Comparison of Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus

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Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus, two of great uncial codices, representatives of the Alexandrian text-type, are considered excellent manuscript witnesses of the text of the New Testament. Most critical editions of the Greek New Testament give precedence to these two chief uncial manuscripts, and the majority of translations are based on their text. Codex Vaticanus dates to about 300 to 325 C.E. and is identified by the (03, B). Herein, we will use the capital B. Codex Sinaiticus dates to about 330 to 360 C.E. and is identified by (01, א) What looks like a squiggly x is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet א (ʼAleph). We will use א to identify Codex Sinaiticus herein. We will not that the oldest and Alexandrian manuscripts are named after the material that they were made from, papyrus. So, for example, Papyrus 75 has the identifying symbol the Gothic P and a superscript number (𝔓75). We will just use the regular English font P75.

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The King James Version Onlyist argue that there are many differences between these two manuscripts. According to Dean Burgon: “It is, in fact, easier to find two consecutive verses in which these two MSS differ the one from the other than two consecutive verses in which they entirely agree.”[1] See Matthew 1:18-19 below as a perfect example.

This is simply exaggeration and a misrepresentation of the evidence. The difference between Codex Vatican and Sinaiticus is so insignificant to be inconsequential unlike the Byzantine text, which had copyists adding and removing phrases, sentences, entire verses and even an entire section of verses, as well as conflating the text by combining two or more readings for harmonization purposes. A few examples of the differences between the Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus will suffice to show the insignificance. Spelling differences Ζαρε (ZerahB, supported by P1 and Ζαρα (Zerahא. Misspelled word παραθαλασσαν (by the seaא παραθαλασσιαν (by the sea) B. Another εν τη Γαλιλαια (in the Galileeא
εν ολη τη Γαλιλαια (in all the GalileeB. A final example of insignificance, πασαν την Συριαν (whole of the Syriaא ολην την Συριαν (all the SyriaΒ. If these seem insignificant, note below those even more so.

For most of the New Testament, Codex Sinaiticus is in general agreement with Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209 and Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, attesting the Alexandrian text-type. A notable example of an agreement between the Sinaiticus and Vaticanus texts is that they both omit the word εικη (‘without cause’, ‘without reason’, ‘in vain’) from Matthew 5:22 “But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment.”

In John 1:1–8:38 Codex Sinaiticus differs from Vaticanus and all other Alexandrian manuscripts. It is in closer agreement with Codex Bezae in support of the Western text-type. For example, in John 1:4 Sinaiticus and Codex Bezae are the only Greek manuscripts with textual variant ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἐστίν (in him is life) instead of ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ᾓν (in him was life). This variant is supported by Vetus Latina and some Sahidic manuscripts. This portion has a large number of corrections. There are a number of differences between Sinaiticus and Vaticanus; Hoskier enumerated 3036 differences: [2]

  • Matthew: 656
  • Mark: 567
  • Luke: 791
  • John: 1022
  • TOTAL: 3036

 A large number of these differences are due to iotacisms and variants in transcribing Hebrew names. These two manuscripts were not written in the same scriptorium. According to Fenton Hort Sinaiticus and Vaticanus were derived from a common original much older source, “the date of which cannot be later than the early part of the second century, and may well be yet earlier.”[3]

400,000 Textual Variants 02 400,000 Textual Variants 02 400,000 Textual Variants 02 400,000 Textual Variants 02

Iotacism or itacism is the process of vowel shift by which a number of vowels and diphthongs converged towards the pronunciation in post-classical Greek and Modern Greek. The term “iotacism” refers to the letter iota, the original sign for, with which these vowels came to merge. The alternative term itacism refers to the new pronunciation of the name of the letter eta as [ˈita] after the change.

Example of differences between Sinaiticus and Vaticanus in Matthew 1:18–19:

Codex Sinaiticus (01, א)

Codex Vaticanus (03, B)

18 του δε ι̅υ̅ χ̅υ̅ η γενεσις ουτως ην μνηστευθεισης της μητρος αυτου μαριας τω ιωσηφ πριν η συνελθειν αυτους ευρεθη εν γαστρι εχουσα εκ π̅ν̅ς̅ αγιου

19 ιωσηφ δε ο ανηρ αυτης δικαιος ων και μη θελων αυτην παραδειγματισαι εβουληθη λαθρα απολυσαι αυτην

18 του δε χ̅υ̅  ι̅υ̅ η γενεσις ουτως ην μνηστευθεισης της μητρος αυτου μαριας τω ιωσηφ πριν η συνελθειν αυτους ευρεθη εν γαστρι εχουσα εκ π̅ν̅ς̅ αγιου

19 ιωσηφ δε ο ανηρ αυτης δικαιος ων και μη θελων αυτην δειγματισαι εβουληθη λαθρα απολυσαι αυτην

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Scribes Correctors for Sinaiticus

A Modern analysis identifies at least three scribes:

  • Scribe A wrote most of the historical and poetical books of the Old Testament, almost the whole of the New Testament, and the Epistle of Barnabas
  • Scribe B was responsible for the Prophets and for the Shepherd of Hermas
  • Scribe D wrote the whole of Tobit and Judith, the first half of 4 Maccabees, the first two-thirds of the Psalms, and the first five verses of Revelation

Scribe B was a poor speller, and scribe A was not very much better; the best scribe was D.[4] Metzger states: “scribe A had made some unusually serious mistakes.”[5] Scribes A and B more often used nomina sacra in contracted forms (ΠΝΕΥΜΑ contracted in all occurrences, ΚΥΡΙΟΣ contracted except in 2 occurrences), scribe D more often used forms uncontracted.[6] D distinguished between sacral and nonsacral using of ΚΥΡΙΟΣ.[7] His errors are the substitution of ΕΙ for Ι, and Ι for ΕΙ in medial positions, both equally common. Otherwise substitution of Ι for initial ΕΙ is unknown, and final ΕΙ is only replaced in word ΙΣΧΥΕΙ, confusing of Ε and ΑΙ is very rare.[8] In the Book of Psalms this scribe has 35 times ΔΑΥΕΙΔ instead of ΔΑΥΙΔ, while scribe A normally uses an abbreviated form ΔΑΔ.[9] Scribe A’s was a “worse type of phonetic error.” Confusion of Ε and ΑΙ occurs in all contexts.[10] Milne and Skeat characterized scribe B as “careless and illiterate.”[11] The work of the original scribe is designated by the siglum א*.[12]

A paleographical study at the British Museum in 1938 found that the text had undergone several corrections. The first corrections were done by several scribes before the manuscript left the scriptorium.[13] Readings that they introduced are designated by the siglum אa.[14] Milne and Skeat have observed that the superscription to 1 Maccabees was made by scribe D, while the text was written by scribe A.[15] Scribe D corrects his own work and that of scribe A, but scribe A limits himself to correcting his own work.[16] In the 6th or 7th century, many alterations were made (אb) – according to a colophon at the end of the book of Esdras and Esther the source of these alterations was “a very ancient manuscript that had been corrected by the hand of the holy martyr Pamphylus” (martyred in 309). If this is so, material beginning with 1 Samuel to the end of Esther is Origen’s copy of the Hexapla. From this colophon, the correction is concluded to have been made in Caesarea Maritima in the 6th or 7th centuries.[17] The pervasive iotacism, especially of the ει diphthong, remains uncorrected.[18]

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Scribes and Correctors for Vaticanus

According to Tischendorf, the manuscript was written by three scribes (A, B, C), two of whom appear to have written the Old Testament and one the entire New Testament.[19] Tischendorf’s view was accepted by Frederic G. Kenyon, but contested by T. C. Skeat, who examined the codex more thoroughly. Skeat and other paleographers contested Tischendorf’s theory of a third (C) scribe, instead asserting that two scribes worked on the Old Testament (A and B) and one of them (B) wrote the New Testament.[20]

Scribe A wrote:

Genesis – 1 Kings (pages 41–334)

Psalms – Tobias (pages 625–944)

Scribe B wrote:

1 Kings – 2 Esdra (pages 335–624)

Hosea – Daniel (pages 945–1234)

New Testament.[21]

Two correctors worked on the manuscript, one (B2) contemporary with the scribes, the other (B3) in about the 10th or 11th century, although the theory of a first corrector, B1, proposed by Tischendorf was rejected by later scholars.[22] According to Tischendorf, one of the scribes is identical to (and may have been) one of the scribes of the Codex Sinaiticus (scribe D),[23] but there is insufficient evidence for his assertion.[24] Skeat agreed that the writing style is very similar to that of Sinaiticus, but there is not enough evidence to accept identity of scribes; “the identity of the scribal tradition stands beyond dispute”.[25]

The original writing was retraced by a later scribe (usually dated to the 10th or 11th century), and the beauty of the original script was spoiled.[26] Accents and breathing marks, as well as punctuation, have been added by a later hand.[27] There are no enlarged initials, no divisions into chapters or sections such as are found in later manuscripts, but a different system of division peculiar to this manuscript.[28] There are plenty of the itacistic faults, especially the exchange of ει for ι and αι for ε. The exchange of ει and ο for ω is less frequent.[29]

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The manuscript contains unusual small horizontally aligned double dots (so called “distigmai,” formerly called “umlauts”) in the margin of the columns and are scattered throughout the New Testament.[30] There are 795 of these to be clearly found in the text, and perhaps another 40 that are undetermined. The date of these markings are disputed among scholars and are discussed in a link below. Two such distigmai can be seen in the left margin of the first column (top image). Tischendorf reflected upon their meaning, but without any resolution.[31] He pointed on several places where these distigmai were used: at the ending of the Gospel of Mark, 1 Thess 2:14; 5:28; Heb 4:16; 8:1.[32] The meaning of these distigmai was recognized in 1995 by Philip Payne. Payne discovered the first distigme while studying the section 1 Cor 14.34–35 of the codex.[33] He suggested that distigmai indicate lines where another textual variant was known to the person who wrote the umlauts. Therefore, the distigmai mark places of textual uncertainty.[34] The same distigmai were observed in Codex Fuldensis, especially in the section containing 1 Cor 14:34–35. The distigme of two codices indicate a variant of the Western manuscripts, which placed 1 Cor 14:34–35 after 1 Cor 14:40( manuscripts: Claronmontanus, Augiensis, Boernerianus, 88, itd, g, and some manuscripts of Vulgate).[35]

On page 1512, next to Hebrews 1:3, the text contains an interesting marginal note, “Fool and knave, leave the old reading and do not change it!” – “μαθέστατε κακακέ, φες τν παλαιόν, μμεταποίει” which may suggest that unauthorised correcting was a recognized problem in scriptoriums.[36]

Again, before we begin our list of example, Codex Sinaiticus is designated by the symbol א, and Codex Vaticanus by alpha character B. The following represent scribal corrections:

  • א* – original text of Codex Sinaiticus before scribal correction(s)
  • א1 – first corrector of Codex Sinaiticus
  • א2 – second corrector of Codex Sinaiticus
  • B* – original text of Codex Vaticanus before scribal correction(s)
  • B1 – first corrector of Codex Vaticanus
  • B2 – second corrector of Codex Vaticanus

The list of textual variants that follows below is incomplete.

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Gospel of Matthew

Matthew 1:3
Ζαρε (Zerah) – B, supported by Papyrus 1
Ζαρα (Zerah) – Sinaiticus

Matthew 1:12/13
γεννα – Β
εγεννησεν (begot) – א

Matthew 1:19
δειγματισαι (put to shame) – א1 Β, supported by Ζ f1
παραδειγματισαι (to make example) – א*.2 C L W Θ f13 Byz

Matthew 1:20
Μαριαν – B L f1 1241
Μαριαμ – א C D W Z Θ f13 Byz

Matthew 1:25
εως (till) – Β
εως ου (till his) –א

Matthew 2:12
εις την χωραν αυτων (into their country) – Β
εις την εαυτων χωραν (into their own country) – א f1 157 a b g1 vg cop

Matthew 2:13
κατ οναρ εφανη – Β 372 copsa
φαινεται κατ οναρ (appeared in a dream) –א

Matthew 3:6
υπ αυτου (by him) – א
εν τω ιορδανη υπ αυτου –

Matthew 3:11
εγω μεν γαρ (I indeed) – א 892
εγω μεν (I) – Β

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Matthew 3:15
πρεπον εστιν ημας (it fitting us) – א cop it syr
πρεπον εστιν ημιν (it fitting for us) – Β

Matthew 4:8
δικνυει (showed) – א
δεικνυσιν (showed) – Β
εδειξεν (showed) – D 372

Matthew 4:13
παραθαλασσαν (by the sea) – א W
παραθαλασσιαν (by the sea) – B
παραθαλασσιον (by the sea) – D 372

Matthew 4:23
εν τη Γαλιλαια (in Galilee) – א
εν ολη τη Γαλιλαια (in all Galilee) – B C 157 cop syr eth
ολην την γαλιλαιαν (all Galilee) – D

Matthew 4:23b
διδασκων αυτοις – א
διδασκων – Β

Matthew 4:24
πασαν την Συριαν (whole of Syria) – א 157
ολην την Συριαν (all Syria) – Β

Matthew 5:9
οτι υιοι – א C D 13-124-556
οτι αυτοι υιοι – B

Matthew 5:10
ενεκα – B
ενεκεν –א

Matthew 5:18
εως παντα – B 106
εως αν παντα –א

Matthew 5:19
ος δ’ αν ποιηση και διδαξη, ουτος μεγας κληθησεται εν τη βασιλεια των ουρανων – Β
omit – א* D W d g2 r2

