Greek Minuscule Manuscripts of the New Testament

Please Help Us Keep These Thousands of Blog Posts Growing and Free for All

$5.00

By Unknown - Codex Harleianus 5776, Public Domain
By Unknown – Codex Harleianus 5776, Public Domain https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7742242
Edward D. Andrews
EDWARD D. ANDREWS (AS in Criminal Justice, BS in Religion, MA in Biblical Studies, and MDiv in Theology) is CEO and President of Christian Publishing House. He has authored ninety-two books. Andrews is the Chief Translator of the Updated American Standard Version (UASV).

The minuscule script was a style of Greek writing used as a book hand during the ninth and tenth centuries in Byzantine manuscripts. The minuscule took the place of the Greek uncial, third to the ninth centuries C.E. that resembles a modern capital letter but is more rounded. The minuscule differed from the uncial in that it used smaller letters, which were more round and more connected letters, as well as a large number of ligatures. Most of the minuscules were written on parchment. It was not until the twelfth century that paper began to be used. These forms came about through earlier informal cursive writing. There are at present 2,9336 minuscule texts, made in a running style of writing. These were written during the period from the ninth-century C.E. to the inception of the printing press in 1455. The following is a chart showing the differences between the letter formats.

Chart 01

Important Minuscule Manuscripts

Family 1

Kirsopp Lake c. 1914
Kirsopp Lake c. 1914

Family 1 was discovered in 1902 when Kirsopp Lake (1872–1946) identified this text family, which included 1, 118, 131, 209. Family 1 is a group of Greek manuscripts of the gospels, dating from the 12th to the 15th century. It is symbolized as f1; however, it is also known as “the Lake Group.” Textual scholars now consider 205, 205abs, 872 (Mark only), 884 (in part), 1582, 2193, and 2542 (in part) to be members of Family 1. Metzger says that after analyzing the Gospel of Mark, indications are that this family often agrees with Codex Koridethi, also named Codex Coridethianus, designated by Θ, 038, or Theta (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), going back to the type of text in Caesarea in the third and fourth centuries.[78] Dutch scholar Desiderius Erasmus used manuscript 1 along with a handful of others to produce the first Greek New Testament.

Minuscule_1_(GA)_f_265_v
Minuscule_1_(GA)_f_265_v

Family 1 or the Lake Group of manuscripts placed the interpolation story of the Adulteress, also known as the Pericope Adulterae (John 7:53-8:11), after John 21:25. It is a later addition to the Gospel John and not a part of the original. Family 1 also includes the longer ending of Mark (16:9-20), which is also a second-century addition. Additional evidence against the long conclusion of Mark’s Gospel is the fact that manuscripts 1 and 1582 contain a scholion (scribal note) that brings into question its authenticity: Εν τισι μεν των αντιγραφων εως ωδε πληρουται ο ευαγγελιστης εως ου και Ευσεβιος ο Παμφιλου εκανονισεν εν πολλοις δε και ταυτα φερεται. (“In some of the copies, the evangelist is fulfilled until here, until which point also Eusebius Pamphili made his canons. But in many these [following] things also are extant.”)[79]

Please Support the Bible Translation Work for the Updated American Standard Version (UASV) http://www.uasvbible.org

$5.00

Family 13

Minuscule 13 Ending of Mark
Minuscule 13 Ending of Mark

In 1868, William Ferrar of Dublin University discovered four manuscripts belonging to the same text type or family, which include 13, 69, 124, and 346. Because 13 was the first manuscript, the group became known as family 13 (f13); however, it is also known as the Ferrar Group, which now include 13, 69, 124, 230, 346, 543, 788, 826, 828, 983, 1689, and 1709, dating between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries.[80] This family exhibits unique variant readings, such as placing the story of the adulterous woman (John 7:53-8:11) after Luke 21:38, or elsewhere in Luke’s Gospel rather than in the Gospel of John. The text of Luke 22:43-44 is placed after Matthew 26:39. The text of Matthew 16:2b–3 is absent. Barbara Aland, Klaus Wachtel and others at the Institute for New Testament Textual Research (Institut für Neutestamentliche Textforschung, INTF) suggest that some of these manuscripts from family 13 (Ferrar Group) are more comparable to the majority Byzantine Text, and, therefore, should not be included in this family at all.

