Has the New American Standard Bible (NASB) 2020 Revision Stepped Away from Its Literal Translation Philosophy?

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EDWARD D. ANDREWS (AS in Criminal Justice, BS in Religion, MA in Biblical Studies, and MDiv in Theology) is CEO and President of Christian Publishing House. He has authored over 160 books. Andrews is the Chief Translator of the Updated American Standard Version (UASV).

The New American Standard Bible (NASB) is an English translation[1] of the Bible. Published by the Lockman Foundation[2], the first NASB text—a translation of the Gospel of John—was released in 1960. The NASB New Testament was released in 1963. The complete NASB Bible was released in 1971.[3] The NASB is a revision of the American Standard Version.[4]

The Lockman Foundation claims the NASB “has been widely embraced as a literal and accurate English translation because it consistently uses the formal equivalence[5] translation philosophy.”[6] This was true at one time but the NASB2020 revision has slightly stepped away from their literal translation philosophy sticking their toe into the dynamic equivalent arena.

The NASB does not attempt to interpret Scripture through translation. Instead, the NASB adheres to the principles of a formal equivalence translation. This is the most exacting and demanding method of translation, striving for the most readable word-for-word translation that is both accurate and clear. This method more closely follows the word and sentence patterns of the biblical authors to enable the reader to study Scripture in its most literal format and experience the individual personalities of those who penned the original manuscripts.

English Bible Versions King James Bible KING JAMES BIBLE II

Translation philosophy

Some sources consider the New American Standard Bible as the most literally translated of major 20th-century English Bible translations.[7] This actually is not the case. The 1901 American Standard Version is more literal. And the forthcoming Updated American Standard Version (UASV) this year, 2021, will be more literal and accurate than the NASB. According to the NASB’s preface, the translators had a “Fourfold Aim” in this work:

  1. These publications shall be true[8] to the original Hebrew,[9] Aramaic,[10] and Greek.[11]
  2. They shall be grammatically correct.[12]
  3. They shall be understandable.
  4. They shall give the Lord Jesus Christ His proper place, the place which the Word gives Him; therefore, no work will ever be personalized.[13]

The NASB is an original translation from the Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts, based on the same principles of translation, and wording, as the American Standard Version (ASV)[14] of 1901. It offers an alternative to the Revised Standard Version[15] (1946–1952/1971), which is considered by some to be theologically liberal,[16] and also to the 1929 revision of the ASV.[17]

The Hebrew text used for this translation was the third edition of Rudolf Kittel’s[18] Biblia Hebraica[19] as well as the Dead Sea Scrolls.[20] The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia[21] was consulted for the 1995 revision. For Greek, Eberhard Nestle’s Novum Testamentum Graece [22]was used; the 23rd edition in the 1971 original,[23] and the 26th in the 1995 revision.[24]

Seeing the need for a literal, modern English Bible translation, the translators sought to produce a contemporary English Bible while maintaining a word-for-word[25] translation style. In cases where word-for-word literalness was determined to be unacceptable for modern readers, changes were made in the direction of more current idioms.[26] In some such instances, the more literal renderings were indicated in footnotes.

The greatest strength of the NASB is its reliability and fidelity to the original languages. Additionally, the NASB includes printing of verses as individual units (although more recent editions are available in paragraph format.)

OTTC Genesis 2:4: Is the Father’s Personal Name Important?

YHWH Rendering

JHVH (rendered as “Jehovah”[27] in the original A.S.V.) is rendered LORD or GOD in capital letters in the NASB.[28] The committee stated the reason as: “This name has not been pronounced by the Jews because of reverence for the great sacredness of the divine name. Therefore, it has been consistently translated, LORD. The only exception is when it occurs in immediate proximity to the word Lord, that is, Adonai. In that case, it is regularly translated GOD in order to avoid confusion. It is known that for many years YHWH has been transliterated as Yahweh. However no complete certainty attaches to this pronunciation.”[29] This is in direct contrast to the preface of ASV of 70 years earlier, where the committee explained that “the American Revisers…were brought to the unanimous conviction that a Jewish superstition, which regarded the Divine Name as too sacred to be uttered, ought no longer to dominate in the English or any other version of the Old Testament.”[30]

THE SACRED PERSONAL NAME OF GOD THE FATHER: The Myth That Jehovah Was Pointed with the Vowel Markings of Adonai

Revisions of the New American Standard Bible

The Lockman Foundation published NASB text, modifications, and revisions in the following order:

