THE EARLY CHRISTIAN COPYISTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT MISREPRESENTING JESUS_Third Edition The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2

Edward D. Andrews, Chief Translator of the Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

220px Uncial 0177 with the text of Luke 1.59-73

Uncial 0177 with the text of Luke 1:59-73

The codex contains a small part of the Gospel of Luke 1:73-2:7 (Greek) and Luke 1:59-73 (Coptic), on one parchment leaf (36 cm by 27.5 cm). It is written in two columns per page, 36 lines per page, in uncial letters. The parchment is ivory colored. The nomina sacra are written in an abbreviated way. The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Western text-type. It contains many scribal peculiarities. Kurt Aland placed it in Category IICurrently, it is dated by the INTF to the 10th-century. The codex currently is housed at the Austrian National Library (Pap. K. 2698) in Vienna.

The earliest translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures were into Syriac, Latin, and Coptic. As Christianity spread, of course, other versions would have been required. Even though Greek was very much used in Egypt, in time, the need to have a translation in the native language of the growing Egyptian Christian population would come. Coptic was a later form of the ancient Egyptian language. In the late first or early second century C.E., a Coptic alphabet was developed using somewhat modified Greek letters (majuscules and seven characters from the demotic,[1] representing Egyptian sounds the Greek language did not have). At least by the end of the second or the beginning of the third century (c. 200 C.E.), the first translation of parts of the New Testament had been produced for the Coptic natives of Egypt. Various Coptic dialects were used in Egypt, and in time, various Coptic versions were made. The most important in the study of the early New Testament are the Sahidic Version of Upper Egypt (i.e., the South) and the Bohairic Version of Lower Egypt (i.e., the North).

The Sahidic copsa (Southern Egypt) All NT; fourth-fifth century Sahidic

The Sahidic Coptic, designated by (copsa) is a fourth-fifth-century Coptic manuscript of all of the New Testament. The first translation of parts of the New Testament into the Sahidic dialect was made by the end of the second or the beginning of the third century (c. 200 C.E.) in Upper Egypt, where Greek was not understood that well. The evidence suggests, when comparing the different Sahidic texts, that throughout the third and into the fourth century different translators worked on different parts of the New Testament. Almost the entire Sahidic New Testament is available in extant manuscripts, made up of completed codices and many fragments from the fourth century and later. Generally speaking, the Sahidic agrees with the Alexandrian text-type, with many Western readings being found in the Gospels and Acts. The books of the NT are in the following order: the Gospels (John, Matthew, Mark, and Luke), the Pauline epistles, with Hebrews between 2 Corinthians and Galatians, the general epistles,[2] Acts, and the book of Revelation.[3]

is-the-quran-the-word-of-god UNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM Guide to Islam-2 REASONING WITH OTHER RELIGIONS

Matthew 15:6: he need not honor his father at all.’ So you have made the word of God invalid because of your tradition.

The WH NU has οὐ μὴ τιμήσει τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ has “by no means does he [have to] honor his father” and is support by א B D ita,e syrc copsa, which is found in the ASV, RSV, NRSV, ESV, NAB, NLT, CSB, and the UASV. Variant 1/TR adds η την μητερα αυτου (“or his mother”) and is supported by C L W Θ 0106 f1 Maj, which is found in the KJV, NKJV, NASB, TNIV, NEB, REB, and the NJB. Variant 2 adds η την μητερα (“or the [his] mother”) and is supported by 073 f13 33, which is found in no translations. Variant 3 adds και την μητερα αυτου (“and his mother”) and is supported by Φ 565 copbo, which is found in no translations.

Clearly, the shorter reading in WH NU has the superior external manuscript support, where variants 1-3 are simply a scribe expanding the short reading to make it agree with Matthew 15:4-5, which contains both father and mother. There is the lesser possibility that the phrase “or his mother” was accidentally omitted because of the similarity what preceded it (τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ) or even deliberately remove for “stylistic suppression of one element in a frequently repeated phrase”[4] as Metzger put it. However, these internal arguments do not outweigh the quality testimony of the external witnesses.

Luke 4:17: 17 And the scroll[5] of the prophet Isaiah was given to him. And he unrolled the scroll[6] and found the place where it was written,

The TR NU has ἀναπτύξας τὸ βιβλίον “having unrolled the book [scroll]” and is supported by א (D*) Θ Ψ f1,13 Maj, which is found in the NRSV, ESV, NIV, TNIV, NJB, NAB, NLT, CSB, and the UASV. Variant/WH ανοιξας το βιβλιον has “having opened the book” A B L W Ξ 33, which is found in the KJV, NKJV, ASV, RSV, NASB, NEB, and the REB.

REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES APOLOGETICS CONVERSATION EVANGELISM THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK

Here the documentary evidence is really divided. Therefore, the internal evidence will have to make our decision as to which was the original reading. The verb in the NU and (א (D*) Θ Ψ f1,13 Maj), αναπτυσσω, is the one generally used for unrolling a scroll.[7] The verb, ανοιξας, in the WH and (A B L W Ξ 33) is a generic term that is used in the sense of ‘opening one’s mouth’ (Matt 5:2; 17:27; Ac 10:34), ‘opening one’s eyes’ (John 11:37), or ‘opening doors’ (Ac 5:19). However, it could also be used for opening a scroll or a codex. When Jesus was in the synagogue in Nazareth, reaching for the scroll or book of Isaiah, it was not a codex, but rather it was a scroll or roll. In the second century and later Christians used codices as opposed to the scrolls. Therefore, it would seem far more likely that a later scribe, who was familiar with a codex, i.e., a book would have changed the verb from “unroll” to “open.” In addition, if we look a few verses down to verse 20, when Jesus is done reading, the account says, Jesus “rolled up [πτυξας][8] the scroll and gave it back to the attendant and sat down …” Here Luke used the antonym “roll up” [πτυξας] of “unrolled” [αναπτυσσω], which has no variants.

John 10:7: So Jesus again said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep.

All documentary evidence reads εγω ειμι η θυρα των προβατων (“I am the door of the sheep”), unquestionably. Among all Greek manuscripts, only P75 reads ο ποιμην των προβατων (“the shepherd of the sheep”) The reading is supported by {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {P}}} copsa copach and copfay.[9] The scribe of P75 is known for his due diligence in his unyielding practice of copying his exemplar identically. It would seem that, in this instance, he has abandoned his exemplar. If so, he likely thought that his exemplar must have been mistaken. This would mean that a scribe known for a word for word copying of his exemplar, was here thinking about what he was writing, thinking that Jesus was the shepherd of the sheep, which may have seemed to make no sense to have said, “I am the door,” as opposed to “I am the shepherd.” A few verses earlier in John 10:2, Jesus said, “But the one who enters by the door is the shepherd of the sheep.” Whereas Jesus was the shepherd who went through the door in verse 2: rather, now he is the door in verse 7. Jesus’ likening himself to such a figurative door is in harmony with the fact that by way of his ransom sacrifice, sheep (disciples) can be saved and gain like.–John 14:6.

Acts 27:37: 37 And all of us souls in the ship were two hundred and seventy-six.

The TR NU have διακοσιαι εβδομηκοντα εξ (“two hundred seventy-six”) and is supported by א C Ψ 33 1739 syrp,h copbo, which is found in all the English translations. Variant 1 has διακοσιαι εβδομηκοντα πεντε (“two hundred seventy-five”) and is supported by A. Variant 2/WH has ως εβδομηκοντα εξ (“about seventy-six”) and is supported by B copsa. Variant 3 has εβδομηκοντα εξ (“seventy-six”) and is supported by 69.

The reading in the TR NU has good witnesses and is the original reading. The scribe of variant 1 simply rounded the number off. The scribe for variant 2 in B and copsa (“about seventy-six”) made a slip-up by joining the final Omega, ω, of the preceding πλοιω, with the next letter, Sigma, ς, which stands for 200, to form ως (“about”). Metzger writes, “In Greek the letter sigma may stand for the numeral 200, and omicron for 70; the letter digamma (or stigma) is 6.”[10] Both comfort and Metzger rightly mention that ως (“about”) would not go before an exact number. Variant 3 is simply a result of Variant 2. They were sailing on “a [grain] ship from Alexandria,” which regularly brought agricultural products between Alexandria, Egypt, and Rome. It was common for such a high number of people to travel on such a ship.

1 Corinthians 15:47: 47 The first man is from the earth and made of dust; the second man is from heaven.

The WH NU has ὁ δεύτερος ἄνθρωπος ἐξ οὐρανοῦ “the second man is from heaven” and is supported by א* B C D* 0243 33 1739* copbo, which is found in the ASV, RSV, ESV, NASB, LEB, CSB and the UASV. Variant 1 has ο δευτερος ο κυριος εξ ουρανου “the second, the Lord from heaven” and is supported by 630 Marcion, which is found in no translations. Variant 2/TR has ο δευτερος ανθρωπος ο κυριος εξ ουρανου “the second man, the Lord from heaven” and is supported by א2 A D1 Ψ 075 1739mg Maj syr, which is found in the KJV, NKJV and the CSB footnote. Variant 3 has ο δευτερος ανθρωπος πνευματικος εξ ουρανου “the second man, a spiritual one from heaven” and is supported by P46, which is found in no translations. Variant 4 has ο δευτερος ανθρωπος εξ ουρανου ο ουρανιος “the second man, the heavenly one from heaven” and is supported by F G, which is found in no translations.

