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Edward D. Andrews

220px Uncial 0177 with the text of Luke 1.59-73

Uncial 0177 with the text of Luke 1:59-73

The codex contains a small part of the Gospel of Luke 1:73-2:7 (Greek) and Luke 1:59-73 (Coptic), on one parchment leaf (36 cm by 27.5 cm). It is written in two columns per page, 36 lines per page, in uncial letters. The parchment is ivory colored. The nomina sacra are written in an abbreviated way. The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Western text-type. It contains many scribal peculiarities. Kurt Aland placed it in Category IICurrently, it is dated by the INTF to the 10th-century. The codex currently is housed at the Austrian National Library (Pap. K. 2698) in Vienna.

THE EARLY CHRISTIAN COPYISTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Making and Copying of the New Testament Books by Edward D. Andrews

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The earliest translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures were into Syriac, Latin, and Coptic. As Christianity spread, of course, other versions would have been required. Even though Greek was very much used in Egypt, in time, the need to have a translation in the native language of the growing Egyptian Christian population would come. Coptic was a later form of the ancient Egyptian language. In the late first or early second century C.E., a Coptic alphabet was developed using somewhat modified Greek letters (majuscules and seven characters from the demotic,[1] representing Egyptian sounds the Greek language did not have). At least by the end of the second or the beginning of the third century (c. 200 C.E.), the first translation of parts of the New Testament had been produced for the Coptic natives of Egypt. Various Coptic dialects were used in Egypt, and in time, various Coptic versions were made. The most important in the study of the early New Testament are the Sahidic Version of Upper Egypt (i.e., the South) and the Bohairic Version of Lower Egypt (i.e., the North).

The Sahidic copsa (Southern Egypt) All NT; fourth-fifth century Sahidic

The Sahidic Coptic, designated by (copsa) is a fourth-fifth-century Coptic manuscript of all of the New Testament. The first translation of parts of the New Testament into the Sahidic dialect was made by the end of the second or the beginning of the third century (c. 200 C.E.) in Upper Egypt, where Greek was not understood that well. The evidence suggests, when comparing the different Sahidic texts, that throughout the third and into the fourth century different translators worked on different parts of the New Testament. Almost the entire Sahidic New Testament is available in extant manuscripts, made up of completed codices and many fragments from the fourth century and later. Generally speaking, the Sahidic agrees with the Alexandrian text-type, with many Western readings being found in the Gospels and Acts. The books of the NT are in the following order: the Gospels (John, Matthew, Mark, and Luke), the Pauline epistles, with Hebrews between 2 Corinthians and Galatians, the general epistles,[2] Acts, and the book of Revelation.[3]

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism by Don Wilkins and Edward D. Andrews

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Matthew 15:6: he need not honor his father at all.’ So you have made the word of God invalid because of your tradition.

The WH NU has οὐ μὴ τιμήσει τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ has “by no means does he [have to] honor his father” and is support by א B D ita,e syrc copsa, which is found in the ASV, RSV, NRSV, ESV, NAB, NLT, CSB, and the UASV. Variant 1/TR adds η την μητερα αυτου (“or his mother”) and is supported by C L W Θ 0106 f1 Maj, which is found in the KJV, NKJV, NASB, TNIV, NEB, REB, and the NJB. Variant 2 adds η την μητερα (“or the [his] mother”) and is supported by 073 f13 33, which is found in no translations. Variant 3 adds και την μητερα αυτου (“and his mother”) and is supported by Φ 565 copbo, which is found in no translations.

Clearly, the shorter reading in WH NU has the superior external manuscript support, where variants 1-3 are simply a scribe expanding the short reading to make it agree with Matthew 15:4-5, which contains both father and mother. There is the lesser possibility that the phrase “or his mother” was accidentally omitted because of the similarity what preceded it (τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ) or even deliberately remove for “stylistic suppression of one element in a frequently repeated phrase”[4] as Metzger put it. However, these internal arguments do not outweigh the quality testimony of the external witnesses.

Luke 4:17: 17 And the scroll[5] of the prophet Isaiah was given to him. And he unrolled the scroll[6] and found the place where it was written,

The TR NU has ἀναπτύξας τὸ βιβλίον “having unrolled the book [scroll]” and is supported by א (D*) Θ Ψ f1,13 Maj, which is found in the NRSV, ESV, NIV, TNIV, NJB, NAB, NLT, CSB, and the UASV. Variant/WH ανοιξας το βιβλιον has “having opened the book” A B L W Ξ 33, which is found in the KJV, NKJV, ASV, RSV, NASB, NEB, and the REB.