  • Gospel of John (1960)
  • The Gospels (1962)
  • New Testament (1963)
  • Psalms (1968)
  • Complete Bible (Old Testament and New Testament; 1971)
  • Minor text modifications (1972, 1973, 1975)
  • Major text revisions (1977, 1995, 2020)
The P52 PROJECT THE NEW TESTAMENT DOCUMENTS 4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUS

1995 Revision

In 1992, the Lockman Foundation commissioned a limited revision of the NASB. In 1995, the Lockman Foundation reissued the NASB text as the NASB Updated Edition (more commonly, the Updated NASB or NASB95). Since then, it has become widely known as simply the “NASB,” supplanting the 1977 text in current printings, save for a few (Thompson Chain Reference Bibles, Open Bibles, Key Word Study Bibles, et al.).

In the updated NASB, consideration was given to the latest available manuscripts to determine the best Greek text. Primarily, the 26th edition of Nestle-Aland’s[31] Novum Testamentum Graece is closely followed. The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia is also employed together with the most recent light from lexicography,[32] cognate languages,[33] and the Dead Sea Scrolls.[34]

The updated NASB represents recommended revisions and refinements and incorporates thorough research based on current English usage.[35] Vocabulary, grammar,[36] and sentence structure were meticulously revised for greater understanding and smoother reading, hence increasing clarity and readability.[37] Terms found in Elizabethan English[38] such as “thy” and “thou” have been modernized, while verses with difficult word ordering are restructured. Punctuation and paragraphing have been formatted for modernization, and verbs with multiple meanings have been updated to better account for their contextual usage.

The Reading Culture of Early Christianity From Spoken Words to Sacred Texts 400,000 Textual Variants 02

2020 Revision of the NASB

After completion in 1971, the NASB was updated in 1977, 1995, and most recently in 2020. They claim that this brand-new update of the widely respected NASB 1995 builds upon its strengths by further improving accuracy, modernizing language, and improving readability. Lockman further claims that the NASB 2020 is an important update because it utilizes advances in biblical scholarship over the past 25 years, and it incorporates changes necessary to keep pace with the ever-evolving English language. Lockman goes on to say that this refreshed text is designed to speak accurately and clearly to current and future generations. While these statements might be true to a degree, it is also true that it appears that Lockman is dipping its toes into the Dynamic Equivalent translation philosophy to see if they cannot pick up a bigger share of the Bible market like the English Standard Version and Christian Standard Bible has.

Lockman further claims that the long-established translation standard for the NASB remains the same as it always has been, that is to accurately translate the inspired Word of God from the Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts into modern English that is clearly understandable today. Yes, to a degree but when you let your hand down (slack off) in relation to your literal translation philosophy and keep known corrupt readings in the main text to try and corral in KJV readers, I am not certain that is entirely true.

9781949586121 BIBLE DIFFICULTIES THE NEW TESTAMENT DOCUMENTS

Lockman goes on to say that the NASB 2020 is a Bible that is accessible to all readers and is presented in a way that clearly and accurately communicates the content, so it is understood in the same way it would have been to the original audience. Most importantly, the NASB 2020 provides a literal translation of the Bible that clearly communicates God’s message to the modern English reader so that everyone can continue to grow in their knowledge and love of our Lord, God, and Savior, Jesus Christ. Again, with the delving into the interpretive translation philosophy and having corrupt readings in the main text, this is not entirely true.

Starting in 2018, the Lockman Foundation posted some passages from “NASB 2020”, an update of the 1995 revision.[39] Key differences from the 1995 revision include an effort to improve “gender accuracy” (for example, adding “or sisters” in italics to passages that reference “brothers”, to help convey the mixed-gender meaning of a passage that might otherwise be misunderstood as only speaking of men), a shift (where applicable) from the common construct “let us” when proposing action to the more-contemporary construct “let’s” (to disambiguate a sort of “imperative” encouragement rather than a seeking of permission that could otherwise be misunderstood from a given passage), and a repositioning of some “bracketed text” (that is, verses or portions of verses that are not present in earliest Biblical manuscripts, and thus printed in brackets in previous NASB editions) out from inline-and-in-brackets down instead to footnotes.[40]

The reader of the CPH blog has continuously read interpretive and translation principles that are not only sound but also aid the Christian in understanding the Bible more fully. One such interpretive principle is about the meaning that we are after, what the author meant by the words that he used as should have been understood by his initial intended audience.

APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot APOSTOLIC FATHERS

When we look at the controversy over gender-inclusive language and the use of plurals, the above principles come into play, as does the historical-grammatical approach, which means that God personally chose the time, the place, the language, and the culture into which his Word was inspirationally penned. Who are we to disrespect that because we wish to appease the modern man or woman, who may be offended? Their offense is nothing more than self-centeredness, refusing to wrap their mind around the idea that the Creator of all things chose the setting, the language, and time in which his Word was to be introduced to man. One of the last bastions of literal translation philosophy, the New American Standard Bible, has given into the gender-inclusive translation philosophy. How are we to translate the Greek word ἀδελφοί (brothers)?

NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE (NASB 1995/2020): The 1995 edition was* very literal. The NASB Translates “brothers” or “brethren,” to “brothers and sisters.” The NASB has gender-inclusive changes to the word “man” in Romans 2:1-11 and Micah 6:8.

*The NASB 2020 revision has taken the first steps at abandoning their literal translation philosophy. One of the updates is what the NASB (the Lockman Foundation) calls the use of the “Gender Accurate” language. This is actually good marketing skills to call an abandonment of your core translation values “accurate” when it is anything but accurate.

Gender-Inclusive Language in Bible Translation

1 Thessalonians 5:14We urge you, brethren, admonish the unruly, encourage the fainthearted, help the weak, be patient with everyone. NASB 1995

1 Thessalonians 5:14We urge you, brothers and sisters, admonish the unruly, encourage the fainthearted, help the weak, be patient with everyone. NASB 2020

Romans 2:1Therefore you have no excuse, you foolish person, everyone of you who passes judgment, for in that which you judge someone else [another], you condemn yourself; for you who judge practice the same things…

Romans 2:3But do you suppose this, you foolish person [O man] who passes [when you pass] judgment on those who practice such things and yet does them as well [do the same yourself], that you will escape the judgment of God?

Micah 6:8He has told you, O man, what is good… NASB 1995

Micah 6:8He has told you, a human, what is good; and what does the LORD require of you but to do justice, to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God? NASB 2020

From what the Lockman Foundation has released about the 2020NASB, the 2020 update seems like it is a more significant release than their 1995 update was. Taking everything into account, there are gender-neutral language changes. There is an attempt to remove archaic language which has also led to removing literal renderings, and that is not a good thing. We can say, some of the changes are good, some are irrelevant, some are wordy, and some are poor. Looking at all the pluses and minuses. There seem to be more minuses than pluses. We have not even delved into the Lockman’s Foundation obsession with retaining the corrupt readings from the King James Version NT (Textus Receptus) in the main text instead of relegating them to footnotes.

Mosaic Authorship HOW RELIABLE ARE THE GOSPELS

Translators

The translation work was done by a group sponsored by the Lockman Foundation.[41] According to the Lockman Foundation, the committee consisted of people from Christian institutions of higher learning and from evangelical Protestant, predominantly conservative, denominations (Presbyterian, Methodist, Southern Baptist, Church of Christ, Nazarene, American Baptist, Fundamentalist, Conservative Baptist, Free Methodist, Congregational, Disciples of Christ, Evangelical Free, Independent Baptist, Independent Mennonite, Assembly of God, North American Baptist, and “other religious groups”).[42]

The foundation’s Web site indicates that among the translators and consultants who contributed are Bible scholars with doctorates in biblical languages, theology, “or other advanced degrees”, and come from a variety of denominational backgrounds. More than 20 individuals worked on modernizing the NASB in accord with the most recent research.[43]

DEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP Agabus Cover BIBLICAL CRITICISM

The Bible that Will Replace the NASB

The Updated American Standard Version (UASV) will be released by the end of 2021 for a 120-year anniversary of the American Standard Version (ASV). Unlike the NASB2020, the UASV has no intention of ever abandoning the literal translation philosophy or even stepping away from it even in minor ways. It will not be our desire to bend toward the dynamic equivalent translations (NIV, CEV, TEV, NLT, etc.) and the quasi literal translations (ESV CSB) but rather to educate the readers of those translations of the importance of the literal translation philosophy and bring them into our camp.

Our primary purpose is to give the Bible readers what God said by way of his human authors, not what a translator thinks God meant in its place.—Truth Matters! Our primary goal is to be accurate and faithful to the original text. The meaning of a word is the responsibility of the interpreter (i.e., reader), not the translator.—Translating Truth!