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Matthew 5:22
ραχα – א* D W
ρακα – Β

Matthew 5:28
επιθυημσαι – א 236
επιθυμησαι αυτην – Β W
επιθυμησαι αυτης – א M Σ

Matthew 5:28
εαυτου – Β
αυτου – א

Matthew 5:30
η ολον – א
και μη ολον – B d k syr cop

Matthew 5:31
ερρεθη – א* Κ Π syr copbo
ερρεθη δε – B

Matthew 5:37
εσται – Β Σ 61 68 245 700
εστω –א

Matthew 5:39
εις την δεξιαν σιαγονα – א W Σ 157 892
σιαγονα σου – B D
σου σιαγονα – E

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Matthew 5:41
αγγαρευει – D
αγγαρευσει – B L M S U Π
αγγαρευση – א E G K V Δ Σ
και ος λεγει σοι – syrcur

Matthew 5:42
αιτουντι σοι – א* y
αιτουντι σε – B

Matthew 5:45
και βρεχει επι δικαιους και αδικους (and it is raining on the righteous and the unrighteous) – B
omit –א

Matthew 5:46
ουχι – B
οmit – א* copbo syrcur

Matthew 6:2
αμην αμην (amen, amen) – א 13
αμην (amen) – B

Matthew 6:7
υποκριται (hypocrites) – Βג syrcur
εθνικοι (gentiles) –א

Matthew 6:8
ο πατηρ υμων (your Father) – א* D L W Z Θ 0170 f1 f13 Byz
ο θεος ο πατηρ υμων (God your Father) – א1 B copsa

Matthew 6:15
τα παραπτωματα αυτων – B
omit – א D f1

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Matthew 6:16
και οταν δε – א syrcur eth
οταν δε – Β

Matthew 6:16
υποκριται – א
οι υποκριται – Β
το προσωπον – 244 א g1 k syrp
τα προσωπα – B
αμην γαρ – א, copbo
αμην – Β

Matthew 6:18a
νηστευων τοις ανθροποις – Β
τοις ανθρωποις νηστευων –א

Matthew 6:18b
σου – א Δ syrcur
omit – Β

Matthew 6:20
και κλεπτουσιν – א 1 892 syrcur
ουδε κλεπτουσιν – Β

Matthew 6:21
εκει εσται η καρδια – B copbo
ουδε κλεπτουσιν – Β syrp

Matthew 6:22a
ο οφθαλμος σου – Β
ο οφθαλμος –א

Matthew 6:22b
εαν ουν – B
εαν –א

Matthew 6:23
εαν δε ο οφθαλμος σου πονηρος – א W 33
εαν δε ο οφθαλμος σου πονηρος η – B cop it
εαν δε ο οφθαλμος σου η πονηρος – syr

Matthew 6:25a
τι φαγητε – א f1 892 a b ff1 k l vg syrc copsa
τι φαγητε η τι πιητε – B W f13 33
τι φαγητε τι πιητε – copsa
τι φαγητε και τι πιητε – L Θ 0233 Byz

Matthew 6:25b
υμων – B
omit – א b

Matthew 6:32a
ταυτα γαρ παντα – א N Δ Σ f13 157 892
παντα γαρ ταυτα – B
παντα – a b k

Matthew 6:32b
ο θεος ο πατηρ υμων – א
ο πατηρ υμων – א2 28 237
ο πατηρ υμων ο ουρανιος – B 050

Matthew 6:32c
χρητε – B
χρηζετε –א

Matthew 6:33
την βασιλειαν (αυτου) και την δικαιοσυνην αυτου – א g k cop eth
την δικαιοσυνην και την βασιλειαν αυτου – Β
την βασιλειαν του θεου και την δικαιοσυνην αυτου – E W Σ Φ 050

Matthew 7:3
την δε δοκον την εν τω οφθαλμω – א N Σ 235
την δε εν τω σω οφθαλμω δοκον – Β 050

Matthew 7:4a
λεγεις – א 700 0233
ερεις – Β

Matthew 7:4b
τω αδελφω σου αδελφε – א
τω αδελφω σου – Β

Matthew 7:8
ανοιγεται – Β
ανοιγησεται –א

Matthew 7:9
η τις – Β Ζ
η τις εστιν –א

Matthew 7:12
παντα οσα – א
παντα ουν – B
παντα δε – copbo

Matthew 7:13a
η πυλη – B אb
omit – א a b c h k

Matthew 7:13b
εισιν – א copsa
omit – B

Matthew 7:14
οτι δε – Β
οτι – א* X
τι – B2 אb N W Σ Φ
και – 209

Matthew 7:17
καρπους ποιει καλους – Β cop
καλους ποιει καρπους – Δ δ
καρπους καλους ποιει –א

Matthew 7:18
ποιειν – א
ενεγκειν – B

Matthew 7:21
τα θελεματα – א
το θελεμα – Β

Matthew 7:22
δαιμονια πολλα – א
δαιμονια – B

Matthew 7:25
ελθαν – B
ελθον –א

Matthew 7:27a
ελθαν – B
ελθον –א

Matthew 7:27b
και επνευσαν οι ανεμοι – Β
omit –א

Matthew 7:28
επι τη διδαχη αυτου οι οχλοι – א
οι οχλοι επι τη διδαχη αυτου – Β

Matthew 8:1
καταβαντος δε αυτου – B C W אb
και καταβαντος αυτου – Z
καταβαντι δε αυτω –א*

Matthew 8:3a
την χειρα αυτου – א 124
την χειρα – B

Matthew 8:3b
ευθεως – B
omit – א

Matthew 8:4a
ειπεν – א k cop
λεγει – Β

Matthew 8:4b
προσενεγκον – B C
προσενεγκε –א

Matthew 8:5
εκατονταρχης – א W
εκατονταρχος – Β cop

Matthew 8:6
κυριε – B
omit – א k syrs syrc

Matthew 8:7a
λεγει – Β 700
και λεγει –א

Matthew 8:7b
ακολουθει μοι εγω ελθων – א
εγω ελθων – Β

Matthew 8:8a
εκατονταρχης – א
εκατονταρχος – Β cop

Matthew 8:8b
ειπεν – א C 33
εφη – B

Matthew 8:10
παρ ουδενι τοσαυτην πιστιν εν τω Ισραηλ ευρον – Β 4
παρ ουδενι τοσαυτην πιστιν ευρον – f1
ουδε εν τω Ισραηλ τοσαυτην πιστιν ευρον –א

Matthew 8:11
Ισακ – א
Ισαακ – Β

Matthew 8:12
εξελευσονται – א
εκβληθησονται – Β

Matthew 8:13
και υποστρεψας ο εκατονταρχος εις τον οικον αυτου εν αυτη τη ωρα ευρεν τον παιδα υγιαινοντα – א C E M N U X Σ Φ
omit – B