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” {Third Edition] by Edward D. Andrews

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Here the documentary evidence is really divided. Therefore, the internal evidence will have to make our decision as to which was the original reading. The verb in the NU and (א (D*) Θ Ψ f1,13 Maj), αναπτυσσω, is the one generally used for unrolling a scroll.[7] The verb, ανοιξας, in the WH and (A B L W Ξ 33) is a generic term that is used in the sense of ‘opening one’s mouth’ (Matt 5:2; 17:27; Ac 10:34), ‘opening one’s eyes’ (John 11:37), or ‘opening doors’ (Ac 5:19). However, it could also be used for opening a scroll or a codex. When Jesus was in the synagogue in Nazareth, reaching for the scroll or book of Isaiah, it was not a codex, but rather it was a scroll or roll. In the second century and later Christians used codices as opposed to the scrolls. Therefore, it would seem far more likely that a later scribe, who was familiar with a codex, i.e., a book would have changed the verb from “unroll” to “open.” In addition, if we look a few verses down to verse 20, when Jesus is done reading, the account says, Jesus “rolled up [πτυξας][8] the scroll and gave it back to the attendant and sat down …” Here Luke used the antonym “roll up” [πτυξας] of “unrolled” [αναπτυσσω], which has no variants.

John 10:7: So Jesus again said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep.

All documentary evidence reads εγω ειμι η θυρα των προβατων (“I am the door of the sheep”), unquestionably. Among all Greek manuscripts, only P75 reads ο ποιμην των προβατων (“the shepherd of the sheep”) The reading is supported by {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {P}}} copsa copach and copfay.[9] The scribe of P75 is known for his due diligence in his unyielding practice of copying his exemplar identically. It would seem that, in this instance, he has abandoned his exemplar. If so, he likely thought that his exemplar must have been mistaken. This would mean that a scribe known for a word for word copying of his exemplar, was here thinking about what he was writing, thinking that Jesus was the shepherd of the sheep, which may have seemed to make no sense to have said, “I am the door,” as opposed to “I am the shepherd.” A few verses earlier in John 10:2, Jesus said, “But the one who enters by the door is the shepherd of the sheep.” Whereas Jesus was the shepherd who went through the door in verse 2: rather, now he is the door in verse 7. Jesus’ likening himself to such a figurative door is in harmony with the fact that by way of his ransom sacrifice, sheep (disciples) can be saved and gain like.–John 14:6.

Acts 27:37: 37 And all of us souls in the ship were two hundred and seventy-six.

The TR NU have διακοσιαι εβδομηκοντα εξ (“two hundred seventy-six”) and is supported by א C Ψ 33 1739 syrp,h copbo, which is found in all the English translations. Variant 1 has διακοσιαι εβδομηκοντα πεντε (“two hundred seventy-five”) and is supported by A. Variant 2/WH has ως εβδομηκοντα εξ (“about seventy-six”) and is supported by B copsa. Variant 3 has εβδομηκοντα εξ (“seventy-six”) and is supported by 69.

The reading in the TR NU has good witnesses and is the original reading. The scribe of variant 1 simply rounded the number off. The scribe for variant 2 in B and copsa (“about seventy-six”) made a slip-up by joining the final Omega, ω, of the preceding πλοιω, with the next letter, Sigma, ς, which stands for 200, to form ως (“about”). Metzger writes, “In Greek the letter sigma may stand for the numeral 200, and omicron for 70; the letter digamma (or stigma) is 6.”[10] Both comfort and Metzger rightly mention that ως (“about”) would not go before an exact number. Variant 3 is simply a result of Variant 2. They were sailing on “a [grain] ship from Alexandria,” which regularly brought agricultural products between Alexandria, Egypt, and Rome. It was common for such a high number of people to travel on such a ship.

1 Corinthians 15:47: 47 The first man is from the earth and made of dust; the second man is from heaven.

The WH NU has ὁ δεύτερος ἄνθρωπος ἐξ οὐρανοῦ “the second man is from heaven” and is supported by א* B C D* 0243 33 1739* copbo, which is found in the ASV, RSV, ESV, NASB, LEB, CSB and the UASV. Variant 1 has ο δευτερος ο κυριος εξ ουρανου “the second, the Lord from heaven” and is supported by 630 Marcion, which is found in no translations. Variant 2/TR has ο δευτερος ανθρωπος ο κυριος εξ ουρανου “the second man, the Lord from heaven” and is supported by א2 A D1 Ψ 075 1739mg Maj syr, which is found in the KJV, NKJV and the CSB footnote. Variant 3 has ο δευτερος ανθρωπος πνευματικος εξ ουρανου “the second man, a spiritual one from heaven” and is supported by P46, which is found in no translations. Variant 4 has ο δευτερος ανθρωπος εξ ουρανου ο ουρανιος “the second man, the heavenly one from heaven” and is supported by F G, which is found in no translations.