The translation of God’s Word from the original languages of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek is a task unlike any other and should never be taken lightly. It carries with it the heaviest responsibility: the translator renders God’s thoughts into a modern language. The Updated American Standard Version (UASV) is a literal translation. What does that mean?

4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUS The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2

A literal translation is certainly more than a word-for-word rendering of the original language of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. The corresponding English words need to be brought over according to English grammar and syntax but the translation at the same time must be faithful to the original word or as much as possible for the author may have use word order to emphasize or convey some meaning. In most cases, the translator is simply rendering the original-language word with the same corresponding English term each time it occurs. The translator has used his good judgment in order to select words in the English translation from the lexicon within the context of the original-language text. The translator remains faithful to this literal translation philosophy unless it has been determined that the rendering will be misunderstood or misinterpreted. The translator is not tasked with making the text easy to read but rather to make it as accurately faithful to the original as possible.

Removing the Outdated

  • Passages with the Old English “thee’s” and “thou’s” etc. have been replaced with modern English.
  • Many words and phrases that were extremely ambiguous or easily misunderstood since the 1901 ASV have been updated according to the best lexicons.
  • Verses with difficult word order or vocabulary have been translated into correct English grammar and syntax, for easier reading. However, if the word order of the original conveyed meaning, it was kept.

More Accurate

  • The last 120+ years have seen the discovering of far more manuscripts, especially the papyri, with many manuscripts dating within decades of the originals.
  • While making more accurate translation choices, we have stayed true to the literal translation philosophy of the ASV, while other literal translations abandon the philosophy far too often.
  • The translator seeks to render the Scriptures accurately, without losing what the Bible author penned by changing what the author wrote, by distorting or embellishing through imposing what the translator believes the author meant into the original text.
  • Accuracy in Bible translation is being faithful to what the original author wrote (the words that he used), as opposed to going beyond into the meaning, trying to determine what the author meant by his words. The latter is the reader’s job.
  • The translator uses the most reliable, accurate critical texts (e.g., WH, NA, UBS, BHS, as well as the original language texts, versions, and other sources that will help him to determine the original reading.

Why the Need for Updated Translations?

  • New manuscript discoveries
  • Changes in the language
  • A better understanding of the original languages
  • Improved insight into Bible translation

by Edward D. Andrews and Wikipedia

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[1] Partial Bible translations into languages of the English people can be traced back to the late 7th century, including translations into Old and Middle English. More than 450 translations into English have been written.

[2] The Lockman Foundation was established in 1942 by F. Dewey Lockman and his wife Minna Lockman. It is a nonprofit, interdenominational Christian ministry dedicated to the translation, publication, and distribution of the New American Standard Bible (NASB), Amplified BibleAmplified Bible 2015The Legacy Standard Bible, La Biblia de las AméricasNueva Biblia Latinoamericana de Hoy, and other biblical resources and translations.

[3] “NASB Bible Info”Lockman FoundationArchived from the original on January 15, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021. After completion in 1971, the NASB was updated in 1977, 1995, and most recently in 2020, according to the best scholarship available at the time.”

[4] “NASB Bible Info”Lockman FoundationArchived from the original on January 15, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021. Recognizing the values of the American Standard Version, The Lockman Foundation launched a new translation project in 1959. It sought to preserve the lasting values of the ASV while incorporating recent discoveries of Hebrew and Greek textual sources, all with more current English. This new and original translation project created the NASB.

[5] The terms dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence, coined by Eugene Nida, are associated with two dissimilar translation approaches that are employed to achieve different levels of literalness between the source text and the target text, as evidenced in biblical translation. Dynamic equivalent translations are interpretive translations where the translator or translation committee goes beyond the lexical rendering into the meaning and that is what they put in the main text instead what God said.

[6] “NASB Bible Info”Lockman FoundationArchived from the original on January 15, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2021.

[7] Pope, Christopher. “Comparing Bible Translations: Conclusions” (PDF). Retrieved Saturday, March 20, 2021.

[8] Literal translationdirect translation or word-for-word translation, is a translation of a text done by translating each word separately, without looking at how the words are used together in a phrase or sentence.

[9] Hebrew is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel. In 2013, Modern Hebrew was spoken by over nine million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors; however, the language was not referred to by the name “Hebrew” in the Tanakh itself. Mishnah Gitin 9:8 refers to the language as Ivrit meaning Hebrew, however Mishnah Megillah refers to the Hebrew language as Ashurit meaning Assyrian, which is a metonym derived from the name of the alphabet in contrast to Ivrit meaning the paleo-Hebrew alphabet. The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date to the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the Northwest Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family and is the only Canaanite language still spoken and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language, and one of only two Northwest Semitic languages still spoken, the other being Aramaic.

[10] Aramaic is a language that originated among the Aramaeans in the ancient region of Syria, at the end of the 2nd millennium BC, and later became one of the most prominent languages of the ancient Near East. During its three thousand years long history, Aramaic went through several stages of development. It has served as a language of public life and administration of ancient kingdoms and empires, and also as a language of divine worship and religious study. It subsequently branched into several Neo-Aramaic languages that are still spoken in modern times.

[11] Koine Greek, also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during the Hellenistic period, the Roman Empire and the early Byzantine Empire.

[12] In linguistics, the grammar of a natural language is its set of structural constraints on speakers’ or writers’ composition of clauses, phrases, and words. The term can also refer to the study of such constraints, a field that includes domains such as phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.

[13] “The Lockman Foundation – NASB, Amplified, LBLA, and NBLH Bibles”. Lockman.org. Retrieved February 16, 2012.

[14] The American Standard Version (ASV), also known as the Revised Version, Standard American Edition, is a Bible translation into English that was completed in 1901 with the publication of the revision of the Old Testament; the revised New Testament had been released in 1900. It was originally best known by its full name, but soon came to have other names, such as the American Revised Version, the American Standard Revision, the American Standard Revised Bible, and the American Standard Edition. By the time its copyright was renewed in 1929, it had come to be known by its present name, the American Standard Version. Because of its prominence in seminaries, it was sometimes simply called the “Standard Bible” in the United States.

[15] The Revised Standard Version (RSV) is an English translation of the Bible published in 1952 by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA. This translation itself is a revision of the American Standard Version (ASV) of 1901, and was intended to be a readable and literally accurate modern English translation which aimed to “preserve all that is best in the English Bible as it has been known and used through the centuries” and “to put the message of the Bible in simple, enduring words that are worthy to stand in the great Tyndale-King James tradition.”

[16] Harris, R. Laird (1969). “Inspiration and Canonicity of the Bible: An Historical and Exegetical Study”. Contemporary Evangelical Perspectives (2nd ed.). Grand Rapids: Zondervan. p. 58.

Religious liberalism is a conception of religion which emphasizes personal and group liberty and rationality. It is an attitude towards one’s own religion which contrasts with a traditionalist or orthodox approach, and it is directly opposed by trends of religious fundamentalism. It is related to religious liberty, which is the tolerance of different religious beliefs and practices, but not all promoters of religious liberty are in favor of religious liberalism, and vice versa.

[17] “NASB Translation Principles”lockman.org. Retrieved Saturday, March 20, 2021.

[18] Rudolf Kittel was a German Old Testament scholar.

[19] Biblia Hebraica refers primarily to the three editions of the Hebrew Bible edited by Rudolf Kittel. When referenced, Kittel’s Biblia Hebraica is usually abbreviated BH, or BHK. When specific editions are referred to, BH1, BH2 and BH3 are used. Biblia Hebraica is a Latin phrase meaning Hebrew Bible, traditionally used as a title for printed editions of the Tanakh. Less commonly, Biblia Hebraica may also refer to subsequent editions in the Biblia Hebraica series which build on the work of Kittel’s editions.

[20] The Dead Sea Scrolls are ancient Jewish and Hebrew religious manuscripts that were found in the Qumran Caves in the Judaean Desert, near Ein Feshkha on the northern shore of the Dead Sea in the West Bank. Scholarly consensus dates these scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE. The texts have great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the second-oldest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. Almost all of the Dead Sea Scrolls are held by the state of Israel in the Shrine of the Book on the grounds of the Israel Museum, but ownership of the scrolls is disputed by Jordan and Palestine.

[21] The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, abbreviated as BHS or rarely BH4, is an edition of the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible as preserved in the Leningrad Codex, and supplemented by Masoretic and text-critical notes. It is the fourth edition in the Biblia Hebraica

[22] Novum Testamentum Graece is a critical edition of the New Testament in its original Koine Greek, forming the basis of most modern Bible translations and biblical criticism. It is also known as the Nestle-Aland edition after its most influential editors, Eberhard Nestle and Kurt Aland. The text, edited by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, is currently in its 28th edition, abbreviated NA28.

[23] “Preface”. Retrieved Saturday, March 20, 2021.

[24] “NASB Translation Principles”lockman.org. Retrieved December 2, 2015.

[25] The terms dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence, coined by Eugene Nida, are associated with two dissimilar translation approaches that are employed to achieve different levels of literalness between the source text and the target text, as evidenced in biblical translation.

[26] An idiom is a phrase or expression that typically presents a figurative, non-literal meaning attached to the phrase; but some phrases become figurative idioms while retaining the literal meaning of the phrase. Categorized as formulaic language, an idiom’s figurative meaning is different from the literal meaning. Idioms occur frequently in all languages; in English alone, there are an estimated twenty-five thousand idiomatic expressions.

[27] “Jehovah” (Heb., יהוה, YHWH) is God’s personal name, which first occurs in Gen. 2:4. The greatest and most outrageous decision that modern translators (really publishers) is that they conceal God’s personal name with a title. God the Father’s personal name occurs in the Hebrew text 6,828 times as יהוה (YHWH or JHVH), generally referred to as the Tetragrammaton, which literally means “having four letters.”

[28] “Preface”. Retrieved Saturday, March 20, 2021.

[29] Holy Bible: New American Standard Bible (NASB 1977 ed.). April 21, 2011. ISBN 9781581351521. Retrieved February 16, 2012.

[30] “Preface to the American edition”. Retrieved Saturday, March 20, 2021.

[31] Novum Testamentum Graece is a critical edition of the New Testament in its original Koine Greek, forming the basis of most modern Bible translations and biblical criticism. It is also known as the Nestle-Aland edition after its most influential editors, Eberhard Nestle and Kurt Aland. The text, edited by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, is currently in its 28th edition, abbreviated NA28.

[32] Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups:

  • Practical lexicographyis the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries.
  • Theoretical lexicographyis the scholarly discipline of analyzing and describing the semantic, syntagmatic, and paradigmatic relationships within the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language, developing theories of dictionary components and structures linking the data in dictionaries, the needs for information by users in specific types of situations, and how users may best access the data incorporated in printed and electronic dictionaries. This is sometimes referred to as ‘metalexicography.”

[33] In linguistics, cognates, also called lexical cognates, are words that have a common etymological origin. Cognates are often inherited from a shared parent language, but they may also involve borrowings from some other language. For example, the English words dishdisk and desk and the German word Tisch (“table”) are cognates because they all come from Latin discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or even opposite meanings, and although there are usually some similar sounds or letters in the words, they may appear to be dissimilar. Some words sound similar, but do not come from the same root; these are called false cognates, while some are truly cognate but differ in meaning; these are called false friends.

[34] “Why the NASB?”. The Lockman Foundation. Retrieved June 16, 2009.

[35] “New American Standard Bible”. The Lockman Foundation. Retrieved Saturday, March 20, 2021.

Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to establish rules defining preferred or correct usage of language. These rules may address such linguistic aspects as spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax, and semantics. Sometimes informed by linguistic purism, such normative practices may suggest that some usages are incorrect, inconsistent, illogical, lack communicative effect, or are of low aesthetic value. They may also include judgments on socially proper and politically correct language use.

[36] In linguistics, the grammar of a natural language is its set of structural constraints on speakers’ or writers’ composition of clauses, phrases, and words. The term can also refer to the study of such constraints, a field that includes domains such as phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.

[37] Readability is the ease with which a reader can understand a written text. In natural language, the readability of text depends on its content and its presentation. Researchers have used various factors to measure readability, such as

  • Speed of perception
  • Perceptibility at a distance
  • Perceptibility in peripheral vision
  • Visibility
  • Reflex blink technique
  • Rate of work
  • Eye movements
  • Fatigue in reading
  • Cognitively-motivated features
  • Word difficulty
  • N-gram analysis

[38] Early Modern English or Early New English is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.

[39] “The Lockman Foundation (NASB, Amplified, LBLA, NBLH)”http://www.facebook.com. Retrieved Saturday, March 20, 2021.

[40] “More Information About NASB 2020”lockman.org. Retrieved February 17, 2021.

[41] Metzger, Bruce (2003). The New Testament: Its Background, Growth, and Content (3rd ed.). Nashville: Abingdon Press. p. 336.

[42] BeDuhn, Jason David (2003). Truth in Translation — Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament. University Press of America. p. 35,39.

“The Lockman Foundation – NASB, Amplified Bible, LBLA, and NBLH Bibles”The Lockman Foundation.

[43] “The Lockman Foundation – NASB, Amplified Bible, LBLA, and NBLH Bibles”The Lockman Foundation.

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