Matthew 8:18
οχλον – Β
οχλον πολυν – W
πολυν οχλον – 12 243 copsa syrcur, sin
οχλους – א 1 22
πολλους οχλους – אc C N Σ Φ
οχλους πολλους – 108
πολλους – 106

Matthew 8:22
ο δε ιησους λεγει – B syrcur
ο δε λεγει – א 33 b c k q syrs

Matthew 8:26
τω ανεμω και τη θαλασση – א f1 f13 22
τοις ανεμοις και τη θαλασση – Β

Matthew 8:29
απολεσαι – א copbo
βασανισαι – Β copsa

Matthew 8:34
ινα – B W
οπως –א

Matthew 9:4a
και ιδων – א C D K L W X Δ Πmg f13 33 892 1009 1010 1071 1216 1230 1242 1253 1365 1646 2148 Byz Lect it vg syrs copbo ethro
και ειδως – B N Πtxt f1 565 700 1079 1195 1546  184, 313, 1627, 1761 syrh goth arm? Eth geo
και ειδος – ℓ 76
ιδως – ℓ 547
ειδως δε – Θ

Matthew 9:4b
εγειρε περιπατει – א copsa syr
εγειρε και περιπατει – Β

Matthew 9:6a
εγειρε – Β 372
εγειρε και – D
εγερθεις –א

Matthew 9:6b
πορευου – א, copsa and copbo used different terms, but every concerned to πορευου
υπαγε – Β

Matthew 9:9a
εκειθεν – Β
omit – א L 10 71 copbo

Matthew 9:9b
λεγει – א copsa
και λεγει – Β copbo

Matthew 9:9c
ηκολουθει – א D f1 21 892
ηκολουθησεν – B

Matthew 9:10a
και ανακειμενου – א
και εγενετο αυτου ανακειμενου – B

Matthew 9:10b
ιδου – א D 892
και ιδου – Β

Matthew 9:10c
ελθοντες – א 243  50
omit – B

Matthew 9:12
ιατρων – א
ιατρου – Β

Matthew 9:15
ελευσονται – א*
omit – B

Matthew 9:16
το πληρομα αυτου – Β
το πληρομα –א

Matthew 9:17
ει δει μη – Β 301 copsa
ει δε μηγε –א

Matthew 9:18
ιδου αρχων προσελθων – א 13 157
ιδου αρχων εις προσελθων – Β
ιδου αρχων εισελθων – אc C D E M X N W Σ Φ
ιδου αρχων εις ελθων – Κ S V Δ Π

Matthew 9:19
ηκολουθει – א C D 33 41
ηκολουθεσεν – Β
ηκολουθησαν – Ε Μ

Matthew 9:21
εαν αψομαι – א
εαν αψομαι μονον – D
εαν μονον αψομαι – Β

Matthew 9:22
ο δε – א D
ο δε Ιησους – Β

Matthew 9:24
ειδοτες οτι απεθανεν – א 61
omit – B

Matthew 9:26
η φημη αυτης – א C N 86 99 238 348
η φημη αυτου – D
η φημη αυτη – B

Matthew 9:27a
ηκολουθησαν – Β D
ηκολουθησαν αυτω –א

Matthew 9:27b
κραυγαζοντες – א
κραζοντες – B

Matthew 9:27c
υιος – B G U Π
υιε – א

Matthew 9:28a
εισελθοντι δε αυτω – א Ν Σ
ελθοντι δε – Β
και ερχεται – D

Matthew 9:28b
οι δυο τυφλοι – א D
οι τυφλοι – B

Matthew 9:28c
Ιησους – א copbo
ο Ιησους – Β

Matthew 9:28d
τουτο δυναμαι ποιησαι – Β
δυναμαι ποιησαι τουτο – C
δυναμαι υμιν τουτο ποιησαι –א

Matthew 9:30a
ηνεωχυησαν – B D N Σ
ηνοιχθησαν – C
ανεωχθησαν –א

Matthew 9:30b
οι οφθαλμοι – א
οι οφθαλμοι αυτων – D
αυτων οι οφθαλμοι – B

Matthew 9:31
εν τη γη εκεινη – א
εν ολη τη γη εκεινη – Β

Matthew 9:35a
κηρυσσων – א
και κηρυσσων – Β

Matthew 9:35b
εν τω λαω – א
omit – B C D S Δ

Matthew 9:35c
και ηκολουθεσαω αυτω – א
και πολλοι ηκολουθεσαω αυτω – L Φ 13 124
omit – B

Matthew 10:3
θαδδαιος – א
και θαδδαιος – Β 17 124 892 cop
και λεββαιος – D 122
και λεββαιος ο επικλ. Θαδδαιος – E N W Σ Φ
και Θαδδαιος ο επικλ. λεββαιος – f13

Matthew 10:4a
καναναιος – Β C D L N 1 22 33 118 892
κανανιτης – א

Matthew 10:4b
ο ιουδας –א 80
ιουδας – B

Matthew 10:5a
λεγων – Β
omit –א

Matthew 10:5b
ελθων – Β
omit –א

Matthew 10:7
οτι – א
omit – Β

Matthew 10:9
μηδε αργυρον – B
omit – א

Matthew 10:11
εν αυτη τις αξιος εστι – א Κ 16 99 243 892
τις εν αυτη αξιος εστι – Β
τις αξιος εστι εν αυτη – syrp

Matthew 10:12
λεγοντες ειρηνη τω οικω τουτω – א D L W Φ f1 22 99 237 251  49
omit – Β

Matthew 10:14a
μη δεξηται – Β
omit –א

Matthew 10:14b
η πολεως η κωμης – א f13 61 892 cop
η της κωμης – syrp
η της πολεως – Β

Matthew 10:14c
εκ των ποδων υμων – א C 27 33 41 71 157 892
των ποδων υμων – B

Matthew 10:15
γη σοδομων και γη γομορρων – א
γη σοδομων και γομορρων – Β

Matthew 10:16a
εις μεσον – Β
εν μεσω – א D

Matthew 10:16b
ως ο οφις – א
ως οι οφεις – B
ωσει οφεις – L 157

Matthew 10:21
επαναστησεται τεκνα – Β Δ 75 235 700
επαναστησονται τεκνα –א

Matthew 10:23
Ισραηλ – Β D
του Ισραηλ – א

Matthew 10:24
υπερ τον διδασκαλον αυτου – א F M W
υπερ του διδασκαλον – Β

Matthew 10:25a
ει τω οικοδεσποτη βεελζεβουλ … τοις οικιακοις – Β
ει τω οικοδεσποτην βεελζεβουλ … τοις οικιακους –א

Matthew 10:25b
επεκαλεσαντο – א N
εκαλεσαντω – L
απεκαλεσαν – U
επεκαλεσαν – Β
καλουσιν – D