The reading that all of the variants are derived from is ὁ δεύτερος ἄνθρωπος ἐξ οὐρανοῦ “the second man is from heaven” and it is supported by weighty and early witnesses that represent several text-types. All of the scribes from each of the variants were simply trying to qualify just what kind of man Jesus was. Marcion dealt with the issues by ignoring it, he simply removed “man” and replaced it with “Lord.”

The Bohairic copbo (Northern Egypt) All NT; ninth century Bohairic

The Bohairic Coptic, designated by (copbo) is a fourth-fifth-century Coptic manuscript of all of the New Testament. The Bohairic Coptic dialect of Lower (Northern) Egypt version (Near Alexandria and in the delta region) was made a little later than the Sahidic version. The reason being, the Greek language was more prominent in Lower Egypt; thus, the need for a translation into the common language was not immediately needed. A very literal translation was made in the beginning of the third century C.E. The Bohairic translation was influenced by several factors, which would include the other dialects, primarily Sahidic and Fayyumic (Central Egypt). Most of the more than one hundred Bohairic are from the ninth-century and later. This, initially, move some scholars to suggest that the Bohairic version dated no earlier than the seventh or eighth century. However, some manuscripts go back to the fourth and fifth centuries (Codex Bodmer III)

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

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Middle Egypt obviously falls between Northern and Southern Egypt. The only witnesses that have survived of the Akhmimic and Fayyumic versions are mere fragments. The Schøyen Codex, a papyrus manuscript contains the Gospel of Matthew and is dated to the early fourth century. It is the earliest copy of Matthew in any Coptic dialect. Codex Glazier contains Acts 1:1-15:3 and is housed at the Pierpont Morgan Library. It is textually very close to Greek Codex Bezae. It is dated to the fourth or fifth century. P. Mich. inv. 3521 (Inventory Number) is a Gospel of John in Fayyumic, dating to about 325 C.E.

  • copfay (Fayyumic) John; 4th–5th c.
  • copach (Akhmimic) John; James; 4th c.
  • copach2 (Subakhmimic) John; 4th c.
  • copG67 (a Middle Egyptian MS) Acts; 5th c.
  • copmae (Middle Egyptian) Matthew; 4th–5th c.

The great quality of the Sahidic and Bohairic versions make these very important. Christian was early to Egypt with the good news and we are very fortunate that the Egyptian Christians preserved an early form of the text. The Sahidic and Bohairic versions have the same text type that is found in the Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, which have long been the top trusted manuscripts.

Locations of the Origins of Versions

(Wegner 2006, p. 271) Location of the Origins of the Versions

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THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's "Misquoting Jesus" [Third Edition]MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …

DEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in RevelationDEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in Revelation

church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …

JOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK: Experience the Ministry of Jesus in a Spiritually Captivating WayJOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK

Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] Demotic is a simplified form of Egyptian hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics is a writing system that uses symbols or pictures to denote objects, concepts, or sounds.

[2] The epistle of James, the first epistle of Peter, the second epistle of Peter, the first epistle of John, the second epistle of John, the third epistle of John, and the epistle of Jude.

[3] Verses that have been omitted are: Matthew 12:47; Matthew 16:2b-3; 17:21; 18:11; 23:14; Mark 9:44.46; 11:26; 15:28; Luke 17:36; 22:43-44; John 5:4; 7:53-8:11; Acts 8:37; 15:34; 24:7; 28:29; Romans 16:24.

[4] Bruce Manning Metzger, United Bible Societies, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (4th Rev. Ed.) (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994), 31.

[5] Or a roll

[6] Or roll

[7] William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker, and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 71.

[8] IBID, 895.

[9] Eberhard Nestle and Erwin Nestle, Nestle-Aland: NTG Apparatus Criticus, ed. Barbara Aland et al., 28. revidierte Auflage. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012), 332.

[10] Bruce Manning Metzger, United Bible Societies, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (4th Rev. Ed.) (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994).

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