BIBLE DIFFICULTIES
Abbot's facsimile with the text of Luke 7.35-40
Abbot’s facsimile with the text of Luke 7:35-40

Minuscule 16

This is a Diglot of Greek-Latin in the minuscule script of the New Testament on 361 parchment leaves, dated paleographically to the 14th century.[81] The minuscule is about 12.4 by 9.9 inches (31.6 cm by 25.2 cm). It has full notes written in the margin (i.e., marginalia) and was arranged for liturgical use. Minuscule 16 was “written in four different colors: the narrative in vermilion, the words of Jesus and angels in crimson, Old Testament quotes and the words of the disciples in blue, and the words of the Pharisees, the centurion, Judas Iscariot, and Satan in black. Presently the manuscript is housed in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.”[82] The four gospels are almost complete within the text. However, it has lacunae (gaps in the text) in Mark 16:14-20. Minuscule 16 is written in two columns per page, 26 lines per page.[83] The Greek portion of the text is mixed, but it is largely the Byzantine text-type.

Please Help Us Keep These Thousands of Blog Posts Free for All

$5.00

Minuscule 28

The manuscript contains the text of the four Gospels on 292 parchment leaves. It is about 9.09 by 7.4 inches (31.6 cm by 25.2 cm), dated by paleographers to the eleventh century C.E., with numerous lacunae. The text is written in one column per page, 19 lines per page.[84] The words are continuous without any separation. Metzger would agree that the letters were “written carelessly by an ignorant scribe;”[85] however, he goes on to say that it “contains many noteworthy readings, especially in Mark, where its text is akin to the Caesarean type,”[86] and the Byzantine text-type in the rest of the Gospels. The initial letters of minuscule 28 are in color. The Alands placed it in Category V.[87]

Minuscule 33

 

Minuscule 33
Minuscule 33 from the end of Romans. – (Wegner, A Student’s Guide to Textual Criticism of the Bible: Its History Methods & Results 2006, 265)

Wegner says, the “text of this manuscript (33) is very similar to that of Codex Vaticanus, and since the time of Johann G. Eichhorn in the early nineteenth century, it has been nicknamed ‘the Queen of the Cursives.’”[88] Minuscule 33 contains some of the Prophets of the Old Testament, as well as the entire New Testament minus the book of Revelation by John. It contains 143 parchment leaves. It is about 14.8 by 9.8 inches (31.6 cm by 25.2 cm), having one column per page with lines ranging from 48-52. It is dated by paleographers to the nine century C.E., with three lacunae in the Gospel of Mark and the Gospel of Luke (Mark 9:31-11:11; 13:11-14:60; Luke 21:38-23:26).[89] Metzger says that 33 is an excellent representative of the Alexandrian type of text, but it also shows the influence of the Koine or Byzantine type, particularly in Acts and the Pauline epistles.”[90] The text is divided into chapters, with the numbers given in the margins, as well as chapter titles at the top of the pages. The order of books is as follows: the Gospels, Acts, James, First and Second Peter, First, Second, and Third John, Jude, Romans, First and Second Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, First and Second Thessalonians, Hebrews, First and Second Timothy, Titus and Philemon, but the book of Revelation missing. The book of Romans ends as follows, 16:23; 16:25-27; 16:24, similar to Codex Porphyrianus and minuscules 104, 256, 263, 365, 436, 459, 1319, 1573, and 1852.

The Reading Culture of Early Christianity From Spoken Words to Sacred Texts 400,000 Textual Variants 02

Minuscule 61

Codex Montfortianus, also known as minuscule 61, is a minuscule Greek manuscript of the New Testament on paper. It is dated to about 1520 and is now at the Trinity College, Dublin. Minuscule 61 contains the entire New Testament. It has one column per page, 21 lines per page, on 455 paper leaves. It is about 6.2 by 4.7 inches (15.8 cm by 12 cm). The Gospels and Acts are of the Byzantine text-type, which the Alands place in Category V. It is a mixed text in the Pauline epistles and General epistles, placed in Category III.