Matthew 10:28
ψυχην και το σωμα – א
την ψυχην μετα του σωματος – copbo
ψυχην και σωμα – Β C D L X Π Σ
σωμα και ψυχην – syrsin
την ψυχην και το σωμα – E אc W Φ

Matthew 10:3
εν τοις ουρανοις – Β C Κ V Σ Φ
εν ουρανοις – א

Matthew 10:33a
οστις δε αρνησηται – Β L
οστις δ’ αρνησηται – C
οστις δαν αρνησηται – א
και οστις αρνησηται – W syrcur

Matthew 10:33b
εν τοις ουρανοις – Β V X
εν ουρανοις –א

Matthew 10:34
ειρηνην βαλειν – א
ειρηνην ηλθον βαλειν – h k vg
βαλειν ειρηνην – Β

Matthew 10:37
και ο φιλων υιον η θυγατερα υπερ εμε ουκ εστιν αξιος – א
omit – B D

Matthew 10:40
ο δε εμε – א
και ο εμε – Β

Matthew 11:4
τω Ιωαννη – א 243
Ιωαννει – D W Δ
Ιωαννη – Β

Matthew 11:8
ανθρωπον ιδειν – א
ιδειν ανθρωπον – Β

Matthew 11:15
ακουειν – א
omit – Β D 32 700

Matthew 11:19
φιλος τελωνων – א
τελωνων φιλος – Β

Matthew 11:21
εν σακκω και σποδω μετενοησαν – Β
εν σακκω και σποδω καθημενοι μετενοησαν – א C U

Matthew 11:23a
καταβηση – Β D W
καταβιβασηυση – א

Matthew 11:23b
αι εν σοι γενομεναι – B
αι γενομεναι εν σοι –א

Matthew 11:24a
οτι – Β
omit – א Ν 33

Matthew 11:24b
ανεκτοτερον εσται γη σοδομων – א
γη σοδομων ανεκτοτερον εσται – Β

Matthew 11:27
υπο του πατρος – א 71
υπο του πατρος μου – Β

Matthew 11:29
μαθετε – א
μαθετε απ εμου – Β

Matthew 12:1
σαββατοις – Β
σαββασιν – א W
εν τοις σαββασιν – W

Matthew 12:4
ο – Β D W
ους –א

Matthew 12:10
θεραπευσαι – א D L W 106
θεραπεθειν – Β

Matthew 12:11
πεση – א Γ 238 251 253 892
εμπεση – Β

Matthew 12:12
σαββατοις – Β
σαββασιν –א

Matthew 12:13
ως η αλλη – Β
omit –א 892

Matthew 12:17
ινα – א Β C D 1 33
οπως – Ε

Matthew 12:20
ληνον – Β
λινον –א

Matthew 12:22a
προσηνεγκαν αυτω δαιμονιζομενον τυφλον και κωφον – Β
προσηνεγκαν αυτω δαιμονιζομενος τυφλος και κωφος –א

Matthew 12:22b
εθεραπευσεν αυτους – א
εθεραπευσεν αυτον – Β

Matthew 12:29
αρπασαι – Β C Ν Χ W Σ 892
διαρπασαι – א D Φ

Matthew 12:30
σκορπιζει με – א 33
σκορπιζει – Β

Matthew 12:31
αφεθησεται υμιν τοις ανθρωποις – Β
αφεθησεται τοις ανθρωποις –א

Matthew 12:32a
ουκ αφεθησεται – Β
αφεθησεται –א

Matthew 12:32b
ου μη αφεθη – Β
ου μη αφεθησεται – א*
ουκ αφεθησεται – אcorr

Matthew 12:35
αγαθα – Β W
τα αγαθα – א C L U Δ Ν Σ Φ

Matthew 12:37
και εκ των λογων – א
και εκ των λογων σου – Β
και εκ των λογων εργων σου – Κ

Matthew 12:38
τινες των γραμματαιων – Β 59
τινες των γραμματαιων και φαρισαιων – א
τινες των φαρισαιων και γραμματαιων – Κ

Matthew 12:44a
και ευρισκει – א
και ελθον ευρισκει – Β
και ελθων ευρισκει – F G X Γ Σ Φ

Matthew 12:44b
και σεσαρωμενον – א C
σεσαρωμενον – Β

Matthew 12:46
ζητουντες αυτω λαλησαι – Sinaiticusa Β C Z
ζητουντες λαλησαι αυτω – D L Φ
omit –א

Matthew 12:48
αδελφοι – Β
αδελφοι μου –א

Matthew 12:49
την χειραν – א
την χειρα αυτου – B

Matthew 13:3
του σπειραι – א D L Μ Χ Σ Φ
του σπειρειν – Β

Matthew 13:4
και ελθοντα τα πετεινα κατεφαγεν – Β
και ηλθεν τα πετεινα και κατεφαγεν – א D

Matthew 13:5
αλλα … και ευθεως εξανετειλαν – Β
αλλα … και ευθεως εξανετειλεν –א

Matthew 13:5a
βαθος της γης – Β
βατος γης – א

Matthew 13:6
εκαυματωθη – Β
εκαυματισθη –א

Matthew 13:7
επνιξαν – א
ανεπνιξαν – Β

Matthew 13:10
αυτοις λαλεις – א
λαλεις αυτοις – Β

Matthew 13:14
ακουσατε … βλεψετε – Β
ακουσητε … βλεψετε – Σ
ακουσετε … βλεψητε – א Φ
ακουσετε … βλεψετε – C D
ακουσητε … βλεψητε – Ε F G M N U V Γ

Matthew 13:15
τοις ωσιν αυτων – א C Φ
τοις ωσιν – Β D

Matthew 13:17a
αμην – א Χ Φ
αμην γαρ – Β

Matthew 13:17b
και δικαιοι – א
omit – B

Matthew 13:24
ελαλησεν – Β
παρεθηκεν א Β2

Matthew 13:25
επεσπαρκεν – א 1 13 22
επεσπειρεν – Β Ν Σ
εσπειρεν – C D W Φ

Matthew 13:27
τα ζιζανια – א L X Σ Φ
ζιζανια – Β N W

Matthew 13:28a
οι δε – Β 157
οι δε δουλοι – א

Matthew 13:28b
αυτω λεγουσιν – Β C
λεγουσιν αυτω – א D
ειπον αυτω – Ε N

Matthew 13:30a
αχρι – א* L
εως – Β D
μεχρι – C אb N Σ

Matthew 13:30b
εν τω καιρω – א C E L
εν καιρω – B D אb N W Σ

Matthew 13:30c
αυτας – Β
αυτα –א

Matthew 13:30d
συναγετε – Β Γ 1
συναγαγετε – א B2
συνλεγεται – D

Matthew 13:32
κατασκηνοιν – Β* D
κατασκηνουν – א B2

Matthew 13:33
ελαλεσεν αυτοις λεγων – א L M U X Θ f13 28
παρεθηκεν αυτοις λεγων – C 243 1241
ελαλεσεν αυτοις – Β
omit – D syrcur, sin d k

Matthew 13:34
ελαλησεν – א Δ 61
ελαλει – Β D אc Σ Φ
ελαλη – Ε Μ Γ W

Matthew 13:35a
δια Ησαιου του προφητου – א 1
δια του προφητου – Β

Matthew 13:35b
απο καταβολης – B אb 1
απο καταβολης κοσμου – א
απ αρχης – syrcur, sin

Matthew 13:36a
εισηλθεν – א
ανηλθεν – 273
απηλθεν – a b h q
ηλθεν – Β

Matthew 13:36b
διασαφησον – א B Θ 0242
φρασον – אb C D L W 0106 0233 0250 f1 f13 Byz

Matthew 13:39a
ο δε εχθρος εστιν ο σπειρας αυτα ο διαβολος – Β
ο δε εχθρος ο σπειρας αυτα εστιν ο διαβολος – א
ο δε εχθρος ο σπειρων αυτα εστιν ο διαβολος – L
ο δε εχθρος ο σπειρας εστιν ο διαβολος – D

Matthew 13:39b
ο δε θερισμος συντελεια αιωνος εστιν – Β
omit –א

Matthew 13:41
τους αγγελους – א F
τους αγγελους αυτου – Β

Matthew 13:42
βαλλουσιν – א D Χ
βαλουσιν – Β

Matthew 13:44a
εν τω αγρω – Β אα
omit –א

Matthew 13:44b
πωλει οσα εχει – Β 28 61 435
πωλει παντα οσα εχει –א

Matthew 13:48
εβαλλον – א V Δ
εξεβαλλον – Χ
εβαλον – Β

Matthew 13:50
βαλλουσιν – א D Χ
εκβαλυσιν – 258
βαλουσιν – Β

Matthew 13:54
εις την αντιπατριδα αυτου – א
εις την πατριδα αυτου – rest of mss

Matthew 13:55
Ιωαννης – א* D E F G M S U V X Φ
Ιωσηφ – אa B C N Σ
Ιωσης – K L W Δ Π Φ
Ιωση – copbo

Matthew 13:57a
ο δε Ιησους – Β
omit –א

Matthew 13:57 b
εν τη πατριδι – Β D
εν τη ιδια πατριδι – א Ζ f13 892
εν τη πατριδι αυτου – E G K M N S V Γ Δ Σ Φ L X W

Matthew 14:1
τετρααρχης – א C Z Δ
τετραρχης – Β D

Matthew 14:2
δια τουτο – א
omit – Β

Matthew 14:3
τοτε κρατησας – Β
κρατησας –א

Matthew 14:4a
Ιωαννης – א D
ο Ιωαννης – Β

Matthew 14:4b
αυτω – Β 24 28
omit –א

Matthew 14:5
επει – Β
επειδη – Ν Σ
οτι –א

Matthew 14:7
μετα ορκου – א
μεθορκου – Β

Matthew 14:9
λυπηθεις ο βασιλευς δια τους ορκους – Β D
ελυπηθη ο βασιλευς δια δε τους ορκους –א

Matthew 14:12
αυτου – א D L Σ
omit – Β

Matthew 14:13
πεζοι – א L Ζ 245
πεζη – Β

Matthew 14:15a
παρηλθεν ηδη – א Ζ 1
ηδη παρηλθεν – Β D
παρηλθεν – copsa copbo arm syr

Matthew 14:15b
απολυσον ουν – א C Z
ιδου απολυσον – eth
και απολυσον – k
απολυσον – Β

Matthew 14:15c
χωρας – א
πολεις – 238
κωμας – Β

Matthew 14:16
ο δε – א D 61
ο δε Ιησους – Β

Matthew 14:17
αρτους ει μη πεντε – א
ει μη πεντε αρτους – Β

Matthew 14:19a
κελευσατε – Β
εκελευσεν – א Ζ
κελευσας – Β2 D

Matthew 14:19b
λαβων – Β C2 E F G
ελαβεν – D
και ελαβεν – א C L X

Matthew 14:22a
και ευθεως – Β
και – א C 892

Matthew 14:22b
τους μαθητας – א C D
τους μαθητας αυτου – Β Ε F Κ P X Π Σ

Matthew 14:22c
πλοιον – Β Σ 1 33 99 124 700 892
το πλοιον –א

Matthew 14:23
απολυσας τους οχλους – Β
omit –251א

Matthew 14:24
σταδιους πολλους απο της γης απειχε βασανιζομενον – Β f13
μενον της θαλασσης ην βασανιζομενον –א

Matthew 14:26
οι δε μαθηται ιδοντες αυτον – א1 Β D f13 pc
ιδοντες δε αυτον – א* Θ 700 pc copsa
και ιδοντες αυτον – 084 f1 1241 1424 pc copbo pt
και ιδοντες αυτον οι μαθηται – C L W 0106 Byz syrh copbo pt

Matthew 14:28a
ο πετρος ειπεν αυτω – Β
ο πετρος αυτω ειπεν – 33
αυτω ο πετρος ειπεν –א

Matthew 14:28b
ει συ ει κυριε – א 892
ει συ ει – syrsin
κυριε ει συ ει – Β

Matthew 14:29
ελθιν ηλθεν ουν προς τον ΙΝ – א*
ηλθεν προς ΙΝ – copsa
και θλθεν προς τον ΙΝ – Β C 700
θλθεν προς τον ΙΝ – אc C2 D copbo

Matthew 14:35
του τοπου εκεινου – Β
του τοπου –א

Matthew 14:36
παρεκαλουν – Β 892
παρεκαλουν αυτον –א

Matthew 15:3
διατι υμεις – א
διατι και υμεις – Β

Matthew 15:4
ειπεν (see Mark 7:10) – אa B D Θ 084 f1 f13 700 892 ita, aur, b, c, d, e, ff1, ff2, g1, l q vg syrc, s, p copsa, bo, fay arm eth geo
ενετειλατο λεγων – א*, b C K L W X Δ Π 0106 33 565 1010 1071 1230 1241 1253 1344 1365 2174 Byz

Matthew 15:5
ωφεληθης ουδεν εστιν – א
ωφεληθης – Β

Matthew 15:6
τον νομον – א C f13
τον λογον – Β D 892
την εντολην – Ε F G N W Σ Φ

Matthew 15:11a
ερχομενον – Β
εισερχομενον –א

Matthew 15:11b
τουτο κοινοι τον ανον – א cop
κοινοι τον ανον – Β
κοινωνει τον ανον – D

Matthew 15:12
λεγουσιν – Β D
λεγοντες – copsa
ειπαν – א
ειπον – C

Matthew 15:14
τυφλοι εισιν οδηγοι – Β D L Z
οδηγοι τυφλοι – 253
οδηγοι εισιν τυφλοι – א C

Matthew 15:15
αυτω ειπεν – Β
ειπεν αυτω – א
ειπεν – W

Matthew 15:17
ου νοειτε – Β D Ζ Θ 33 238 f13
ετι ου νοειτε –
ουπω νοειτε – א C L W 0119 f1 Byz

Matthew 15:17
εισερχομενον – Β Θ 381
εισπορευομενον – א

Matthew 15:17
εις τον αφεδρωνα – א Γ 99 253 892
εις αφεδρωνα – B

Matthew 15:22
εκραξεν – א* Ζ f13 892
εκραζεν – Β D Σ אc
εκραυγαζεν – M 299
εκραυγασεν – C (εκραυγασεν 4)

Matthew 15:22
κυριε υιος – B D Θ 56 58 700
κυριε υιε – א

Matthew 15:27
και τα κυναρια – B
και γαρ τα κυναρια – א

Matthew 15:30
different order

Matthew 15:31
τον οχλον – C D U Δgr Φ Θ
τους οχλους – B

Matthew 15:31
κωφους ακουοντας – B Φ 59 115 238
κωφους ακουοντας και λαλουντας – N Σ  48 49
κωφους λαλουντας – א

Matthew 15:31
κυλλους υγιεις – B D
omit – Sinaiticus 1 700 892

Matthew 16:6
αυτοις – B
omit –א

Matthew 16:9
ουδε μνημονευετε – Β
omit – א X

Matthew 16:12
της ζυμης των αρτων των Φαρισαιων και Σαδδουκαιων – א ff1 syrc
της ζυμης των Φαρισαιων – 33
της ζυμης των αρτων – א2 Β L 892 1009 1241
των αρτων – f1
της ζυμης του αρτου – C Κ W Χ Δ Π 28 700 1010 Byz c f q
της ζυμης – D Θ f13 565 a b ff2 syrs

Matthew 17:10
οι μαθηται αυτου – Β
οι μαθηται – א L Z W

Matthew 17:15
κυριε – Β
omit –א

Matthew 17:17
αποκριθεις δε ο Ιησους – Β
δε ο αποκριθεις –א

Matthew 18:7
ουαι τω ανθφωπω – א
ουαι τω ανθφωπω εκεινω – Β

Matthew 18:14
εμπροσθεν του πατρος υμων – א Dc K L W X Δ Π f1 28 565
εμπροσθεν του πατρος ημων – Dgr 1646 2148
εμπροσθεν του πατρος μου – B Θ f13 33 700 892 1010 1216 1230 1241 1253 Byz

Matthew 18:16
δυο η τριων μαρτυρων – א Θ 700
δυο μαρτυρων η τριων – B
μαρτυρων δυο η τριων – L l
δυο η τριων – D

Matthew 19:7
απολυται – א
απολυται αυτην – Β

Matthew 19:10
λεγουσιν – א
λεγουσιν αυτω – Β

Matthew 19:12
εισιν ευνοχοι – א
εισιν γαρ ευνοχοι – Β

Matthew 19:16
ποιησας – א
ποιησω ινα – Β

Matthew 19:22
ακουσας δε ο νεανισκος – א
ακουσας δε ο νεανισκος τον λογον τουτον – Β

Matthew 21:16
εκ στοματος – א
οτι εκ στοματος – Β

Matthew 21:17
εξω της πολεως – Β
omit – א

Matthew 21:19
ευρεν – Β
omit – א

Matthew 21:28
αμπελονι – א
αμπελονι μου – Β

Matthew 21:33
ωρυξεν αυτω – א V 69
ωρυξεν εν αυτω – Β

Matthew 22:1
παραβολαις αυτοις – א
εν παραβολαις αυτοις – Β

Matthew 22:11
ειδεν ανθρωπον – א
ειδεν εκει ανθρωπον – Β

Matthew 22:40
ολος – Β
omit –א

Matthew 23:3
ποιησατε – א
ποιησατε και τηρειτε – Β

Matthew 23:8
καθηγητης – Sinaiticus*, 2, Bezae, Regius, Koridethi, 1010, 1241, 1424, Byz,  292*
διδασκαλος – Sinaiticus1, Vaticanus, 33, 892,  292cor

Matthew 23:35
αιμα – א
παν αιμα – Β

Matthew 23:35b
υιου βαραχιου – Β
omit –א

Matthew 23:37
η – Β
omit –א

Matthew 24:2
ταυτα – א
ταυτα παντα – Β

Matthew 24:9
υπο των εθνων – א
υπο παντων των εθνων – Β

Matthew 24:24
σημεια και τερατα – א
σημεια μεγαλα και τερατα – Β

Matthew 24:26
ουν – Β
omit –א

Matthew 24:30
και κοψομται – א
και τοτε κοψομται – Β

Matthew 24:31
σαλπιγγος μεγαλης – א
σαλπιγγος φωνης μεγαλης – Β

Matthew 24:35
omit – א
included – B

Matthew 24:48
ο κακος δουλος – א
ο κακος δουλος εκεινος – Β

Matthew 25:3
λαμπαδας – א L
λαμπαδας αυτων – Β

Matthew 25:17
ωσαυτως – א
ωσαυτως και – Β

Matthew 25:22
κυριε – Β
omit –א

Matthew 26:33
παντες – א
ει παντες – Β

Matthew 26:50
ο δε – א
ο δε Ιησους – Β

Matthew 26:72
οτι – Β
omit – א

Matthew 27:11
εφη – א
εφη αυτω – Β

Matthew 27:33
λεγομενον – Β
omit –א

Matthew 27:45
επι πασαν την γην – Β
omit –א

Matthew 27:47
οτι – Β
omit –א

Matthew 27:48
εξ αυτων – Β
omit – א

Matthew 27:53
εισηλθον –
omit –א

Matthew 27:59
εν – Β
omit –א

Matthew 27:60
αυτο – Β
omit –א

Matthew 28:5
ταις γυναιξιν – Β
omit –א

Matthew 28:10
μου – Β
omit –א

Matthew 28:15
ημερας – Β
omit – א

Matthew 28:18
αυτοις – Β
omit –א

Gospel of Mark

Mark 4:20
εν… εν… εν… – א A C2 D
εν… omit… omit… – B

Mark 6:43
κλασματα δωδεκα κοφινων πληρωματα – 𝔓45 Β (L Δ) 892
κλασματων δωδεκα κοφινους πληρεις – A D Θ Byz (syrh)
περισσευματα κλασματων δωδεκα κοφινους πληρεις – (33) 1241 1424 it
κλασματων δωδεκα κοφινων πληρωματα – א W (f1f13 pc

Mark 10:19
μη αποστεπησης – א A B2 C D X Θ 565 892 1009 1071 1195 1216 1230 1241 1253 1344 1365 1646 2174 Byz
omit – B* K W Δ Π Ψ f1 f13 28 700 1010 1079 1242 1546 2148

Mark 10:40
ητοιμασται υπο του πατρος μου – א*, b, f1 1071 1241 ita, r1
ητοιμασται παρα του πατρος μου – Θ
ητοιμασται παρα του πατρος –  60
ητοιμασται – majority of mss A B C K L W X Δ Π Ψ 0146 Byz

Mark 11:1
εις Βηθφαγη και Βηθανιαν – Β
εις Βηθφαγη και εις Βηθανιαν – א C Θ

Mark 11:3
αυτον αποστελλει παλιν – א D L 892 1241 Lect (αποστελει copsa)
αποστελλει παλιν αυτον – B
παλιν αποστελλει αυτον – Θ
αποστελλει παλιν – Δ
αυτον αποστελλει – A K X (αποστελει W f1 700 copbof13 Byz
αποστελλει αυτον – 1344 1365

Mark 11:7
φερουσιν – א2 B L Δ Ψ 892
αγουσιν – א* C W Θ f1 f13 28
ηγαγον – A D 0133 Byz

Gospel of Luke

Luke 2:37
εβδομηκοντα – א
ογδοηκοντα – Β majority of mss

Luke 8:3
διηκονουν αυτοις (provided for them) – Β
διηκονουν αυτω (provided for Him) – א

Luke 8:45
Πετρος – 𝔓75 Β Π 700 1079 1546 syrc, s, pal copsa eth geo
Πετρος και οι συν αυτω – א A C D L P W Θ Ξ f1 f13 33 892 1009 1071 1195 1230 1241 1253 Lect
Πετρος και οι μετ’ αυτου – K X Δ Ψ 28 565 1000 1216 1242 1344 1365 1646 2148 2174 Byz

Luke 9:23
αρνησασθω – א A Β2 D K L Θ Ξ f13 33
απαρνησασθω – 𝔓75 Β* C R W Ψ f1 Byz

Gospel of John

John 1:25
και ηρω[τησαν] αυτον (and asked him) – 𝔓5
και ειπον αυτω (and told him) – Sinaiticus
και ηρωτησαν και ειπαν αυτω (and asked him and told him) – Vaticanus

John 1:33
και εγω (and I) – Sinaiticus
καγω (and I) – Vaticanus

John 1:34
ο εκλεκτος (chosen one) – 𝔓5 Sinaiticus
ο υιος (the son) – Vaticanus

This article is from Wikipedia but has been updated and will be updated even more so by Edward D. Andrews for Christian Publishing House.

[1] Dean John W. Burgon, Revision Revised (1883), p. 12

[2] Fee, G. D. (1968-9). Codex Sinaiticus in the Gospel of John, NTS 15, pp. 22-44.

[3] Westcott, B. F. and Hort, F. J. A. (1860). Introduction to the Study of the Gospels, p. 40.

[4] Dirk Jongkind (2007), Scribal Habits of Codex Sinaiticus, Gorgias Press LLC, p. 90.

[5] Bruce M. Metzger (1991). Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 77.

[6] Dirk Jongkind (2007), Scribal Habits of Codex Sinaiticus, Gorgias Press LLC, p. 77-78.

[7] IBID., 80-81.

[8] IBID., 90.

[9] Milne-Skeat. Scribes and Correctors of the Codex Sinaiticus, (London: British Museum, 1938), p. 94.

[10] Jongkind, Dirk (2007), Scribal Habits of Codex Sinaiticus, Gorgias Press LLC, p. 90.

[11] IBID. 53-55

[12] Kurt Aland; Barbara Aland (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, trans. Erroll F. Rhodes. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 107.

[13] Bruce M. Metzger (1991). Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 77.

[14] Bruce M. Metzger; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005), The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 66–67

[15] Milne, H. J. M. and T. C. Skeat, (1938). Scribes and Correctors of the Codex Sinaiticus, London: British Museum, p. 33.

[16] Dirk Jongkind (2007), Scribal Habits of Codex Sinaiticus, Gorgias Press LLC, p. 44.

[17] Bruce M. Metzger, (1992). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration, (3rd Ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 46.

[18] Gregory, C. R. (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments (in German). 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung. p. 19. Retrieved 13 November 2019.

[19] Constantin von Tischendorf, Editio octava critica maior, ed. C. R. Gregory (Lipsiae 1884), p. 360.

[20] Kurt Aland; Barbara Aland (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, trans. Erroll F. Rhodes. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 109.

[21] H.J.M. Milne & T.C. Skeat, “Scribes and Correctors” (British Museum: London 1938).

[22] Bruce M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Greek Palaeography, New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991, p. 74.

[23] Constantin von Tischendorf, Editio octava critica maior, ed. C. R. Gregory (Lipsiae 1884), pp. 346, 360.

Constantin von Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Vaticanum. Post Angeli Maii Aloirumque Imperfectos Labores ex ipso Codice (Lipsiae 1867), pp. XXI-XXIII.

James Rendel Harris, Stichometry (London 1893), p. 73

[24] Frederic G. Kenyon, Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts (London 1939)

[25] H.J.M. Milne & T.C. Skeat, “Scribes and Correctors” (British Museum: London 1938).

[26] Bruce M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Greek Palaeography, New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991, p. 74.

[27] IBID

[28] Frederic G. Kenyon, “Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts” (4th ed.), London 1939.

[29] C. R. Gregory, “Canon and Text of the New Testament” (1907), pp. 343–344.

Wieland Willker (2008). “Dittographies and other corrections”. Codex Vaticanus Graece 1209, B/03. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2019-11-11.

[30] List of umlauts in the New Testament of the Codex Vaticanus Archived 2019-11-11 at the Wayback Machine

[31] Constantin von Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Vaticanum, Leipzig 1867, p. XXI.

[32] IBID

[33] Philip B. Payne and Paul Canart, The Text-Critical Function of the Umlauts in Vaticanus, with Special Attention to 1 Corinthians 14.34–35: A Response to J. Edward Miller, JSNT 27 (2004), pp. 105–112.

[34] Philip B. Payne and Paul Canart, The Originality of Text-Critical Symbols in Codex Vaticanus, Novum Testamentum 42 (2000), pp. 105–113.

  1. S. Dykes, Using the „Umlauts” of Codex Vaticanus to Dig Deeper, 2006. See: Codex Vaticanus Graece. The Umlauts Archived 2019-11-11 at the Wayback Machine.

[35] Philip B. Payne, Fuldensis, Sigla for Variants in Vaticanus and 1 Cor 14.34-5, NTS 41 (1995) 251–262.

Curt Niccum, The voice of the MSS on the Silence of the Women: …, NTS 43 (1997), pp. 242–255.

[36] Codex Vaticanus Graece 1209, B/03, Wieland Willker. “A critical note”. University of Bremen. Retrieved 2019-11-11.

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