The reading that all of the variants are derived from is ὁ δεύτερος ἄνθρωπος ἐξ οὐρανοῦ “the second man is from heaven” and it is supported by weighty and early witnesses that represent several text-types. All of the scribes from each of the variants were simply trying to qualify just what kind of man Jesus was. Marcion dealt with the issues by ignoring it, he simply removed “man” and replaced it with “Lord.”

The Bohairic copbo (Northern Egypt) All NT; ninth century Bohairic

The Bohairic Coptic, designated by (copbo) is a fourth-fifth-century Coptic manuscript of all of the New Testament. The Bohairic Coptic dialect of Lower (Northern) Egypt version (Near Alexandria and in the delta region) was made a little later than the Sahidic version. The reason being, the Greek language was more prominent in Lower Egypt; thus, the need for a translation into the common language was not immediately needed. A very literal translation was made in the beginning of the third century C.E. The Bohairic translation was influenced by several factors, which would include the other dialects, primarily Sahidic and Fayyumic (Central Egypt). Most of the more than one hundred Bohairic are from the ninth-century and later. This, initially, move some scholars to suggest that the Bohairic version dated no earlier than the seventh or eighth century. However, some manuscripts go back to the fourth and fifth centuries (Codex Bodmer III)

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Middle Egypt obviously falls between Northern and Southern Egypt. The only witnesses that have survived of the Akhmimic and Fayyumic versions are mere fragments. The Schøyen Codex, a papyrus manuscript contains the Gospel of Matthew and is dated to the early fourth century. It is the earliest copy of Matthew in any Coptic dialect. Codex Glazier contains Acts 1:1-15:3 and is housed at the Pierpont Morgan Library. It is textually very close to Greek Codex Bezae. It is dated to the fourth or fifth century. P. Mich. inv. 3521 (Inventory Number) is a Gospel of John in Fayyumic, dating to about 325 C.E.

  • copfay (Fayyumic) John; 4th–5th c.
  • copach (Akhmimic) John; James; 4th c.
  • copach2 (Subakhmimic) John; 4th c.
  • copG67 (a Middle Egyptian MS) Acts; 5th c.
  • copmae (Middle Egyptian) Matthew; 4th–5th c.

The great quality of the Sahidic and Bohairic versions make these very important. Christian was early to Egypt with the good news and we are very fortunate that the Egyptian Christians preserved an early form of the text. The Sahidic and Bohairic versions have the same text type that is found in the Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, which have long been the top trusted manuscripts.

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Locations of the Origins of Versions

(Wegner 2006, p. 271) Location of the Origins of the Versions

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Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the BasicsBIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the Basics

Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses: Examining the History of the Watchtower Translation and the Latest Revision

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses is going to challenge your objectivity. Being objective means that personal feelings or opinions do not influence you in considering and representing facts. Being subjective means that your understanding is based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or ideas. If the reader finds these insights offense, it might be a little mind control at work from years of being told the same misinformation repeatedly, so ponder things objectively …

REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES: Sharing CHRIST as You Help Others to Learn about the Mighty works of God

Use of REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES should help you to cultivate the ability to reason from the Scriptures and to use them effectively in assisting others to learn about “the mighty works of God.” – Acts 2:11. If Christians are going to be capable, powerful, efficient teachers of God’s Word, we must not only pay attention to what we tell those who are interested but also how we tell them. Yes, we must focus our attention on…

REASONING WITH THE WORLD’S VARIOUS RELIGIONS: Examining and Evangelizing Other Faiths

God’s will is that “all sorts of men should be saved and come to an accurate knowledge of truth.” (1 Tim. 2:4) God has assigned all Christians the task of proclaiming the Word of God, teaching, to make disciples. (Matt. 24:15; 28:19-20: Ac 1;8 That includes men and women who profess a non-Christian religion, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam to mention just a few. If there are Hindus, Buddhist or Muslims are in your community, why not initiate a conversation with them? Christians who take the Great Commission seriously cannot afford to ignore these religions…

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

FLEECING THE FLOCK_03FLEECING THE FLOCK: Setting the People of God Free From the Lies of Tithing

Evangelist Norman Robertson claims that “Tithing is God’s way of financing His kingdom on the earth.” He asserts that “It is His system of economics which enables the Gospel to be preached.” Not bashful about telling his followers of their duty to give, he flatly states: ‘Tithing isn’t something you do because you can afford it. It is an act of obedience. Not tithing is a clear violation of God’s commandments. It is embezzlement.’ Most likely you accept that giving should be part of Christian worship. However, …

Deception In the ChurchDECEPTION IN THE CHURCH: Does It Matter How You Worship?

DECEPTION IN THE CHURCH by Fred DeRuvo asks Does It Matter How You Worship? There are 41,000 different denominations that call themselves “Christian” and all would claim that they are the truth. Can just any Christian denomination please God? Can all be true or genuine Christianity if they all have different views on the same Bible doctrines? DeRuvo will answer. He will focus on the largest part of Christianity that has many different denominations, the charismatic, ecstatic Signs and Wonders Movements. These ecstatic worshipers claim … DeRuvo will answer all these questions and more according to the truth of God’s Word.—John 8:31-32; 17:17.

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …

DEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in RevelationDEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in Revelation

church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …

JOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK: Experience the Ministry of Jesus in a Spiritually Captivating WayJOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK

Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT The Christian Worldview

An Encouraging Thought elucidates the ways in which Tolkien’s The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are informed by and communicate a biblical worldview. This book will help readers appreciate the ways in which a biblical worldview informs Tolkien’s work, to the end that their own faith may be confirmed in strength, focused in understanding, deepened in joy, and honed in its ability to communicate the Gospel.

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Daily Devotionals

DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS: Growing Up In Christ

Young ones and teens, you are exposed to complex problems that your parents may not understand. Young Christians, you are bombarded with multiple options for solving everyday problems through social media. Where do you turn to find answers? Where can you look to find guidance from Scripture? In order to provide a Christian perspective to problem-solving, the author of this devotional book decided to take a different approach.

DEVOTIONAL FOR TRAGEDYDEVOTIONAL FOR THOSE COPING WITH TRAGEDY: A Journey Back to God

This devotional book follows the author’s own faith journey back to God. Significant life events can shake our world and distort our faith. Following life’s tragedies, a common reaction is to become angry with God or to reject Him altogether. Examples of tragedies or traumas include life-changing events such as physical or sexual assault, destruction of one’s home, the tragic death of a loved one, diagnoses of terminal diseases, divorce, miscarriages, or being a victim of a crime. Tragedies or traumas can cause feelings of anxiety, depression, shame, and guilt.

DEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERSDEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERS: Finding Strength Through Faith 

Throughout the book, common themes emerge to support caregivers. The reader will find interesting Bible Scriptures, offering a Christian perspective, for handling issues that may arise. These inspiring passages will assist the caregiver in finding peace and faith as they travel their journey as a caregiver. Although caregivers may not know how long they will play this role, they take on the responsibility without any question. Taking care of others is often mentioned in the Bible and, as noted in this devotional, this self-sacrificing, highly valued, and often challenging service will ultimately be rewarded.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL Daily Musings From the Old Testament

Humans must breathe in the air of our atmosphere to survive. Many cities because of pollution face a dangerous level of contamination in their air. However, an even more deadly air affects both Christians and nonChristians. Ordinary methods or devices cannot detect this poisonous air.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musing From the New Testament

Paul counseled, “Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth.” (Col. 3:2) It is, for this reason, Marshall has penned the DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musings From the New Testament, which can help us be protected against Satan’s efforts at controlling our mind and heart.  For each day of the year, DAILY DEVOTIONAL provides a Daily Bible Reading and comments for consideration.

BREAD OF HEAVEN: Daily Meditations on Scripture

BREAD OF HEAVEN helps the reader to have a greater understanding of the timeless truths of Scripture and a deeper appreciation of the grandeur of God. It offers meditations on selected Scriptures which will draw the reader’s attention upwards to the Savior.

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE SECRET HIDEAWAYTHE SECRET HIDEAWAY ON BRIDGETON HILL

Rachael Garrison knows all the shrewd ways to successfully close multi-million-dollar real estate deals with her father’s famous New York real estate enterprise. But beyond her savvy to rake in huge deals is her premonition that an impending global takeover of the world’s financial wealth is on the horizon by evil leaders of The Great Ten Nations. From New York City to the Irish Hills of Michigan, and into the streets of Detroit her life takes on enormous purpose as

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] Demotic is a simplified form of Egyptian hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics is a writing system that uses symbols or pictures to denote objects, concepts, or sounds.

[2] The epistle of James, the first epistle of Peter, the second epistle of Peter, the first epistle of John, the second epistle of John, the third epistle of John, and the epistle of Jude.

[3] Verses that have been omitted are: Matthew 12:47; Matthew 16:2b-3; 17:21; 18:11; 23:14; Mark 9:44.46; 11:26; 15:28; Luke 17:36; 22:43-44; John 5:4; 7:53-8:11; Acts 8:37; 15:34; 24:7; 28:29; Romans 16:24.

[4] Bruce Manning Metzger, United Bible Societies, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (4th Rev. Ed.) (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994), 31.

[5] Or a roll

[6] Or roll

[7] William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker, and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 71.

[8] IBID, 895.

[9] Eberhard Nestle and Erwin Nestle, Nestle-Aland: NTG Apparatus Criticus, ed. Barbara Aland et al., 28. revidierte Auflage. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012), 332.

[10] Bruce Manning Metzger, United Bible Societies, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (4th Rev. Ed.) (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994).

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