Minuscule 69 (GA) 14b
Minuscule 69 (GA) 14b

Minuscule 69

Codex Leicester or Codex Leicestrensis, also known as minuscule 69, is a minuscule Greek manuscript of the New Testament on paper and parchment leaves (91 parchments and 122 paper). It is dated to the 15th century and is now at Leicester, in the East Midlands of England. Minuscule 69 contains the entire New Testament with four lacunae (Matthew 1:1-18:15; Acts 10:45-14:17; Jude 7-25; Revelation 19:10-22:21), on 213 leaves, about 14.9 by 10.6 inches (37.8 cm by 27 cm). The Gospels are of the Caesarean text-type (Category III), the rest of the books being of a Byzantine text-type (Category V).

Minuscule 81

Minuscule 81 is a minuscule Greek manuscript of the New Testament on parchment. It is dated to 1044 and is now at the British Library in Alexandria. It is about 7.09 by 5.0 inches (18 cm by 12.6 cm). Minuscule 81 contains almost a complete text of the book of Acts and the Epistles on 282 parchment leaves, with some lacunae (Acts 4:8-7:17; 17:28-23:9), having one column per page, 23 lines per page, in small letters. The Alands place it in Category II, of the Alexandrian text-type, with some Byzantine readings. Metzger says, “It is one of the most important of all minuscule manuscripts.”[91]

Mosaic Authorship HOW RELIABLE ARE THE GOSPELS
Minuscule 157
Minuscule 157

Minuscule 157

Minuscule 157 is a minuscule Greek manuscript of the New Testament on vellum. According to the colophon (i.e. details in books), it is dated to the year 1122, and it is now at the Vatican Library. It contains a complete text of the four Gospels on 325 parchment leaves, having one column per page, 22 lines per page, about 7.3 by 5.4 inches (18.6 cm by 13.6 cm). Its readings often agree with Codex Bezae. However, it is a mixture of text-types with a strong Alexandrian element. The Alands placed it in Category III. At the end of each Gospel, it is stated that it was written in 1122. It was penned “for the Emperor John II Comnenus (1118-43).”[92]

Please Help Us Keep These Thousands of Blog Posts Growing and Free for All

$5.00

SCROLL THROUGH DIFFERENT CATEGORIES BELOW

BIBLE TRANSLATION AND TEXTUAL CRITICISM

4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUS The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2
The Reading Culture of Early Christianity From Spoken Words to Sacred Texts 400,000 Textual Variants 02
The P52 PROJECT THE NEW TESTAMENT DOCUMENTS 4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUS
APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot APOSTOLIC FATHERS
English Bible Versions King James Bible KING JAMES BIBLE II
9781949586121 BIBLE DIFFICULTIES THE NEW TESTAMENT DOCUMENTS

BIBLICAL STUDIES / INTERPRETATION

CALVINISM VS. ARMINIANISM
How to Interpret the Bible-1 INTERPRETING THE BIBLE how-to-study-your-bible1
israel against all odds ISRAEL AGAINST ALL ODDS - Vol. II

EARLY CHRISTIANITY

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST by Stalker-1 The TRIAL and Death of Jesus_02 THE LIFE OF Paul by Stalker-1
BIBLE DIFFICULTIES
THE LIFE OF Paul by Stalker-1 Paul PAUL AND LUKE ON TRIAL
APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot APOSTOLIC FATHERS I AM John 8.58

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM

PAUL AND LUKE ON TRIAL THE NEW TESTAMENT DOCUMENTS BIBLE DIFFICULTIES
The Epistle to the Hebrews Paul PAUL AND LUKE ON TRIAL
REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES APOLOGETICS CONVERSATION EVANGELISM
AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT_01
Young Christians
INVESTIGATING JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation INVESTIGATING JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES
Jesus Paul THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK
REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES REASONING WITH OTHER RELIGIONS APOLOGETICS
REASONABLE FAITH Why Me_ FEARLESS-1
Satan BLESSED IN SATAN'S WORLD_02 HEROES OF FAITH - ABEL
is-the-quran-the-word-of-god UNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM THE GUIDE TO ANSWERING ISLAM.png
DEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP Agabus Cover BIBLICAL CRITICISM
Mosaic Authorship HOW RELIABLE ARE THE GOSPELS
THE CREATION DAYS OF GENESIS gift of prophecy

