaiticus, with at least seven correctors (a, b, c, ca, cb, cc, e).[57] James H. Ropes describes the quality of Codex Sinaiticus:

National Library of Russia

A two-thirds portion of the codex was held in the National Library of Russia from 1859 until 1933 / Public Domain,

Codex Sinaiticus is carelessly written, with many lapses of spelling due to the influence of dialectal and vulgar speech, and many plain errors and crude vagaries. Omissions by homeoteleuton abound, and there are many other careless omissions. All these gave a large field for the work of correctors, and the manuscript does not stand by any means on the same level of workmanship as B.[58]

It can still be said that Codex Sinaiticus is considered fairly reliable as a witness to the New Testament text. However, it is true that the scribe of Sinaiticus was not as careful as the scribe of the Vaticanus. Not only was he more inclined to errors, but to creative corrections as well. F. J. A. Hort offered a comparison between the scribe of Vaticanus (B) and the scribe of the Sinaiticus (א): “Turning from B to א, we find ourselves dealing with the handiwork of a scribe of a different character. The omissions and repetitions of small groups of letters are rarely to be seen; but on the other hand, all the ordinary lapses due to rapid and careless transcription are more numerous, including substitutions of one word for another.… The singular readings are very numerous, especially in the Apocalypse, and scarcely ever commend themselves on internal grounds. It can hardly be doubted that many of them are individualisms of the scribe himself.”[59]

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2 Epistle of Peter and the beginning of the 1 Epistle of John in the same column

Codex Alexandrinus (02, A) contains a complete text of the New Testament, minus Matthew 1:1-25:6; John 6:50 -8:52; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.


Alexandrinus is one of the four Great uncial codices. It is one of the earliest and most complete uncial manuscripts, along with Sinaiticus and Vaticanus.

Codex Alexandrinus resided in Alexandria for a number of years, the city from which it received its name. Thereafter, in 1621, Patriarch Cyril Lucar took it to Constantinople.[60] It would later be given to Charles I of England in 1627, which was too late for it to be used in the 1611 King James Version. In 1757, George II presented it to the National Library of the British Museum. Alexandrinus was the best manuscript in Britain until 1933,[61] when the British government purchased א for the British Museum for £100,000.

Of possibly 820 original leaves of Alexandrinus, 773 have been preserved, 639 of the Old Testament and 134 of the New. The physical features are as follows:

  • Dimensions: 320 x 280 mm (text space: 240 x 205 mm). Two columns, generally of 50 or 51 lines; each line usually contains from 20 to 25 letters, but more is often inserted by compression at the end of the line.
  • Foliation: ff. 144 (+ two unfoliated modern parchment flyleaves: one at the beginning and one at the end; f. 1 is a parchment flyleaf).
  • Collation: Gatherings originally of eight leaves, numbered at the top of the first page; rebound in modern times in gatherings of six leaves.
  • Script: Uncial. Written probably by three different hands (III, IV, and V in Milne and Skeat 1938); punctuation by the original scribes.
  • Binding: Post-1600; gold-tooled leather with the royal arms of England and initials ‘CR’.[62]

The beginning lines of each book are written in red ink, and a larger letter set into the margin marks sections within the book. There are no accents or breathing marks by the original hand. However, there are a few by a later hand. The first hand wrote the punctuation.[63] The letters in Codex Alexandrinus are larger than those in the Vaticanus. While there are no spaces between the words, there are some pauses by way of a dot between the words. The swapping of vowels of similar sounds is quite frequent in Codex Alexandrinus. There is an affinity to increase the size of the first letter of each sentence. The letters Ν and Μ are sometimes confused. The letter combination ΓΓ is exchanged for ΝΓ. Codex Alexandrinus has capital letters to indicate new sections and is the oldest manuscript to do so. Alexandrinus has many iotacisms and other cases of the confusion of vowel sounds, e.g. αι in place of ε, ει for ι and η for ι. However, the number of iotacisms is no greater than other manuscripts from that period. There are many corrections that have been made in Alexandrinus, some of which come from the original scribe. However, most by far come from later hands. The corrected portions of the text agree with codices D, N, X, Y, Γ, Θ, Π, Σ, Φ and the vast majority of the minuscule manuscripts.[64]

The Greek text of the codex is of mixed text-types. On this Metzger writes, “In the Gospels, it is the oldest example of the Byzantine type of text, which is generally regarded as an inferior form of text. In the rest of the New Testament (which may have been copied by the scribe from a different exemplar from that which he employed for the text of the Gospels), it ranks along with B and א as representative of the Alexandrian type of text.”[65]

Second Epistle of John

Codex Vaticanus (03, B) contains the Gospels, Acts, the General Epistles, the Pauline Epistles, the Epistle to the Hebrews (up to Hebrews 9:14, καθα[ριει); it lacks 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and Revelation. It is written on 759 leaves of vellum and is dated to c. 300–325 C.E.

Arguably, one could say that Codex Vaticanus is the most valuable witness that we have for the Greek New Testament.[66] It is of course named Vaticanus because it has been stored in the Vatican library from a time prior to 1475.[67] For centuries, the Vatican authorities kept the B (03) a private treasure and discouraged work on it by outside scholars. Paul D. Wegner writes, “At the beginning of the nineteenth century Napoleon carried off this codex to Paris with other manuscripts as a war prize, but on his death in 1815 it was returned to the Vatican library. Constantine von Tischendorf applied for and finally obtained permission to see the manuscript in order to collate difficult passages. He copied out or remembered enough of the text to be able to publish an edition of Vaticanus in 1867. Later that century (1868–1881) the Vatican published a better copy of the codex, but in 1889–1890 a complete photographic facsimile of this manuscript superseded all earlier attempts.”[68]

The writing in Codex Vaticanus is “small and delicate majuscules, perfectly simple and unadorned”[69] as Metzger put it. The Greek runs continuously, with no separation between the words, and all letters are an equal distance from one another so that to the modern eye, each line looks like one long word. Some scholars feel that Vaticanus is a little earlier than Sinaiticus because of its having no ornamentation at all, while others feel that Vaticanus and Sinaiticus were among the fifty manuscripts ordered by Constantine the Great. Skeat, however, goes a step further, arguing that Vaticanus was to be a part of the fifty manuscripts but was a reject, “for it is deficient in the Eusebian canon tables, has many corrections by different scribes.[70] Whether Skeat is correct or not, Codex Vaticanus is one of the most important manuscripts for the text of the Septuagint and especially the Greek New Testament.

Tischendorf claimed that codex Vaticanus was copied by three scribes (A, B, C), suggesting that two worked on the Old Testament while the third copied the entire New Testament.[71]  Kenyon accepted Tischendorf’s view, while T. C. Skeat, who had an opportunity to do a more extensive examination of the codex, contested the position of a third scribe (C) and argued that there were only two scribes, both working on the Old Testament (A and B), and one of them copying the entire New Testament (B).[72] Other paleographers agree with Skeat. Scribe (A) wrote Genesis through 1 Kings (pp 41–334) and Psalms through Tobias (pages 625–944). Scribe (B) wrote 1 Kings through 2 Esdra (pp 335–624), Hosea through Daniel (pp 945–1234), and the entire New Testament.[73] One corrector worked on Vaticanus soon after its writing, and another corrector from the 10th or 11th century worked on the manuscript. The latter corrector traced over the faded letters with fresh ink. However, he also omitted words and letters he judged to be wrong, as well as adding accent and breathing marks. Vaticanus is a representative of the Alexandrian text-type, the Alands placing it in Category I, “manuscripts of a very special quality which should always be considered in establishing the original text …. B is by far the most significant of the uncials.” (Aland and Aland, The Text of the New Testament 1995, 109, 109)

Matthew 20:16-23

Codex Ephraemi (04, C) dates to the fifth century C.E., with 209 leaves surviving, of which 145 contain material from every New Testament book except Second Thessalonians and Second John. It is a noted palimpsest, i.e. a manuscript written over a partly erased older manuscript in such a way that the old words can be read beneath the new. Codex Ephraemi is about 12 inches by 9 inches (31 cm by 23 cm), and it is the earliest example of a manuscript containing just one column of writing on each page.

The Scriptural text that had appeared on this fifth-century codex was removed in the twelfth century, being written over with a Greek translation of thirty-eight sermons of the Syrian scholar Ephraem. It was not until the end of the seventeenth century that textual scholars noticed the Bible text beneath. While there was some progress made over the years in trying to decipher the text that lay beneath, it was difficult because of the faint and unclear condition of the ink that had been erased, not to mention the ragged state of many of the leaves, and the other text that overlapped with the original text. In an effort to read the text, some chemicals were applied to the manuscript. Eventually, most textual scholars of the time felt that the erased text was beyond recovery.

However, a name that we have heard before, Konstantin von Tischendorf, went to work on Codex Ephraemi in the early 1840’s. It took Tischendorf two years, but he eventual deciphered the manuscript. How was he able to succeed where others had failed? Tischendorf had a good eye for the Greek uncial script and was blessed with excellent eyesight. Moreover, he discovered that if he held the parchment up to the light, the erased text was legible enough for him to make it out. Today scholars would use infrared, ultraviolet, and polarized light to illuminate the ancient text.

Metzger says that even “though the document dates from the fifth century, its text is of less importance than one might assume from its age. It seems to be compounded from all major text types, frequently agreeing with secondary Alexandrian witnesses but also with those of the later Koine or Byzantine type, which most scholars regard as the least valuable. Two correctors referred to as C2 or Cb and C3 or Cc, have made corrections in the manuscript. The former probably lived in Palestine in the sixth century, and the latter seems to have done his work in Constantinople in the ninth century.”[74] Today, Codex Ephraemi is kept in the National Library in Paris, France.

BIBLICAL CRITICISM - Beyond the Basics REASONABLE FAITH how-to-study-your-bible1 THE GREAT TEACHER Jesus Christ
John 3:26-4:1

Codex Bezae (05, Dea) dates to about 400 C.E., consisting of 406 leaves. It contains most of the four Gospels and Acts, with a small fragment of Third John. The codex is about ten by eight inches (25 by 20 cm), and it is an early example of a bilingual text, with Greek on the left page and Latin on the right. Theodore Bezae presented it to the University of Cambridge in 1581.

Paul D. Wegner observes that Bezae “is written in ‘sense lines’ so that some sentences are short and others long depending on the thought in the line. There is one column per page. The codex includes the Gospels (in Western order; i.e., Mt, Jn, Lk, Mk), Acts and a short fragment of 3 John. It was found in 1562 at Lyons, France, by Theodore Beza, the successor of John Calvin at Geneva, who presented it to Cambridge University in 1581 (thus it is sometimes called ‘Codex Cantabrigiensis’).”

Codex Bezae is most likely a copy of a papyrus manuscript with an early text. It is similar to P29 (Alexandrian, Western, Category I), P38 (Western text-type, Category IV), and P48, (Western text-type, Category IV), papyri dating to the third or fourth centuries. The first three lines of each book are in red letters, and black and red ink alternate the title of books. Between the sixth and twelfth centuries, some eleven people have corrected the manuscript (G, A, C, B, D, E, H, F, J1, L, K).[75] Of this manuscript, Metzger writes, “No known manuscript has so many and such remarkable variations from what is usually taken to be the normal New Testament text. Codex Bezae’s special characteristic is the free addition (and occasional omission) of words, sentences, and even incidents.”[76] For example, Luke 23:53 reads in the NASB (NA text), “And he took it down and wrapped it in a linen cloth, and laid Him in a tomb cut into the rock, where no one had ever lain.” Bezae adds the words, “And after he [Jesus] was laid [in the tomb], he [Joseph of Arimathea] put before the tomb a [great] stone which twenty men could scarcely roll.” Acts 19:9 reads in the NASB (NA text), “But when some were becoming hardened and disobedient, speaking evil of the Way before the people, he [Paul] withdrew from them and took away the disciples, reasoning daily in the school of Tyrannus.” To this Bezae adds “from eleven o’clock to four,” which is doubtful because of the heat at that time of day. Codex Bezae is the principal representative of the Western text.

Greek Uncial Manuscripts

# Sign Name Date Content
01 א Sinaiticus 4th A complete text of the New Testament
02 A Alexandrinus 5th It contains a complete text of the New Testament, minus Matthew 1:1-25:6; John 6:50 -8:52; 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6
03 B Vaticanus 4th Gospels, Acts, the General Epistles, the Pauline Epistles, the Epistle to the Hebrews (up to Hebrews 9:14, καθα[ριει); it is lacking 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and Revelation
04 C Ephraemi 5th Every New Testament book except Second Thessalonians and Second John
05 Dea Bezae 5th In both Greek and Latin, most of the four Gospels and Acts, with a small fragment of 3 John
06 Dp Claromontanus 6th Pauline epistles
07 Ee Basilensis 8th Gospels
08 Ea Laudianus 6th Acts of the Apostles
09 Fe Boreelianus 9th Gospels
010 Fp Augiensis 9th Pauline epistles
011 Ge Seidelianus I 9th Gospels
012 Gp Boernerianus 9th Pauline epistles
013 He Seidelianus II 9th Gospels
014 Ha Mutinensis 9th Acts of the Apostles
015 Hp Coislinianus 6th Pauline Epistles
016 I Freerianus 5th Pauline epistles
017 Ke Cyprius 9th Gospels
018 Kap Mosquensis 9th Acts, Paul, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude
019 Le Regius 8th Gospels
020 Lap Angelicus 9th Acts, Paul
021 M Campianus 9th Gospels
022 N Petropolitanus Purp. 6th Gospels
023 O Sinopensis 6th Gospel of Matthew
024 Pe Guelferbytanus A 6th Gospels
025 Papr Porphyrianus 9th Acts, Paul, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Rev
026 Q Guelferbytanus B 5th Luke 4,6,12,15,17–23; John 12,14
027 R Nitriensis 6th Gospel of Luke
028 S Vaticanus 354 949 Gospels
029 =
T Borgianus 5th Luke — John
030 U Nanianus 9th Gospels
031 V Mosquensis II 9th Gospels
032 W Washingtonianus 5th Gospels
033 X Monacensis 10th Gospels
034 Y Macedoniensis 9th Gospels
035 Z Dublinensis 6th Matt 1–2,4–8,10–15,17–26
036 Γ Tischendorfianus IV 10th Gospels
037 Δ Sangallensis 9th Gospels
038 Θ Coridethianus 9th Gospels
039 Λ Tischendorfianus III 9th Luke, John
040 Ξ Zacynthius 6th Gospel of Luke †[77]
041 Π Petropolitanus 9th Gospels
042 Σ Rossanensis 6th Matthew, Mark
043 Φ Beratinus 6th Matthew,  Mark
044 Ψ Athous Lavrensis 9th/10th Gospels, Acts, Paul
045 Ω Athous Dionysiou 9th Gospels

Uncials 046-0323

# Name Date Content
046 Vaticanus 2066 10th Book of Revelation
047 8th Gospels
048 Vaticanus 2061 5th Acts, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Paul
049 9th Acts, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Pauline epistles
050 9th Gospel of John
051 Ath. Pantokratoros 10th Book of Revelation
052 Ath. Panteleimonos 10th Book of Revelation
053 9th Gospel of Luke
054 Codex Barberini 8th Gospel of John
055 11th Gospels
056 10th Acts, Pauline epistles
057 4th/5th Acts of the Apostles
058 4th Gospel of Matthew 18
059=0215 4th/5th Gospel of Mark
060 6th Gospel of John 14
061 5th 1 Timothy
062 5th Epistle to the Galatians
063=0117 9th Luke, John
6th Matthew 27,
065 6th Gospel of John
066 6th Acts of the Apostles
067 6th Matthew, and Mark
068 5th Gospel of John 16
069 5th Gospel of Mark 10–11
070 =0110
6th Luke, and John
071 5th/6th Gospel of Matthew 1, 25
072 5th/6th Gospel of Mark 2–3
073=084 6th Gospel of Matthew 14–15 †
074 6th Matt. 25, 26, 28, Mark 1, 2, 5 †
075 10th Pauline epistles
076 5th/6th Acts of the Apostles 2
077 5th Acts of the Apostles 13
078 6th Matt, Luke, John
079 6th Gospel of Luke
080 6th Gospel of Mark 9–10
081 Tischendorfianus II 6th 2 Corinthians 1–2
082 6th Epistle to the Ephesians 4
5th/6th John 1–4,
Mark 14–16
Mark 13
084 6th Gospel of Matthew 15 †
085 6th Gospel of Matthew 20, 22
086 6th Gospel of John 1, 3–4
087=092b 6th Matt 1–2, 19, 21; John 18; Mark 12
088 5th/6th 1 Cor. 15:53–16:9, Tit 1:1–13
089=092a 6th Gospel of Matthew 26:2–19
090 6th Matt 26, 27; Mark 1–2 †
091 6th John 6
092a092b 6th Matt 26:4–7.10-12
093 6th Acts 24–25, 1 Pet 2–3
094 6th Gospel of Matthew 24:9–21
095=0123 8th Acts of the Apostles 2–3 †
096 7th Acts of the Apostles 2, 26
097 7th Acts of the Apostles 13
098 7th 2 Corinthians 11
099 7th Gospel of Mark 16
0100=0195 7th Gospel of John 20
0101 8th Gospel of John 1
0102=0138 7th Gospel of Luke 3–4
0103 7th Gospel of Mark 13–14
0104 6th Matthew 23 †; Mark 13–14 †
0105 10th Gospel of John 6–7
0106=0119 Tischendorfianus I 7th Matthew 12–15 †
0107 7th Matt 22–23; Mark 4–5
0108 7th Gospel of Luke 11
0109 7th Gospel of John 16–18
0110 6th Gospel of John
0111 7th 2 Thess. 1:1–2:2
0112 5th/6th Gospel of Mark 14–16
0113=029 5th Gospel of Luke 21 Gospel of John 1
0114 8th Gospel of John 20 †
0115 9th/10th Gospel of Luke 9–10 †
0116 8th Matt 19–27; Mark 13–14;Luke 3–4 †
0117  — 9th Gospel of Luke †
0118  — 8th Gospel of Matthew 11 †
0119  — 7th Gospel of Matthew 13–15 †
0120  — 8th Acts of the Apostles
0121a  — 10th 1 Corinthians †
0121b Codex Ruber 10th Epistle to the Hebrews †
0122  — 10th Galatians †; Hebrews †
0123  — 8th Acts of the Apostles 2–3 †
0124 See 070 6th  —
0125 See 029 5th  —
0126  — 8th Gospel of Mark 5–6
0127  — 8th Gospel of John 2:2–11
0128  — 9th Gospel of Matthew 25:32–45
0129=0203  —  ? 1 Peter †
0130 Sangallensis 18 9th Mark 1–2, Luke 1–2 †
0131  — 9th Gospel of Mark 7–9 †
0132  — 9th Gospel of Mark 5 †
0133 Blenheimius 9th Matthew †; Mark †
0134 8th Gospel of Mark 3 †; 5 †
0135 9th Matthew, Mark, Luke
0136=0137 9th Gospel of Matthew 14; 25–26 †
0137 9th Gospel of Matthew 13 †
0138 7th Gospel of Matthew 21:24–24:15
0139 See 029 5th  —
0140 10th Acts of the Apostles 5
0141 10th Gospel of John †
0142 10th Acts, Paul, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude
0143 6th Gospel of Mark 8 †
0144 7th Gospel of Mark 6 †
0145 7th Gospel of John 6:26–31
0146 8th Gospel of Mark 10:37–45
0147 6th Gospel of Luke 6:23–35
0148 8th Gospel of Matthew 28:5–19
0149 = 0187 6th Gospel of Mark 6 †
0150 9th Pauline epistles
0151 9th Pauline epistles
0152 Talisman  —
0153 Ostracon 2 Cor. 4:7; 2 Timothy 2:20
0154 9th Gospel of Mark 10, 11
0155 9th Gospel of Luke 3, 6
0156 6th 2 Peter 3
0157 7th/8th 1 John 2
0158 5th/6th Epistle to the Galatians 1
0159 6th Epistle to the Ephesians 4–5
0160 4th/5th Gospel of Matthew 26
0161 8th Gospel of Matthew 22
0162 3rd/4th Gospel of John 2:11–22
0163 5th Book of Revelation 16
0164 6th/7th Gospel of Matthew 13
0165 5th Acts of the Apostles 3–4
0166 5th Acts 28 James 1:11
0167 7th Gospel of Mark
0168 8th Gospels †
0169 4th Book of Revelation 3–4
0170 5th/6th Gospel of Matthew 6 †
0171 3rd/4th Matthew 10; Luke 22
0172 5th Epistle to the Romans 1–2 †
0173 5th Epistle of James 1 †
0174 5th Epistle to the Galatians 2:5–6
0175 5th Acts of the Apostles 6 †
0176 4th/5th Epistle to the Galatians 3 †
0177 10th Gospel of Luke 1–2 †
0178 = 070 6th Gospel of Luke 16:4-12
0179 = 070 6th Gospel of Luke 21:30-22:2
0180 = 070 6th Gospel of John 7:3-12
0181 4th/5th Gospel of Luke 9–10
0182 5th Gospel of Luke 19
0183 7th Gospel of Luke 9–10
0184 6th Gospel of Mark 15
0185 4th 1 Corinthians 2, 3
0186 5th/6th 2 Corinthians 4 †
0187 6th Gospel of Mark 6
0188 4th Gospel of Mark 11
0189 2nd/3rd Acts of the Apostles 5:3–21
0190 = 070 6th Gospel of Luke 10:30-39
0191 = 070 6th Gospel of Luke 12:5-14
0192 =  1604  —
0193 = 070 6th Gospel of John 3:23-32
0194 = 070 6th  —
0195 7th Gospel of John 20 †
0196 9th Matthew 5, Luke 24
0197 9th Gospel of Matthew 20; 22
0198 6th Epistle to the Colossians 3
0199 6th/7th 1 Corinthians 11
0200 7th Gospel of Matthew 11
0201 5th 1 Corinthians 12; 14
0202 6th Gospel of Luke 8–9 †
0203 9th  —
0204 7th Gospel of Matthew 24
0205 8th Epistle to Titus
0206 4th 1 Peter 5
0207 4th Book of Revelation 9:2–15
0208 6th Col 1–2, 1 Thess. 2
0209 7th Rom. 14:9-23; 16:25-27; 15:1-2; 2 Cor. 1:1-15; 4:4-13; 6:11-7, 2; 9:2-10:17; 2 Pet 1:1-2, 3
0210 7th John 5:44; 6:1-2, 41-42
0211 7th Gospels
0212 Dura Parchment 24 3rd Diatessaron
0213 5th/6th Gospel of Mark 3
0214 4th/5th Gospel of Mark 8
0215 5th/6th Gospel of Mark 15:20–21,26-27
0216 5th Gospel of John 8–9
0217 5th Gospel of John 11–12
0218 5th Gospel of John 12
0219 4th/5th Epistle to the Romans 2–9
0220 3rd/4th Epistle to the Romans 4:23–5:3; 5:8–13
0221 4th Epistle to the Romans 5–6
0222 4th 1 Corinthians 9
0223 6th 2 Corinthians 1–2
0224 5th/6th 2 Corinthians 4 †
0225 6th 2 Corinthians 5–6, 8
0226 5th 1 Thessalonians 4:16–5:5
0227 5th Epistle to the Hebrews 11
0228 4th Epistle to the Hebrews 12
0229 8th Book of Revelation 18, 19
0230 4th Epistle to the Ephesians 6
0231 4th Gospel of Matthew 26–27
0232 5th/6th 2 John 1–5, 6–9
0233 8th Gospels
0234 8th Matthew 28; John 1
0235 5th/6th Gospel of Mark 13
0236 5th Acts of the Apostles 3
0237 6th Gospel of Matthew 15
0238 8th Gospel of John 7
0239 7th Gospel of Luke 2
024 5th Epistle to Titus 1
0241 6th 1 Timothy 3–4
0242 4th Gospel of Matthew 8–9; 13
0243 10th 1 Cor 13-2 Cor 13
0244 5th Acts of the Apostles 11–12
0245 6th 1 John 3–4
0246 6th Epistle of James 1
0247 5th/6th 1 Peter 5; 2 Peter 1
0248 9th Gospel of Matthew
0249 10th Gospel of Matthew 25
0250 Climaci Rescriptus 8th Gospels †
0251 6th 3 John 12–15; Jude 3–5
0252 Barcilonensis 6 5th Epistle to the Hebrews 6 †
0253 6th Gospel of Luke 10:19–22
0254 5th Galatians 5:13–17
0255 9th Gospel of Matthew 26; 27
0256 8th Gospel of John 6
0257 9th Matthew 5–26; Mark 6–16
0258 ? Gospel of John 10
0259 7th 1 Timothy 1
0260 6th Gospel of John 1
0261 5th Galatians 1; 4
0262 7th 1 Timothy 1
0263 6th Gospel of Mark 5
0264 5th Gospel of John 8
0265 6th Gospel of Luke 7
0266 6th Gospel of Luke 20
0267 Barcelonensis 16 5th Gospel of Luke 8
0268 7th Gospel of John 1
0269 9th Gospel of Mark 6
0270 5th/6th 1 Corinthians 15
0271 9th Gospel of Matthew 12
0272 9th Gospel of Luke 16–17; 19
0273 9th Gospel of John 2–3†; 4†; 5–6†
0274 5th Gospel of Mark 6–10†
0275 7th Gospel of Matthew 5
0276 8th Gospel of Mark 14–15
0277 7th/8th Gospel of Matthew 14
0278 9th Pauline epistles
0279 8th/9th Gospel of Luke 8; 2
0280 8th Pauline epistles
0281 7th/8th Gospel of Matthew 6–27 †
0282 6th Epistle to Philemon 2; 3 †
0283 9th Gospel of Mark †
0284 8th Matthew 26; 27; 28 †
0285 6th Pauline epistles †
0286 6th Matt. 16:13–19; John 10:12–16
0287 9th Gospels †
0288 6th Gospel of Luke †
0289 7th/8th Romans — 1 Corinthians
0290 9th Gospel of John 18:4–20:2
0291 7th/8th Gospel of Luke 8–9
0292 6th Gospel of Mark 6–7
0293 7th/8th Gospel of Matthew 21; 26
0294 7th/8th Acts of the Apostles 14–15
0295 9th 2 Corinthians 12:14–13:1
0296 6th 2 Cor. 7; 1 John 5
0297 9th Gospel of Matthew 1; 5
0298 8th/9th Gospel of Matthew 26
0299 10th/11th Gospel of John 20:1–7
0300 6th/7th Gospel of Matthew 20:2–17
0301 5th Gospel of John 17:1–4
0302 6th Gospel of John 10:29–30
0303 7th Gospel of Luke 13:17–29
0304  — 9th Acts of the Apostles 6:5–7:13
0305  — ? Gospel of Matthew 20
0306  — 9th Gospel of John 9
0307  — 7th Matt 11–12; Mark 11–12; Luke 9–10,22
0308  — 4th Book of Revelation 11
0309  — 6th Gospel of John 20
0310  — 10th Epistle to Titus 2:15–3:7
0311  — 8th/9th Epistle to the Romans 8:1–13
0312  — 3rd/4th Gospel of Luke 5; 7
0313  — 5th Gospel of Mark 4:9.15
0314  — 6th Gospel of John 5:43
# Name Date Content
0315  — 4th/5th Mark 2:9.21.25; 3:1–2
0316  — 7th Epistle of Jude 18–25
0317  — 7th? Gospel of Mark 14
0318  — 7th Gospel of Mark 9–14
0319 (Dabs1) Sangermanensis 9th/10th Pauline epistles
0320 (Dabs2) Waldeccensis 10th Ephesians 1:3–9; 2:11–18
0321 5th Matt 24:37-25; 1:32-45; 26:31-45
0322 8th/9th Gospel of Mark 3; 6
0323 Syrus Sinaiticus 4th/5th Gospel of John 7:6–15; 9:17–23

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Christian Living

Herein Andrews will answer the “why.” He will address whether God is responsible for the suffering we see. He will also delve into whether God’s foreknowledge is compatible with our having free will. He will consider how we can objectively view Bible evidence, as he answers why an almighty, loving and just God would allow bad things to happen to good people. Will there ever be an end to the suffering? He will explain why life is so unfair and does God step in and solve our every problem because we are faithful? He will also discuss how the work of the Holy Spirit and the indwelling of the Holy Spirit should be understood in the light of wickedness. Lastly, Andrews will also offer biblical counsel on how we can cope when any tragedy strikes, …

Let God Use You to Solve Your PROBLEMSLet God Use You to Solve Your PROBLEMS: GOD Will Instruct You and Teach You In the Way You Should Go

GOD knows best. Nobody surpasses him in thought, word, or action. As our Creator, he is aware of our needs and supplies them abundantly. He certainly knows how to instruct us. And if we apply divine teaching, we benefit ourselves and enjoy true happiness. Centuries ago, the psalmist David petitioned God …


Whom do we lean upon when facing distressing situations, making important decisions, or resisting temptations? With good reason, the Bible admonishes us: “Trust in the Lord with all your heart and do not lean on your own understanding. In all your ways know him, and he will make straight your paths.” (Prov. 3:5-6) Note the expression …

THE POWER OF GODTHE POWER OF GOD: The Word That Will Change Your Life Today 

Yes, God will be pleased to give you strength. He even gives “extraordinary power” to those who are serving him. (2 Cor. 4:7) Do you not feel drawn to this powerful Almighty God, who uses his power in such kind and principled ways? God is certainly a “shield for all those who take refuge in him.” (Psalm 18:30) You understand that he does not use his power to protect you from all tragedy now. He does, however, always use his protective power to ensure the outworking of his will and purpose. In the long run, his doing so is in your best interests. Andrews shares a profound truth …


All of us will go through difficult times that we may not fully understand. The apostle Paul wrote, “in the last days difficult times will come.” (2 Tim. 3:1) Those difficulties are part of the human imperfection (Rom. 5:12) and living in a fallen world that is ruled by Satan (2 Cor. 4:3-4). But when we find ourselves in such a place, it’s crucial that we realize God has given us a way out. (1 Cor. 10:13) Edward Andrews writes that if we remain steadfast in our faith and apply God’s Word correctly when we go through difficult times, we will not only grow spiritually, but we will …

AMERICA IN BIBLE PROPHECY_UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN BIBLE PROPHECY: The Kings of the North & South of Daniel and the Seven Kings of Revelation 

Why should you be interested in the prophecy recorded by Daniel in chapter 11 of the book that bears his name? The King of the North and the King of the South of Daniel are locked in an all-out conflict for domination as a world power. As the centuries pass, turning into millenniums, …

YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE: Why and How Your Christian Life Makes a DifferenceYOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE: Why and How Your Christian Life Makes a Difference

The theme of Andrews’ new book is YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE. As a Christian, you touch the lives of other people, wherein you can make a positive difference. Men and women of ancient times such as David, Nehemiah, Deborah, Esther, and the apostle Paul had a positive influence on others …

TURN OLD HABITS INTO NEW HABITS: Why and How the Bible Makes a DifferenceTURN OLD HABITS INTO NEW HABITS: Why and How the Bible Makes a Difference

Many have successfully conquered bad habits and addictions by applying suggestions found in the Bible and by seeking help from God through prayer. You simply cannot develop good habits and kick all your bad ones overnight. See how to establish priorities. Make sure that your new habits …

GOD WILL GET YOU THROUGH THIS: Hope and Help for Your Difficult TimesGOD WILL GET YOU THROUGH THIS: Hope and Help for Your Difficult Times

It may seem to almost all of us that we are either entering into a difficult time, living in one, or just getting over one and that we face one problem after another. This difficulty may be the loss of a loved one in death or a severe marriage issue, a grave illness, the lack of a job, or …

FEARLESS: Be Courageous and Strong Through Your Faith In These Last DaysFEARLESS: Be Courageous and Strong Through Your Faith In These Last Days

The world that you live in today has many real reasons to be fearful. Many are addicted to drugs, alcohol, bringing violence into even the safest communities. Terrorism has plagued the world for more than a decade now. Bullying in schools has caused many teen suicides. The divorce rate …

JOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the WorldJOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the World

John 3:16 is one of the most widely quoted verses from the Christian Bible. It has also been called the “Gospel in a nutshell,” because it is considered a summary of the central theme of traditional Christianity. Martin Luther called John 3:16 “The heart of the Bible, the Gospel in …

THE BOOK OF JAMES: CPH New Testament Commentary, Vol. 17 (An Apologetic and Background Exposition of the Holy Scriptures) CPH New Testament CommentaryTHE BOOK OF JAMES (CPH New Testament Commentary 17)

…about God and his personal revelation, allowing it to change our lives by drawing closer to God. The Book of James volume is written in a style that is easy to understand. The Bible can be difficult and complex at times. Our effort herein is to make it easier to read and understand, while …

THE OUTSIDER: Coming-of-Age In This MomentTHE OUTSIDER Coming-of-Age In This Moment

THE OUTSIDER is a Coming-of-Age book. SECTION 1 Surviving Sexual Desires and Love will cover such subjects as What Is Wrong with Flirting, The Pornography Deception, Peer Pressure to Have Sexual Relations, Coping With Constant Sexual Thoughts, Fully Understanding Sexting, Is Oral Sex …


Who should read THIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING? Anyone who is struggling with their walk as a young person. Anyone who has a friend who is having difficulty handling or coping with their young life, so you can offer them the help they need. Any parent who has young ones. And …

WAGING WAR: A Christian's Cognitive Behavioral Therapy WorkbookWAGING WAR: A Christian’s Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Workbook

Waging War is a guide to start the youth with the most basic information and work pages to the culmination of all of the facts, scripture, and their newly gained insight to offer a more clear picture of where they are and how to change their lives for the better. Every chapter will have …


DOZENS OF QUESTIONS WILL BE ANSWERED: Why is prayer necessary? What must we do to be heard by God? How does God answer our prayers? Does God listen to all prayers? Does God hear everyone’s prayers? What may we pray about? Does the Father truly grant everything we ask for? What kind …

HUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For UsHUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For Us

There are many reasons the Christian view of humanity is very important. The Christian view of humanity believes that humans were created in the image of God. We will look at the biblical view of humanity. We are going to look at the nature of man, the freedom of man, the personality of …

FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition]FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition] 

In FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART – SO I A M, Edward D. Andrews offers practical and biblical insights on a host of Christian spiritual growth struggles, from the challenge of forgiveness to eating disorders, anger, alcoholism, depression, anxiety, pornography, masturbation, same-sex …

APPLYING GOD'S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]APPLYING GOD’S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]

There is a genuine happiness, contentment, and joy, which come from reading, studying and applying God’s Word. This is true because the Scriptures offer us guidance and direction that aids us in living a life that coincides with our existence as a creation of Almighty God. For example, we …

PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]

THERE IS ONE MAJOR DIFFERENCE between Christian living books by Andrews and those by others. Generally speaking, his books are filled with Scripture and offer its readers what the Bible authors meant by what they penned. In this publication, it is really God’s Word offering the counsel, …

Walking With Your God_Second EditionWALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD: Putting God’s Purpose First in Your Life [Second Edition]

A clean conscience brings us inner peace, calmness, and a profound joy that is seldom found in this world under the imperfection of fallen flesh that is catered to by Satan, the god of the world. Many who were formerly living in sin and have now turned their life over to God, they now know this amazing relief and are able today to hold a good and clean conscience as they carry out the will of the Father. WALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD, has been written to help its readers to find that same joy, to have and maintain a good, clean conscience in their lives. Of course, it is incapable of covering every detail that one would need to consider and apply in their lives …

WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS: How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?

This book is primarily for WIVES, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. WIVES will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: WIVES BE SUBJECT TO …

HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?

This book is primarily for HUSBANDS, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. HUSBANDS will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: HUSBANDS LOVE …


Technological and societal change is all around us. What does the future hold? Trying to predict the future is difficult, but we can get a clue from the social and technological trends in our society. The chapters in this book provide a framework as Christians explore the uncharted territory in our world of technology and social change.


Government affects our daily lives, and Christians need to think about how to apply biblical principles to politics and government. This book provides an overview of the biblical principles relating to what the apostle Paul calls “governing authorities” (i.e., government) with specific chapters dealing with the founding principles of the American government. This includes an examination of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the Federalist Papers.


Economics affects our daily lives, and Christians need to think about how to apply biblical principles to money, investment, borrowing, and spending. They also need to understand the free enterprise system and know how to defend capitalism. Chapters in this book not only look at broad economic principles, but a section of the book is devoted to the challenges we face in the 21st century from globalization and tough economic times. A section of the book also provides an in-depth look at other important social and economic issues (gambling, welfare) that we face every day

Christian Apologetics and Evangelism


Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or the church, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” Ours is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the truthfulness of his Word, the Bible. A SUBSTANTIAL PORTION of REASONABLE FAITH is on healing for the elements of emotional doubt. However, much attention is given to more evidenced-based chapters in our pursuit of overcoming any fears or doubts that we may have or that may creep up on us in the future.

THE GREAT TEACHER Jesus ChristTHE GREAT TEACHER JESUS CHRIST: What Made Jesus Christ’s Teaching, Preaching, Evangelism, and Apologetics Outstanding Effective?

How can you improve your effectiveness as teachers? Essentially, it is by imitating THE GREAT TEACHER: Jesus Christ. You may wonder, ‘But how can we imitate Jesus?’ ‘He was the perfect, divine, Son of God.’ Admittedly, you cannot be a perfect teacher. Nevertheless, regardless of your abilities, you can do your best to imitate the way Jesus taught. THE GREAT TEACHER: Jesus Christ will discuss how you can employ all of his teaching methods.

King James BibleTHE KING JAMES BIBLE: Do You Know the King James Version?

The King James Bible was originally published in 1611. Some have estimated that the number of copies of the King James Version that have been produced in print worldwide is over one billion! There is little doubt that the King James Version is a literary masterpiece, which this author has and will appreciate and value for its unparalleled beauty of expression. This book is in no way trying to take away from what the King James Version has accomplished. The King James Version is a book to be commended for all that it has accomplished. For four centuries, when English-speaking people spoke of “the Bible,” they meant the King James Version. The question that begs to be asked of those who favor the King James Bible is, Do You Know the King James Version? What do most users of the King James Bible not know about their translation? Whether you are one who favors the King James Version or one who prefers a modern translation, Andrews will answer the questions that have long been asked for centuries about the King James Bible and far more.


How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …

Agabus CoverDEFENDING AGABUS AS A NEW TESTAMENT PROPHET: A Content-Based Study of His Predictions In Acts by Sung Cho

Agabus is a mysterious prophetic figure that appears only twice in the book of Acts. Though his role is minor, he is a significant figure in a great debate between cessationists and continualists. On one side are those who believe that the gift of prophecy is on par with the inspired Scriptures, infallible, and has ceased. On the other side are those who define it as fallible and non-revelatory speech that continues today in the life of the church. Proponents of both camps attempt to claim …

WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIEWHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIE?: Should You Be Afraid of Death or of People Who Have Died?

People grow old, get sick, and die. Even some children die. Should you be afraid of death or of anybody who has died? Do you know what happens if we die? Will you ever see your dead loved ones again? “If a man dies, shall he live again?” asked the man Job long ago. (Job 14:14) Did God originally intend for humans to die? Why do you grow old and die? What is the Bible’s viewpoint of death? What is the condition of the dead? Are the dead aware of what is happening around them? What hope is there for the dead?


Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …


Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses: Examining the History of the Watchtower Translation and the Latest Revision

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses is going to challenge your objectivity. Being objective means that personal feelings or opinions do not influence you in considering and representing facts. Being subjective means that your understanding is based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or ideas. If the reader finds these insights offense, it might be a little mind control at work from years of being told the same misinformation repeatedly, so ponder things objectively …

REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES: Sharing CHRIST as You Help Others to Learn about the Mighty works of God

Use of REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES should help you to cultivate the ability to reason from the Scriptures and to use them effectively in assisting others to learn about “the mighty works of God.” – Acts 2:11. If Christians are going to be capable, powerful, efficient teachers of God’s Word, we must not only pay attention to what we tell those who are interested but also how we tell them. Yes, we must focus our attention on…

REASONING WITH THE WORLD’S VARIOUS RELIGIONS: Examining and Evangelizing Other Faiths

God’s will is that “all sorts of men should be saved and come to an accurate knowledge of truth.” (1 Tim. 2:4) God has assigned all Christians the task of proclaiming the Word of God, teaching, to make disciples. (Matt. 24:15; 28:19-20: Ac 1;8 That includes men and women who profess a non-Christian religion, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam to mention just a few. If there are Hindus, Buddhist or Muslims are in your community, why not initiate a conversation with them? Christians who take the Great Commission seriously cannot afford to ignore these religions…

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

FLEECING THE FLOCK_03FLEECING THE FLOCK: Setting the People of God Free From the Lies of Tithing

Evangelist Norman Robertson claims that “Tithing is God’s way of financing His kingdom on the earth.” He asserts that “It is His system of economics which enables the Gospel to be preached.” Not bashful about telling his followers of their duty to give, he flatly states: ‘Tithing isn’t something you do because you can afford it. It is an act of obedience. Not tithing is a clear violation of God’s commandments. It is embezzlement.’ Most likely you accept that giving should be part of Christian worship. However, …

Deception In the ChurchDECEPTION IN THE CHURCH: Does It Matter How You Worship?

DECEPTION IN THE CHURCH by Fred DeRuvo asks Does It Matter How You Worship? There are 41,000 different denominations that call themselves “Christian” and all would claim that they are the truth. Can just any Christian denomination please God? Can all be true or genuine Christianity if they all have different views on the same Bible doctrines? DeRuvo will answer. He will focus on the largest part of Christianity that has many different denominations, the charismatic, ecstatic Signs and Wonders Movements. These ecstatic worshipers claim … DeRuvo will answer all these questions and more according to the truth of God’s Word.—John 8:31-32; 17:17.

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …


church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …


Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT The Christian Worldview

An Encouraging Thought elucidates the ways in which Tolkien’s The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are informed by and communicate a biblical worldview. This book will help readers appreciate the ways in which a biblical worldview informs Tolkien’s work, to the end that their own faith may be confirmed in strength, focused in understanding, deepened in joy, and honed in its ability to communicate the Gospel.

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Daily Devotionals


Young ones and teens, you are exposed to complex problems that your parents may not understand. Young Christians, you are bombarded with multiple options for solving everyday problems through social media. Where do you turn to find answers? Where can you look to find guidance from Scripture? In order to provide a Christian perspective to problem-solving, the author of this devotional book decided to take a different approach.


This devotional book follows the author’s own faith journey back to God. Significant life events can shake our world and distort our faith. Following life’s tragedies, a common reaction is to become angry with God or to reject Him altogether. Examples of tragedies or traumas include life-changing events such as physical or sexual assault, destruction of one’s home, the tragic death of a loved one, diagnoses of terminal diseases, divorce, miscarriages, or being a victim of a crime. Tragedies or traumas can cause feelings of anxiety, depression, shame, and guilt.


Throughout the book, common themes emerge to support caregivers. The reader will find interesting Bible Scriptures, offering a Christian perspective, for handling issues that may arise. These inspiring passages will assist the caregiver in finding peace and faith as they travel their journey as a caregiver. Although caregivers may not know how long they will play this role, they take on the responsibility without any question. Taking care of others is often mentioned in the Bible and, as noted in this devotional, this self-sacrificing, highly valued, and often challenging service will ultimately be rewarded.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL Daily Musings From the Old Testament

Humans must breathe in the air of our atmosphere to survive. Many cities because of pollution face a dangerous level of contamination in their air. However, an even more deadly air affects both Christians and nonChristians. Ordinary methods or devices cannot detect this poisonous air.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musing From the New Testament

Paul counseled, “Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth.” (Col. 3:2) It is, for this reason, Marshall has penned the DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musings From the New Testament, which can help us be protected against Satan’s efforts at controlling our mind and heart.  For each day of the year, DAILY DEVOTIONAL provides a Daily Bible Reading and comments for consideration.

BREAD OF HEAVEN: Daily Meditations on Scripture

BREAD OF HEAVEN helps the reader to have a greater understanding of the timeless truths of Scripture and a deeper appreciation of the grandeur of God. It offers meditations on selected Scriptures which will draw the reader’s attention upwards to the Savior.

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …


Rachael Garrison knows all the shrewd ways to successfully close multi-million-dollar real estate deals with her father’s famous New York real estate enterprise. But beyond her savvy to rake in huge deals is her premonition that an impending global takeover of the world’s financial wealth is on the horizon by evil leaders of The Great Ten Nations. From New York City to the Irish Hills of Michigan, and into the streets of Detroit her life takes on enormous purpose as

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[50] Uncial is a letter of the kind used in Greek and Latin manuscripts written between the 3rd and 10th centuries that is similar to a modern capital letter, but more rounded. I use “uncial” because it has been the common term, and out of personal habit; “majuscule” is preferred by many textual critics.

[51] Metzger, Bruce M. (1992). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (in English) (3rd ed.). New York – Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 7-8.


[53] “That the famous Syrus Sinaiticus contains not only the Old Syriac Gospels, but also other palimpsest leaves, among them four leaves of a Greek codex of John’s Gospel, is not a secret. Nevertheless, for 120 years, this Greek fragment, though probably contemporary with the great uncials, was not registered in any list of NT manuscripts and, as a result, completely neglected.” –



[56] When Were our Gospels Written? – Christian Classics .., (accessed March 28, 2016).

[57] Aland, Kurt; Barbara Aland (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, trans. Erroll F. Rhodes. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 107.

[58]  James H. Ropes, “Vol. III: The Text of Acts,” The Beginnings of Christianity, Part I: Acts of the Apostles, ed. F. J. Foakes Jackson and Kirsopp Lake (London: Macmillan, 1926), p. xlviii.

[59] Westcott and Hort, Introduction to the New Testament in the Original Greek, 246–47.

[60] Tregelles, Samuel Prideaux (1856). An Introduction to the Critical study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures. London. p. 152.

[61] In 1875 Scrivener called it, “[t]his celebrated manuscript, by far the best deposited in England”. Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1875). Six Lectures on the Text of the New Testament and the Ancient Manuscripts which contain it. London: Deighton, Bell & Co. p. 51.

[62] Digitized Manuscripts — British Library … –, (accessed April 11, 2016).

[63] Bruce M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Greek Palaeography (Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 1991), 86.

[64] Ibid., 86.

[65] Bruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (3rd ed.) (Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 1992), 47.

[66] Kurt Aland; Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, trans. Erroll F. Rhodes (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995), 109.

[67] Ibid. 47

[68] Paul D. Wegner, A Student’s Guide to Textual Criticism of the Bible: Its History Methods & Results (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2006), 260.

[69] Bruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (4th ed.) (Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 1992), 67.

[70] Ibid. 48.

[71] Constantin von Tischendorf, Editio octava critica maior, ed. C. R. Gregory (Lipsiae 1884), 360.

[72] Kurt Aland; Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, trans. Erroll F. Rhodes (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995), 109.

[73] H.J.M. Milne & T.C. Skeat, “Scribes and Correctors” (British Museum: London 1938).

[74] Bruce M. Metzger; Bart D. Ehrman, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (4th ed.) (Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 1992), 68.

[75] David C. Parker, Codex Bezae: An Early Christian Manuscript and its Text, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ss. 35-43, 123-163.