TECHNOLOGY

9798623463753 Machinehead KILLER COMPUTERS
INTO THE VOID

CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY

Explaining the Doctrine of the Last Things Understaning Creation Account
Homosexuality and the Christian second coming Cover Where Are the Dead
CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY Vol. CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY Vol. II CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY Vol. III
CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY Vol. IV CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY Vol. V MIRACLES
Human Imperfection HUMILITY

CHILDREN’S BOOKS

READ ALONG WITH ME READ ALONG WITH ME READ ALONG WITH ME

PRAYER

Powerful Weapon of Prayer Power Through Prayer How to Pray_Torrey_Half Cover-1

TEENS-YOUTH-ADOLESCENCE-JUVENILE

THERE IS A REBEL IN THE HOUSE thirteen-reasons-to-keep-living_021 Waging War - Heather Freeman
Young Christians DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS 40 day devotional (1)
Homosexuality and the Christian THE OUTSIDER RENEW YOUR MIND

CHRISTIAN LIVING

GODLY WISDOM SPEAKS Wives_02 HUSBANDS - Love Your Wives
ADULTERY 9781949586053
WALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD THE BATTLE FOR THE CHRISTIAN MIND (1)-1 WAITING ON GOD
ADULTERY 9781949586053 PROMISES OF GODS GUIDANCE
APPLYING GODS WORD-1 For As I Think In My Heart_2nd Edition Put Off the Old Person
Abortion Booklet Dying to Kill The Pilgrim’s Progress
WHY DON'T YOU BELIEVE WAITING ON GOD WORKING FOR GOD
YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE Let God Use You to Solve Your PROBLEMS THE POWER OF GOD
HOW TO OVERCOME YOUR BAD HABITS-1 GOD WILL GET YOU THROUGH THIS A Dangerous Journey
ARTS, MEDIA, AND CULTURE Christians and Government Christians and Economics

CHRISTIAN COMMENTARIES

Book of Philippians Book of James Book of Proverbs Book of Esther
CHRISTIAN DEVOTIONALS
40 day devotional (1) Daily Devotional_NT_TM Daily_OT
DEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERS DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS DEVOTIONAL FOR TRAGEDY
DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS 40 day devotional (1)

CHURCH ISSUES, GROWTH, AND HISTORY

LEARN TO DISCERN Deception In the Church FLEECING THE FLOCK_03
The Church Community_02 THE CHURCH CURE Developing Healthy Churches
FIRST TIMOTHY 2.12 EARLY CHRISTIANITY-1

Apocalyptic-Eschatology [End Times]

Explaining the Doctrine of the Last Things Identifying the AntiChrist second coming Cover
ANGELS AMERICA IN BIBLE PROPHECY_ ezekiel, daniel, & revelation

CHRISTIAN FICTION

Oren Natas_JPEG Sentient-Front Seekers and Deceivers
Judas Diary 02 Journey PNG The Rapture

[79] Kirsopp Lake, Codex 1 of the Gospels and its Allies, Texts and Studies 1902, s. 92.

[80] Bruce M. Metzger; Bart D. Ehrman, The Text of the New Testament:  Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (fourth Ed.), (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 87.

[81] Aland, K.; M. Welte; B. Köster; K. Junack (1994). Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments (2 ed.). Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 47.

[82] Paul D. Wegner, A Student’s Guide to Textual Criticism of the Bible: Its History, Methods and Results, (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2006), p. 266.

[83] Liste; Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 05-09-2016.

[84] Ibid.

[85] Frederick Henry Ambrose Scrivener; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 194.

[86] Bruce M. Metzger; Bart D. Ehrman, The Text of the New Testament:  Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (fourth Ed.), (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 87.

[87] Kurt Aland; Barbara Aland (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 129.

[88] Paul D. Wegner, A Student’s Guide to Textual Criticism of the Bible: Its History, Methods and Results, (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2006), p. 266.

[89] Caspar René Gregory, (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testamentes. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. p. 136.

[90] Bruce M. Metzger; Bart D. Ehrman, The Text of the New Testament:  Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (fourth Ed.), (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 88.

[91] Ibid. 86

[92] Ibid. 86

Leave a Reply

Powered by WordPress.com.

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: