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1 ΠαῦλοςPaul ἀπόστολοςapostle Χριστοῦof Christ ἸησοῦJesus διὰthrough θελήματοςwill θεοῦof God καὶand ΤιμόθεοςTimothy the ἀδελφὸςbrother 2 τοῖςto the ἐνin ΚολοσσαῖςColossae ἁγίοιςholy καὶand πιστοῖςfaithful ἀδελφοῖςbrothers ἐνin Χριστῷ·Christ;

χάριςundeserved kindness ὑμῖνto you καὶand εἰρήνηpeace ἀπὸfrom θεοῦGod πατρὸςFather ἡμῶν.of us.

3 ΕὐχαριστοῦμενWe are giving thanks τῷto the θεῷGod πατρὶFather τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us Ἰησοῦof Jesus ΧριστοῦChrist πάντοτεalways περὶabout ὑμῶνyou προσευχόμενοι,praying, 4 ἀκούσαντεςhaving heard τὴνthe πίστινfaith ὑμῶνof you ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist ἸησοῦJesus καὶand τὴνthe ἀγάπηνlove ἣνwhich ἔχετεyou are having εἰςinto πάνταςall τοὺςthe ἁγίουςholy (ones) 5 διὰthrough τὴνthe ἐλπίδαhope τὴνthe ἀποκειμένηνlying away ὑμῖνto you ἐνin τοῖςthe οὐρανοῖς,heavens, ἣνwhich προηκούσατεyou heard before ἐνin τῷthe λόγῳword τῆςof the ἀληθείαςtruth τοῦof the εὐαγγελίουgood news 6 τοῦof the (one) παρόντοςbeing alongside εἰςinto ὑμᾶς,you, καθὼςaccording as καὶalso ἐνin παντὶall τῷthe κόσμῳworld ἐστὶνit is καρποφορούμενονbearing fruit καὶand αὐξανόμενονincreasing καθὼςaccording as καὶalso ἐνin ὑμῖν,you, ἀφ’from ἧςwhich ἡμέραςday ἠκούσατεyou heard καὶand ἐπέγνωτεyou accurately knew τὴνthe χάρινgrace τοῦof the θεοῦGod ἐνin ἀληθείᾳ·truth; 7 καθὼςaccording as ἐμάθετεyou learned ἀπὸfrom ᾿ΕπαφρᾶEpaphras τοῦthe ἀγαπητοῦloved συνδούλουfellow slave ἡμῶν,of us, ὅςwho ἐστινisπιστὸςfaithful ὑπὲρover ἡμῶνus διάκονοςservant τοῦof the χριστοῦ,Christ, 8 the (one) καὶalso δηλώσαςhaving made evident ἡμῖνto us τὴνthe ὑμῶνof you ἀγάπηνlove ἐνin πνεύματι.spirit.

9 ΔιὰThrough τοῦτοthis καὶalso ἡμεῖς,we, ἀφ’from ἧςwhich ἡμέραςday ἠκούσαμεν,we heard, οὐnot παυόμεθαwe are ceasing ὑπὲρover ὑμῶνyou προσευχόμενοιpraying καὶand αἰτούμενοιpetitioning ἵναin order that   πληρωθῆτεyou might be filled with τὴνthe ἐπίγνωσινaccurate knowledge τοῦof the θελήματοςwill αὐτοῦof him ἐνin πάσῃall σοφίᾳwisdom καὶand συνέσειcomprehension πνευματικῇ,spiritual, 10 περιπατῆσαιto walk ἀξίωςworthily τοῦof the κυρίουLord εἰςinto πᾶσανall ἀρεσκίανpleasing ἐνin παντὶevery ἔργῳwork ἀγαθῷgood καρποφοροῦντεςbearing fruit καὶand αὐξανόμενοιincreasing τῇto the ἐπιγνώσειaccurate knowledge τοῦof the θεοῦ,God, 11 ἐνin πάσῃall δυνάμειpower δυναμούμενοιbeing made powerful κατὰaccording to τὸthe κράτοςmight τῆςof theδόξηςglory αὐτοῦof him εἰςinto πᾶσανall ὑπομονὴνendurance καὶand μακροθυμίανlongness of spirit μετὰwith χαρᾶς,joy, 12 εὐχαριστοῦντες(ones) giving thanks τῷto the πατρὶFather τῷthe (one) ἱκανώσαντιhaving made sufficient ὑμᾶςyou εἰςinto τὴνthe μερίδαportion τοῦof the κλήρουlot τῶνof the ἁγίωνholy (ones) ἐνin τῷthe φωτί,light.

13 ὃςWho ἐρύσατοdrew out to self ἡμᾶςus ἐκout of τῆςthe ἐξουσίαςauthority τοῦof the σκότουςdarkness καὶand μετέστησενtransferredεἰςinto τὴνthe βασιλείανkingdom τοῦof the υἱοῦSon τῆςof the ἀγάπηςlove αὐτοῦ,of him, 14 ἐνin whom ἔχομενwe are having τὴνthe ἀπολύτρωσιν,release by ransom, τὴνthe ἄφεσινletting go off τῶνof the ἁμαρτιῶν·sins; 15 ὅςwho ἐστινis εἰκὼνimage τοῦof the θεοῦGod τοῦthe ἀοράτου,invisible, πρωτότοκοςfirstborn πάσηςof all κτίσεως,creation, 16 ὅτιbecause ἐνin αὐτῷhim ἐκτίσθηit was created τὰthe πάνταall (things) ἐνin τοῖςthe οὐρανοῖςheavens καὶand ἐπὶupon τῆςthe γῆς,earth, τὰthe (things) ὁρατὰvisible καὶand τὰthe (things) ἀόρατα,invisible, εἴτεwhether θρόνοιthrones εἴτεor κυριότητεςlordships εἴτεor ἀρχαὶgovernments εἴτεor ἐξουσίαι·authorities; τὰthe πάνταall (things) δι’through αὐτοῦhim καὶand εἰςinto αὐτὸνhim ἔκτισται·it has been created; 17 καὶand αὐτὸςhe ἔστινis πρὸbefore πάντωνall (things) καὶand τὰthe πάνταall (things) ἐνin αὐτῷhim συνέστηκεν,it has stood together, 18 καὶand αὐτόςhe ἐστινisthe κεφαλὴhead τοῦof the σώματος,body, τῆςof the ἐκκλησίας·ecclesia; ὅςwho ἐστινis the ἀρχή,beginning, πρωτότοκοςfirstbornἐκout of τῶνthe νεκρῶν,dead (ones), ἵναin order that γένηταιmight become ἐνin πᾶσινall (things) αὐτὸςhe πρωτεύων,holding the first place, 19 ὅτιbecause ἐνin αὐτῷhim εὐδόκησενhe thought well πᾶνall τὸthe πλήρωμαfullness κατοικῆσαιto dwell down 20 καὶand δι’through αὐτοῦhim ἀποκαταλλάξαιto reconcile τὰthe πάνταall (things) εἰςinto αὐτόν,him, εἰρηνοποιήσαςhaving made peace διὰthrough τοῦthe αἵματοςblood τοῦof the σταυροῦcross αὐτοῦ,of him, δι’through αὐτοῦhim εἴτεwhetherτὰthe (things) ἐπὶupon τῆςthe γῆςearth εἴτεor τὰthe (things) ἐνin τοῖςthe οὐρανοῖς.heavens.

21 καὶAnd ὑμᾶςyou ποτὲsometime ὄνταςbeing ἀπηλλοτριωμένουςhaving been alienated καὶand ἐχθροὺςenemies τῇto the διανοίᾳmental perception ἐνin τοῖςthe ἔργοιςworks τοῖςthe πονηροῖς,—wicked,— 22 νυνὶnow δὲbut ἀποκατήλλαξενhe reconciled ἐνin τῷthe σώματιbody τῆςof the σαρκὸςflesh αὐτοῦof him διὰthrough τοῦthe θανάτου,—death,— παραστῆσαιto present ὑμᾶςyou ἁγίουςholy καὶand ἀμώμουςunspotted καὶand ἀνεγκλήτουςunaccusable κατενώπιονdown in sight αὐτοῦ,of him,
23 εἴif γεin fact   ἐπιμένετεyou are remaining upon τῇto the πίστειfaith τεθεμελιωμένοιhaving been founded καὶand ἑδραῖοιsettled καὶand μὴnot μετακινούμενοιbeing moved elsewhere ἀπὸfrom τῆςthe ἐλπίδοςhope τοῦof the εὐαγγελίουgood news οὗof which ἠκούσατε,you heard, τοῦof the (one) κηρυχθέντοςhaving been preached ἐνin πάσῃall κτίσειcreation τῇthe ὑπὸunder τὸνthe οὐρανόν,heaven, οὗof which ἐγενόμηνbecame ἐγὼI ΠαῦλοςPaul διάκονος.servant.

24 ΝῦνNow χαίρωI am rejoicing ἐνin τοῖςthe παθήμασινsufferings ὑπὲρover ὑμῶν,you, καὶand ἀνταναπληρῶI am filling up instead τὰthe ὑστερήματαlacking (things) τῶνof the θλίψεωνtribulations τοῦof the χριστοῦChrist ἐνin τῇthe σαρκίflesh μουof me ὑπὲρover τοῦthe σώματοςbody αὐτοῦ,of him, which ἐστινis the ἐκκλησία,ecclesia,
25 ἧςof which ἐγενόμηνI became ἐγὼI διάκονοςservant κατὰaccording to τὴνthe οἰκονομίανhouse administration τοῦof the θεοῦGod τὴνthe δοθεῖσάνhaving been given μοιto me εἰςinto ὑμᾶςyou πληρῶσαιto fulfill τὸνthe λόγονword τοῦof the θεοῦ,God, 26 τὸthe μυστήριονmystery τὸthe ἀποκεκρυμμένονhaving been hidden away ἀπὸfrom τῶνthe αἰώνωνages καὶand ἀπὸfrom τῶνthe γενεῶν,—generations,— νῦνnow δὲbut ἐφανερώθηit was manifested τοῖςto the ἁγίοιςholy (ones) αὐτοῦ,of him, 27 οἷςto whom ἠθέλησενwilled the θεὸςGod γνωρίσαιto make known τίwhat τὸthe πλοῦτοςriches τῆςof the δόξηςglory τοῦof the μυστηρίουmystery τούτουthis ἐνin τοῖςthe ἔθνεσιν,nations, which ἐστινis ΧριστὸςChrist ἐνin ὑμῖν,you, the ἐλπὶςhope τῆςof the δόξης·glory; 28 ὃνwhom ἡμεῖςwe καταγγέλλομενare announcing down νουθετοῦντεςputting mind into πάνταevery ἄνθρωπονman καὶand διδάσκοντεςteaching πάνταevery ἄνθρωπονman ἐνin πάσῃall σοφίᾳ,wisdom, ἵναin order that παραστήσωμενwe might present πάνταevery ἄνθρωπονman τέλειονperfect ἐνin Χριστῷ·Christ; 29 εἰςinto which καὶalso κοπιῶI am laboring ἀγωνιζόμενοςstruggling κατὰaccording to τὴνthe ἐνέργειανoperation within αὐτοῦof him τὴνthe ἐνεργουμένηνoperating within ἐνin ἐμοὶme ἐνin δυνάμει.power.


1 ΘέλωI am willing γὰρfor ὑμᾶςyou εἰδέναιto have known ἡλίκονhow great ἀγῶναstruggle ἔχωI am having ὑπὲρover ὑμῶνyou καὶand τῶνof the (ones) ἐνin ΛαοδικίᾳLaodicea καὶand ὅσοιas many as οὐχnot ἑόρακανhave seen τὸthe πρόσωπόνface μουof me ἐνin σαρκί,flesh, 2 ἵναin order that παρακληθῶσινmight be comforted αἱthe καρδίαιhearts αὐτῶν,of them, συνβιβασθέντεςhaving been made to go together ἐνin ἀγάπῃlove καὶand εἰςinto πᾶνall πλοῦτοςriches τῆςof the πληροφορίαςfully being borneτῆςof the συνέσεως,comprehension, εἰςinto ἐπίγνωσινaccurate knowledge τοῦof the μυστηρίουmystery τοῦof the θεοῦ,God, Χριστοῦ,of Christ, 3 ἐνin whom εἰσὶνare πάντεςall οἱthe θησαυροὶtreasures τῆςof the σοφίαςwisdom καὶand γνώσεωςof knowledge ἀπόκρυφοι.hidden away (ones). 4 ΤοῦτοThis λέγωI am saying ἵναin order that μηδεὶςno one ὑμᾶςyou παραλογίζηταιmay be deluding ἐνin πιθανολογίᾳ.persuasive saying. 5 εἰIf γὰρfor καὶeven τῇto the σαρκὶflesh ἄπειμι,I am absent, ἀλλὰbut τῷto the πνεύματιspirit σὺνtogether with ὑμῖνyou εἰμί,I am, χαίρωνrejoicing καὶand βλέπωνseeing ὑμῶνof you τὴνthe τάξινline-up καὶand τὸthe στερέωμαfirmness τῆςof the εἰςinto ΧριστὸνChrist πίστεωςfaith ὑμῶν.of you.

6 ὩςAs οὖνtherefore παρελάβετεyou received alongside τὸνthe χριστὸνChrist ἸησοῦνJesus τὸνthe κύριον,Lord, ἐνin αὐτῷhim περιπατεῖτε,be you walking,
7 ἐρριζωμένοιhaving been rooted καὶand ἐποικοδομούμενοιbeing built upon ἐνin αὐτῷhim καὶand βεβαιούμενοιbeing stabilized τῇin the πίστειfaith καθὼςaccording as ἐδιδάχθητε,you were taught, περισσεύοντεςabounding ἐνin αὐτῇit ἐνin εὐχαριστίᾳ.thanksgiving.

8 ΒλέπετεBe you looking at μήnot τιςsomeone ὑμᾶςyou ἔσταιwill be the (one) συλαγωγῶνleading as booty διὰthrough τῆςthe φιλοσοφίαςphilosophy καὶand κενῆςempty ἀπάτηςseduction κατὰaccording to τὴνthe παράδοσινtradition τῶνof the ἀνθρώπων,men, κατὰaccording to τὰthe στοιχεῖαelementary things τοῦof the κόσμουworld καὶand οὐnot κατὰaccording to Χριστόν·Christ; 9 ὅτιbecause ἐνin αὐτῷhim κατοικεῖis dwelling down πᾶνall τὸthe πλήρωμαfullness τῆςof the θεότητοςdivinity σωματικῶς,bodily, 10 καὶand ἐστὲyou are ἐνin αὐτῷhim πεπληρωμένοι,(ones) having been filled, ὅςwho ἐστινis the κεφαλὴhead πάσηςof all ἀρχῆςgovernment καὶand ἐξουσίας,of authority, 11 ἐνin whom καὶalso περιετμήθητεyou were circumcised περιτομῇto circumcision ἀχειροποιήτῳnot done by hand ἐνin τῇthe ἀπεκδύσειstripping off τοῦof the σώματοςbody τῆςof the σαρκός,flesh, ἐνin τῇthe περιτομῇcircumcisionτοῦof the χριστοῦ,Christ, 12 συνταφέντεςhaving been jointly buried αὐτῷto him ἐνin τῷthe βαπτίσματι,baptism, ἐνin whom καὶalso συνηγέρθητεyou were jointly raised up διὰthrough τῆςthe πίστεωςfaith τῆςof the ἐνεργείαςoperation within τοῦof the θεοῦGod τοῦthe (one) ἐγείραντοςhaving raised up αὐτὸνhim ἐκout of νεκρῶν.dead (ones).

13 καὶAnd ὑμᾶςyou νεκροὺςdead (ones) ὄνταςbeing τοῖςto the παραπτώμασινfalls beside καὶand τῇto the ἀκροβυστίᾳuncircumcision τῆςof the σαρκὸςflesh ὑμῶν,of you, συνεζωοποίησενhe made alive together ὑμᾶςyou σὺνtogether with αὐτῷ·him; χαρισάμενοςhaving graciously forgiven ἡμῖνto us πάνταall τὰthe παραπτώματα,falls beside, 14 ἐξαλείψαςhaving wiped out τὸthe καθ’down on ἡμῶνus χειρόγραφονhandwriting τοῖςto the δόγμασινdecrees which ἦνwas ὑπεναντίονunder-in-against ἡμῖν,to us, καὶand αὐτὸit ἦρκενhe has lifted up ἐκout of τοῦthe μέσουmiddle προσηλώσαςhaving nailed toward αὐτὸit τῷto the σταυρῷ·cross; 15 ἀπεκδυσάμενοςhaving stripped off τὰςthe ἀρχὰςgovernments καὶand τὰςthe ἐξουσίαςauthorities ἐδειγμάτισενhe made show of ἐνin παρρησίᾳoutspokenness θριαμβεύσαςhaving triumphed over αὐτοὺςthem ἐνin αὐτῷ.it.

16 ΜὴNot οὖνtherefore τιςanyone ὑμᾶςyou κρινέτωlet him be judging ἐνin βρώσειeating καὶand ἐνin πόσειdrinking or ἐνin μέρειpart ἑορτῆςof festival or νεομηνίαςof new moon or σαββάτων,of sabbaths, 17 which (things) ἐστινis σκιὰshadow τῶνof the (things) μελλόντων,being about to, τὸthe δὲbut σῶμαbody τοῦof the χριστοῦ.Christ. 18 μηδεὶςNo one ὑμᾶςyou καταβραβευέτωlet him be depriving of prize θέλωνwilling ἐνin ταπεινοφροσύνῃlowly-mindedness καὶand θρησκείᾳform of worship τῶνof the ἀγγέλων,angels, which (things) ἑόρακενhe has seen ἐμβατεύων,stepping into, εἰκῇin vain φυσιούμενοςbeing puffed up ὑπὸby τοῦthe νοὸςmind τῆςof the σαρκὸςflesh αὐτοῦ,of him, 19 καὶand οὐnot κρατῶνholding fast τὴνthe κεφαλήν,head, ἐξout of οὗwhom πᾶνall τὸthe σῶμαbody διὰthrough τῶνthe ἁφῶνconnections καὶand συνδέσμωνbonds together ἐπιχορηγούμενον(it) being supplied καὶand συνβιβαζόμενον(it) being made to go together αὔξειis growing τὴνthe αὔξησινgrowth τοῦof the θεοῦ.God.

20 ΕἰIf ἀπεθάνετεyou died σὺνtogether with ΧριστῷChrist ἀπὸfrom τῶνthe στοιχείωνelementary things τοῦof the κόσμου,world, τίwhy ὡςas ζῶντεςliving ἐνin κόσμῳworld δογματίζεσθεare you subjecting selves to decrees 21 ΜὴNot ἅψῃyou should touch μηδὲnot-but γεύσῃyou should taste μηδὲnot-but θίγῃς,you should contact, 22 which (things) ἐστινis πάνταall (things) εἰςinto φθορὰνcorruption τῇto the ἀποχρήσει,using off, κατὰaccording to τὰthe ἐντάλματαcommands καὶand διδασκαλίαςteachings τῶνof the ἀνθρώπων;men? 23 ἅτινάWhich (things) ἐστινis λόγονword μὲνindeed ἔχονταhaving σοφίαςof wisdom ἐνin ἐθελοθρησκίᾳself-willed form of worship καὶand ταπεινοφροσύνῃlowly-mindedness καὶand ἀφειδίᾳunsparing σώματος,of body,οὐκnot ἐνin τιμῇhonor τινὶany πρὸςtoward πλησμονὴνfullness τῆςof the σαρκός.flesh.


1 ΕἰIf οὖνtherefore συνηγέρθητεyou were raised up with τῷthe χριστῷ,Christ, τὰthe (things) ἄνωupward ζητεῖτε,be you seeking, οὗwhere the χριστόςChrist ἐστινis ἐνin δεξιᾷright [hand] τοῦof the θεοῦGod καθήμενος·sitting; 2 τὰthe (things) ἄνωupward φρονεῖτε,be you minding, μὴnot τὰthe (things) ἐπὶupon τῆςthe γῆς,earth, 3 ἀπεθάνετεyou died γάρ,for, καὶand the ζωὴlife ὑμῶνof youκέκρυπταιhas been hidden σὺνtogether with τῷthe χριστῷChrist ἐνin τῷthe θεῷ·God; 4 ὅτανwhenever the χριστὸςChrist φανερωθῇ,should be made manifest, the ζωὴlife ἡμῶνof us τότεthen καὶalso ὑμεῖςyou σὺνtogether with αὐτῷhim φανερωθήσεσθεwill be made manifest ἐνin δόξῃ.glory.

5 ΝεκρώσατεDeaden you οὖνtherefore τὰthe μέληmembers τὰthe ἐπὶupon τῆςthe γῆς,earth, πορνείαν,fornication, ἀκαθαρσίαν,uncleanness, πάθος,passion, ἐπιθυμίανdesire κακήν,bad, καὶand τὴνthe πλεονεξίανcovetousness ἥτιςwhich ἐστὶνis εἰδωλολατρία,idolatry, 6 δι’through which (things) ἔρχεταιis coming the ὀργὴwrath τοῦof the θεοῦ·God; 7 ἐνin οἷςwhich (things) καὶalso ὑμεῖςyou περιεπατήσατέwalked ποτεsometime ὅτεwhen ἐζῆτεyou were living ἐνin τούτοις·these (things); 8 νυνὶnow δὲbut ἀπόθεσθεput you away καὶalso ὑμεῖςyou τὰthe πάντα,all (things), ὀργήν,wrath, θυμόν,anger, κακίαν,badness, βλασφημίαν,blasphemy, αἰσχρολογίανdisgraceful talk ἐκout of τοῦthe στόματοςmouth ὑμῶν·of you; 9 μὴnot ψεύδεσθεbe you lyingεἰςinto ἀλλήλους·one another; ἀπεκδυσάμενοιhaving stripped off τὸνthe παλαιὸνold ἄνθρωπονman σὺνtogether with ταῖςthe πράξεσινacts αὐτοῦ,of him, 10 καὶand ἐνδυσάμενοιhaving put on τὸνthe νέονnew τὸνthe (one) ἀνακαινούμενονbeing made new again εἰςintoἐπίγνωσινaccurate knowledge κατ’according to εἰκόναimage τοῦof the (one) κτίσαντοςhaving created αὐτόν,him, 11 ὅπουwhere οὐκnot ἔνιthere is ἝλληνGreek καὶand Ἰουδαῖος,Jew, περιτομὴcircumcision καὶand ἀκροβυστία,uncircumcision, βάρβαρος,barbarian, Σκύθης,Scythian, δοῦλος,slave, ἐλεύθερος,freeman, ἀλλὰbut πάνταall (things) καὶand ἐνin πᾶσινall Χριστός.Christ.

12 ᾿ΕνδύσασθεPut you on selves οὖνtherefore ὡςas ἐκλεκτοὶchosen (ones) τοῦof the θεοῦ,God, ἅγιοιholy (ones) καὶand ἠγαπημένοι,having been loved, σπλάγχναbowels οἰκτιρμοῦ,of compassion, χρηστότητα,kindness, ταπεινοφροσύνην,lowliness of mind, πραΰτητα,mildness, μακροθυμίαν,longness of spirit, 13 ἀνεχόμενοιhaving selves up ἀλλήλωνof one another καὶand χαριζόμενοιgraciously forgiving ἑαυτοῖςto selves ἐάνif ever τιςanyone πρόςtoward τιναsomeone ἔχῃmay have μομφήν·complaint; καθὼςaccording as καὶalso the κύριοςLord ἐχαρίσατοgraciously forgave ὑμῖνto you οὕτωςthus καὶalso ὑμεῖς·you; 14 ἐπὶupon πᾶσιall δὲbut τούτοιςthese (things) τὴνthe ἀγάπην,love, which ἐστινis σύνδεσμοςjoint bond τῆςof the τελειότητος.perfection.

15 καὶAnd the εἰρήνηpeace τοῦof the χριστοῦChrist βραβευέτωlet be acting as umpire ἐνin ταῖςthe καρδίαιςhearts ὑμῶν,of you, εἰςinto ἣνwhich καὶalso ἐκλήθητεyou were called ἐνin ἑνὶone σώματι·body; καὶand εὐχάριστοιthankful γίνεσθε.be you becoming. 16 The λόγοςword τοῦof the χριστοῦChrist ἐνοικείτωlet be indwelling ἐνin ὑμῖνyou πλουσίωςrichly ἐνin πάσῃall σοφίᾳ·wisdom; διδάσκοντες(ones) teaching καὶand νουθετοῦντεςputting mind in ἑαυτοὺςselves ψαλμοῖς,to psalms, ὕμνοις,to hymns, ᾠδαῖςto songs πνευματικαῖςspiritual ἐνin χάριτι,graciousness, ᾄδοντεςsinging ἐνin ταῖςthe καρδίαιςhearts ὑμῶνof you τῷto the θεῷ·God; 17 καὶand πᾶνevery ὅτιwhich thing ἐὰνif ever ποιῆτεyou may be doing ἐνin λόγῳword or ἐνin ἔργῳ,work, πάνταall (things) ἐνin ὀνόματιname κυρίουof Lord Ἰησοῦ,Jesus, εὐχαριστοῦντεςgiving thanks τῷto the θεῷGod πατρὶFather δι’through αὐτοῦ.him.

18 ΑἱThe γυναῖκες,women, ὑποτάσσεσθεbe you subjecting selves τοῖςto the ἀνδράσιν,male persons, ὡςas ἀνῆκενit was becoming ἐνin κυρίῳ.Lord. 19 ΟἱThe ἄνδρες,male persons, ἀγαπᾶτεbe you loving τὰςthe γυναῖκαςwomen καὶand μὴnot πικραίνεσθεbe you embittering selves πρὸςtoward αὐτάς.them. 20 ΤὰThe τέκνα,children, ὑπακούετεbe you obeying τοῖςto the γονεῦσινparents κατὰaccording to πάντα,all (things), τοῦτοthis γὰρfor εὐάρεστόνwell-pleasing ἐστινis ἐνin κυρίῳ.Lord. 21 ΟἱThe πατέρες,fathers, μὴnot ἐρεθίζετεbe you exciting τὰthe τέκναchildren ὑμῶν,of you, ἵναin order that μὴnot ἀθυμῶσιν.they may become dispirited. 22 ΟἱThe δοῦλοι,slaves, ὑπακούετεbe you obeying κατὰaccording to πάνταall (things) τοῖςto theκατὰaccording to σάρκαflesh κυρίοις,to lords, μὴnot ἐνin ὀφθαλμοδουλίαις,eye-slaveries, ὡςas ἀνθρωπάρεσκοι,men pleasers, ἀλλ’but ἐνin ἁπλότητιsimplicity καρδίας,of heart, φοβούμενοιfearing τὸνthe κύριον.Lord. 23 Which ἐὰνif ever ποιῆτε,you may be doing, ἐκout of ψυχῆςsoul ἐργάζεσθε,be you working, ὡςas τῷto the κυρίῳLord καὶand οὐκnot ἀνθρώποις,to men, 24 εἰδότεςhaving known ὅτιthat ἀπὸfrom κυρίουLord ἀπολήμψεσθεyou will receive back τὴνthe ἀνταπόδοσινgift back in exchange τῆςof the κληρονομίας·inheritance; τῷto the κυρίῳLord ΧριστῷChrist δουλεύετε·be you slaving; 25 the (one) γὰρfor ἀδικῶνdoing unrighteously, κομίσεταιwill carry off for self which ἠδίκησεν,he did unrighteously, καὶand οὐκnot ἔστινis προσωπολημψία.receiving of face.


1 ΟἱThe κύριοι,lords, τὸthe δίκαιονrighteous (thing) καὶand τὴνthe ἰσότηταequality τοῖςto the δούλοιςslaves παρέχεσθε,be you having beside, εἰδότεςhaving known ὅτιthat καὶalso ὑμεῖςyou ἔχετεare having κύριονLord ἐνin οὐρανῷ.heaven.

2 ΤῇTo the προσευχῇprayer προσκαρτερεῖτε,be you persevering, γρηγοροῦντεςstaying awake ἐνin αὐτῇit ἐνin εὐχαριστίᾳ,thanksgiving, 3 προσευχόμενοιpraying ἅμαat the same time καὶalso περὶabout ἡμῶν,us, ἵναin order that the θεὸςGod ἀνοίξῃmight open up ἡμῖνto us θύρανdoor τοῦof the λόγου,word, λαλῆσαιto speak τὸthe μυστήριονmystery τοῦof the χριστοῦ,Christ, δι’through which καὶalsoδέδεμαι,I have been bound, 4 ἵναin order that φανερώσωI might manifest αὐτὸit ὡςas δεῖit is binding μεme λαλῆσαι.to speak.

5 ᾿ΕνIn σοφίᾳwisdom περιπατεῖτεbe you walking about πρὸςtoward τοὺςthe (ones) ἔξω,outside, τὸνthe καιρὸνappointed time ἐξαγοραζόμενοι.buying out for selves. 6 The λόγοςword ὑμῶνof you πάντοτεalways ἐνin χάριτι,graciousness, ἅλατιto salt ἠρτυμένος,having been seasoned, εἰδέναιto know πῶςhow δεῖit is binding ὑμᾶςyou ἑνὶto one ἑκάστῳto each (one) ἀποκρίνεσθαι.to be answering.

7 ΤὰThe (things)   κατ’according to ἐμὲme πάνταall γνωρίσειwill make known ὑμῖνto you ΤύχικοςTychicus the ἀγαπητὸςloved ἀδελφὸςbrother καὶand πιστὸςfaithful διάκονοςservant καὶand σύνδουλοςfellow slave ἐνin κυρίῳ,Lord, 8 ὃνwhom ἔπεμψαI sent πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶςyou εἰςinto αὐτὸvery τοῦτοthis (thing) ἵναin order that    γνῶτεyou might know    τὰthe (things) περὶabout ἡμῶνus καὶand παρακαλέσῃhe might comfort τὰςthe καρδίαςhearts ὑμῶν,of you, 9 σὺνtogether with ὈνησίμῳOnesimus τῷthe πιστῷfaithful καὶand ἀγαπητῷloved ἀδελφῷ,brother, ὅςwho ἐστινis ἐξout of ὑμῶν·you; πάνταall (things) ὑμῖνto you γνωρίσουσινthey will make known τὰthe (things) ὧδε.here.

10 ᾿ΑσπάζεταιIs greeting ὑμᾶςyou ᾿ΑρίσταρχοςAristarchus the συναιχμάλωτόςfellow captive μου,of me, καὶand ΜάρκοςMark theἀνεψιὸςcousin Βαρνάβα,of Barnabas, περὶabout οὗwhom ἐλάβετεyou received ἐντολάς,commands, ἐὰνif ever ἔλθῃhe might come πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶςyou δέξασθεaccept you αὐτόν,him, 11 καὶand ἸησοῦςJesus the (one) λεγόμενοςbeing said Ἰοῦστος,Justus, οἱthe (ones) ὄντεςbeing ἐκout of περιτομῆς,circumcision, οὗτοιthese μόνοιonly συνεργοὶfellow workers εἰςinto τὴνthe βασιλείανkingdom τοῦof the θεοῦ,God, οἵτινεςwho ἐγενήθησάνbecame μοιto me παρηγορία.consolation. 12 ἀσπάζεταιIs greeting ὑμᾶςyou ᾿ΕπαφρᾶςEpaphras the (one) ἐξout of ὑμῶν,you, δοῦλοςslave Χριστοῦof Christ Ἰησοῦ,Jesus, πάντοτεalways ἀγωνιζόμενοςstruggling ὑπὲρover ὑμῶνof you ἐνin ταῖςthe προσευχαῖς,prayers, ἵναin order that  σταθῆτεyou might stand τέλειοιperfect καὶand πεπληροφορημένοιhaving been fully borne ἐνin παντὶall θελήματιwill τοῦof the θεοῦ.God.
13 μαρτυρῶI am bearing witness γὰρfor αὐτῷto him ὅτιthat ἔχειhe is having πολὺνmuch πόνονpain ὑπὲρover ὑμῶνyou καὶand τῶνthe (ones) ἐνin ΛαοδικίᾳLaodicea καὶand τῶνthe (ones) ἐνin Ἱερᾷ Πόλει.Hierapolis.

14 ἀσπάζεταιIs greeting ὑμᾶςyou ΛουκᾶςLuke the ἰατρὸςhealer the ἀγαπητὸςloved καὶand Δημᾶς.Demas. 15 ᾿ΑσπάσασθεGreet you τοὺςthe ἐνin ΛαοδικίᾳLaodicea ἀδελφοὺςbrothers καὶand ΝύμφανNymphas καὶand τὴνthe κατ’according to οἶκονhouseαὐτῆςof her ἐκκλησίαν.ecclesia. 16 καὶAnd ὅτανwhenever ἀναγνωσθῇmight be read παρ’beside ὑμῖνyou the ἐπιστολή,letter, ποιήσατεdo you ἵναin order that καὶalso ἐνin τῇthe Λαοδικέωνof Laodiceans ἐκκλησίᾳecclesia ἀναγνωσθῇ,it should be read, καὶand τὴνthe (one) ἐκout of ΛαοδικίαςLaodicea ἵναin order that καὶalso ὑμεῖςyou ἀναγνῶτε.might read. 17 καὶAnd εἴπατεsay you ᾿Αρχίππῳto Archippus ΒλέπεBe looking at τὴνthe διακονίανservice ἣνwhich   παρέλαβεςyou received alongside ἐνin κυρίῳ,Lord, ἵναin order that αὐτὴνit πληροῖς.you may be fulfilling.

18 The ἀσπασμὸςgreeting τῇto the ἐμῇmy χειρὶhand Παύλου.of Paul. μνημονεύετέBe you bearing in mind μουof me τῶνof the δεσμῶν.bonds. The χάρις grace μεθ’with ὑμῶν.you.



1 ΠαῦλοςPaul δέσμιοςbound one Χριστοῦof Christ ἸησοῦJesus καὶand ΤιμόθεοςTimothy the ἀδελφὸςbrother Φιλήμονιto Philemon τῷthe ἀγαπητῷloved καὶand συνεργῷfellow worker ἡμῶνof us 2 καὶand ᾿Απφίᾳto Apphia τῇthe ἀδελφῇsister καὶand ᾿Αρχίππῳto Archippus τῷthe συνστρατιώτῃfellow soldier ἡμῶνof us καὶand τῇto the κατ’according to οἶκόνhouse σουof you ἐκκλησίᾳ·to ecclesia;

3 χάριςundeserved kindness ὑμῖνto you καὶand εἰρήνηpeace ἀπὸfrom θεοῦGod πατρὸςFather ἡμῶνof us καὶand κυρίουof Lord ἸησοῦJesus Χριστοῦ.Christ.

4 ΕὐχαριστῶI am giving thanks τῷto the θεῷGod μουof me πάντοτεalways μνείανmention σουof you ποιούμενοςmaking ἐπὶupon τῶνthe προσευχῶνprayers μου,of me,
5 ἀκούωνhearing σουof you τὴνthe ἀγάπηνlove καὶand τὴνthe πίστινfaith ἣνwhich ἔχειςyou are having εἰςinto τὸνthe κύριονLord ἸησοῦνJesus καὶand εἰςinto πάνταςall τοὺςthe ἁγίους,holy (ones), 6 ὅπωςso that theκοινωνίαsharing τῆςof the πίστεώςfaith σουof you ἐνεργὴςoperative within γένηταιmight become ἐνin ἐπιγνώσειaccurate knowledge παντὸςof every ἀγαθοῦgood (thing) τοῦthe ἐνin ἡμῖνus εἰςinto Χριστόν·Christ; 7 χαρὰνjoy γὰρfor πολλὴνmuch ἔσχονI had καὶand παράκλησινcomfort ἐπὶupon τῇthe ἀγάπῃlove σου,of you, ὅτιbecause τὰthe σπλάγχναbowels τῶνof the ἁγίωνholy (ones) ἀναπέπαυταιhas been refreshed διὰthrough σοῦ,you, ἀδελφέ.brother.

8 Διό,Through which (thing), πολλὴνmuch ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist παρρησίανoutspokenness ἔχωνhaving ἐπιτάσσεινto be enjoining σοιto you τὸthe (thing) ἀνῆκον,becoming, 9 διὰthrough τὴνthe ἀγάπηνlove μᾶλλονrather παρακαλῶ,I am encouraging, τοιοῦτοςsuch oneὢνbeing ὡςas ΠαῦλοςPaul πρεσβύτηςolder man νυνὶnow δὲbut καὶalso δέσμιοςbound one Χριστοῦof Christ Ἰησοῦ,—Jesus,— 10 παρακαλῶI am encouraging σεyou περὶabout τοῦthe ἐμοῦmy τέκνου,child, ὃνwhom ἐγέννησαI fathered ἐνin τοῖςthe δεσμοῖςbonds Ὀνήσιμον,Onesimus, 11 τόνthe ποτέsometime σοιto you ἄχρηστονuseless νυνὶnow δὲbut σοὶto you καὶand ἐμοὶto me εὔχρηστον,well useful, 12 ὃνwhom ἀνέπεμψάI sent again σοιto you αὐτόν,him, τοῦτ’that ἔστινis τὰthe ἐμὰmy σπλάγχνα.bowels.

13 ὃνWhom ἐγὼI ἐβουλόμηνwas wishing πρὸςtoward ἐμαυτὸνmyself κατέχειν,to be holding down, ἵναin order that ὑπὲρover σοῦyou μοιto me διακονῇhe may serve ἐνin τοῖςthe δεσμοῖςbonds τοῦof the εὐαγγελίου,good news, 14 χωρὶςapart from δὲbut τῆςof the σῆςyour γνώμηςopinion οὐδὲνnothing ἠθέλησαI willed ποιῆσαι,to do, ἵναin order that μὴnot ὡςas κατὰaccording to ἀνάγκηνnecessity τὸthe ἀγαθόνgood (thing) σουof you may be ἀλλὰbut κατὰaccording to ἑκούσιον.what is voluntary. 15 τάχαPerhaps γὰρfor διὰthrough τοῦτοthis ἐχωρίσθηhe was parted πρὸςtoward ὥρανhour ἵναin order that αἰώνιονeverlasting (ly) αὐτὸνhim ἀπέχῃς,you may have back, 16 οὐκέτιnot yet ὡςas δοῦλονslave ἀλλὰbut ὑπὲρover δοῦλον,slave, ἀδελφὸνbrother ἀγαπητόν,loved, μάλισταmostly ἐμοί,to me, πόσῳto how much δὲbut μᾶλλονrather σοὶto you καὶand ἐνin σαρκὶflesh καὶand ἐνin κυρίῳ.Lord. 17 εἰIf οὖνtherefore μεme ἔχειςyou are having κοινωνόν,sharer, προσλαβοῦreceive you toward self αὐτὸνhim ὡςas ἐμέ.me. 18 εἰIf δέbut τιanything ἠδίκησένhe treated unrighteously σεyou or ὀφείλει,he is owing, τοῦτοthis ἐμοὶto me ἐλλόγα·be you setting to account; 19 ἐγὼI ΠαῦλοςPaul ἔγραψαwrote τῇto the ἐμῇmy χειρί,hand, ἐγὼI ἀποτίσω·shall pay off;ἵναin order that μὴnot λέγωI am saying σοιto you ὅτιthat καὶalso σεαυτόνyourself μοιto me προσοφείλεις.you are owing besides. 20 ναί,Yes, ἀδελφέ,brother, ἐγώI σουof you ὀναίμηνmay I derive profit ἐνin κυρίῳ·Lord; ἀνάπαυσόνrefresh you μουof me τὰthe σπλάγχναbowels ἐνin Χριστῷ.Christ.

21 ΠεποιθὼςHaving trusted τῇto the ὑπακοῇobedience σουof you ἔγραψάI wrote σοι,to you, εἰδὼςhaving known ὅτιthat καὶalso ὑπὲρover what (things) λέγωI am saying ποιήσεις.you will do.
22 ἅμαAt the same time δὲbut καὶalso ἑτοίμαζέyou be preparing μοιto me ξενίαν,lodging, ἐλπίζωI am hoping γὰρfor ὅτιthat διὰthrough τῶνthe προσευχῶνprayers ὑμῶνof you χαρισθήσομαιI shall be graciously given ὑμῖν.to you (ones).

23 ᾿ΑσπάζεταίIs greeting σεyou ᾿ΕπαφρᾶςEpaphras the συναιχμάλωτόςfellow captive μουof me ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist Ἰησοῦ,Jesus, 24 Μάρκος,Mark, ᾿Αρίσταρχος,Aristarchus, Δημᾶς,Demas, Λουκᾶς,Luke, οἱthe συνεργοίfellow workers μου.of me.

25 The χάριςundeserved kindness τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἸησοῦJesus ΧριστοῦChrist μετὰwith τοῦthe πνεύματοςspirit ὑμῶν.of you.


Translation and Textual Criticism

King James BibleTHE KING JAMES BIBLE: Do You Know the King James Version?

The King James Bible was originally published in 1611. Some have estimated that the number of copies of the King James Version that have been produced in print worldwide is over one billion! There is little doubt that the King James Version is a literary masterpiece, which this author has and will appreciate and value for its unparalleled beauty of expression. This book is in no way trying to take away from what the King James Version has accomplished. The King James Version is a book to be commended for all that it has accomplished. For four centuries, when English-speaking people spoke of “the Bible,” they meant the King James Version. The question that begs to be asked of those who favor the King James Bible is, Do You Know the King James Version? What do most users of the King James Bible not know about their translation? Whether you are one who favors the King James Version or one who prefers a modern translation, Andrews will answer the questions that have long been asked for centuries about the King James Bible and far more.

The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use. The translation of God’s Word from the original languages of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek is a task unlike any other and should never be taken lightly because it carries with it the heaviest responsibility: the translator renders God’s thoughts into a modern language. It is CGBT’s desire to take challenging and complex subjects and make them easy to understand. CGBT will communicate as clearly and powerfully as possible to all of its readers while also accurately communicating information about the Bible. …

DO WE STILL NEEDA LITERAL BIBLE_DO WE STILL NEED A LITERAL BIBLE?: Discover the Truth about Literal Translations

We have come a long, long way from the time that the KJV was The Bible in English and the many translations available today. Finding the right Bible for the right person can be daunting, with almost too many choices available. However, it is still possible to divide the options into two broad categories: literal translations and dynamic equivalents. What is the difference, and why should you care? Bible publishers used to say that literal translations are good for study purposes, and dynamic equivalents are better for reading. So literal translations were advertised with terms like “accurate,” “reliable,” and, of course, “literal.” For dynamic equivalent translations, terms like “contemporary,” “easy to read,” and “written in today’s English” were used. Naturally, publishers do not advertise the negatives, so they did not point out that the literal translations might be a little harder to read, or that the dynamic equivalents might not be entirely faithful to the original languages of the Bible. However, more recently, some scholars have been taking this analysis in a new direction, assessing literal translations as less desirable than dynamic equivalents even for accuracy and reliability.

KING JAMES BIBLE IITHE KING JAMES BIBLE Why Have Modern Bible Translations Removed Many Verses That Are In the King James Version?

Many have asked Edward D. Andrews as a Chief Translator, “In studying the modern Bible translations, I have come across some verses that are left out but that are in my King James Version or even my New King James Version, such as Matthew 18:11; 23:14; Luke 17:36. I have gotten conflicting opinions on social media. Can you please clear this up for me?”

Have you experienced this? The book of Revelation warns: “if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his share in the tree of life and in the holy city, which are described in this book.” Yes, removing a true part of the Bible would be a serious matter. (Rev. 22:19) But had this happened? Do you know why these verses are omitted from modern translations? You might wonder, ‘Is my modern Bible translation lacking something that the King James Version has?’ The reader of the King James Version may feel that they have something that the modern Bibles do not. Andrews will help the reader find the answers to whether verses are being omitted and far more when it comes to the differences between the King James Bible and the Modern Bible translations.


The fascinating story of how we got the English Bible in its present form starts 1,120 years ago. HISTORY OF ENGLISH VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE covers the fascinating journey of the Bible from the 9th century AD to the beginning of the 20th-century. The chief translator of the Updated American Standard Version Edward D. Andrews invites readers to explore the process of from the early manuscripts to contemporary translations today.

And so, it was that translators like William Tyndale were martyred for the honor of giving the people a Bible that could easily be understood. What a price they had paid, however; it was a priceless gift! Tyndale and others before and after him had worked with the shadow of death towering over their heads. However, by delivering the Bible to many people in their native tongue, they opened up before them the possibility, not of death, but life eternal. As Jesus Christ said in the Tyndale Bible, “This is lyfe eternall that they myght knowe the that only very God and whom thou hast sent Iesus Christ.” (John 17:3) May we, therefore, know the value of what we can now hold in our hands, and may we diligently study God’s Word.

Choosing Your BibleCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word of God. Then, there are dynamic equivalents, where the translator determines what the author meant by the original language text, and this is what they give the reader. There is also a paraphrase translation, which is an extremely interpretive translation. Exactly what are these differences? Are some translations better than others? What standards and principles can we use to determine what makes a good translation? Andrews introduces the readers to the central issues in this debate and presents several reasons why literal translations are superior to dynamic equivalent and paraphrase translations. We do not need to be a Bible scholar to understand these issues, as well as the importance of having the most accurate and faithful translation that is reflective of the original text. …


THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT (TTNT) is an introduction, intermediate and advanced level coverage of the text of the New Testament. Andrews introduces the new and relatively new reader to this subject in the first few chapters of the TTNT. Andrews deepens his handling of the material, while still making it easy to understand in the next few chapters of the TTNT, all the while being very informative in both sections. All of this prepares the reader for Wilkins’ advanced chapters. THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews offer the reader an account of the copying by hand and transmission of the Greek New Testament. They present a comprehensive survey of the manuscript history from the penning of the 27 New Testament books to the current critical texts. What did the ancient books look like and how were documents written? How were the New Testament books published? Who would use secretaries? Why was it so hard to be a secretary in the first century? How was such work done? What do we know about the early Christian copyists? What were the scribal habits and tendencies? Is it possible to establish the original text of the NewTestament? …

Introduction to New Testament Textual CriticismINTRODUCTION TO THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: From The Authors and Scribe to the Modern Critical Text

INTRODUCTION TO THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT is a shortened 321 pages of Andrews and Wilkins 602 page TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT without losing the value of content. The foremost thing the reader is going to learn is that the Greek New Testament that our modern translations are based on is a mirror-like reflection of the original and can be fully trusted. The reader will learn how the New Testament authors made and published their books, the secretaries in antiquity and their materials like Teritus who helped Paul pen the epistle to the Romans, and the book writing process of the New Testament authors and early copyists. The reader will also discover the reading culture of early Christianity and their view of the integrity of the Greek New Testament. The reader will also learn how textual scholars known as paleography determine the age of the manuscripts.

The reader will learn all about the different sources that go into our restoring the Greek New Testament to its original form. Then, Andrews will cover the ancient version, the era of the printed text, and the arrival of the critical text. After that, the reader will be given a lengthy chapter on examples of how the textual scholar determines the correct reading by his looking at the internal and external evidence. Finally, and most importantly, the reader will find out the truth about the supposed 400,000 textual errors within the Greek New Testament manuscripts. The last chapter will be faith-building and enable you to defend the Word of God as inerrant.

The Reading Culture of Early ChristianityTHE READING CULTURE OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY: The Production, Publication, Circulation, and Use of Books in the Early Christian Church

THE READING CULTURE OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY provides the reader with the production process of the New Testament books, the publication process, how they were circulated, and to what extent they were used in the early Christian church. It examines the making of the New Testament books, the New Testament secretaries and the material they used, how the early Christians viewed the New Testament books, and the literacy level of the Christians in the first three centuries. It also explores how the gospels went from an oral message to a written record, the accusation that the apostles were uneducated, the inspiration and inerrancy in the writing process of the New Testament books, the trustworthiness of the early Christian copyists, and the claim that the early scribes were predominantly amateurs. Andrews also looks into the early Christian’s use of the codex [book form], how did the spread of early Christianity affect the text of the New Testament, and how was the text impacted by the Roman Empire’s persecution of the early Christians?

400,000 Textual Variants 02400,000+ SCRIBAL ERRORS IN THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT MANUSCRIPTS: What Assurance Do We Have that We Can Trust the Bible?

The Bible has been under attack since Moses penned the first five books. However, the New Testament has faced criticism like no other time over the 50-70-years. Both friend and foe have challenged the reliability of our New Testament. Self-proclaimed Agnostic textual scholar Dr. Bart D. Ehrman has claimed that there are 400,000+ scribal errors in our Greek New Testament manuscripts. A leading textual scholar, Greek grammarian, and Christian apologist Dr. Daniel B. Wallace has stipulated that this is true. This is of particular interest among all Christians, who have been charged with defending the Word of God. – 1 Peter 3:15.

In this volume, textual scholar Edward D. Andrews offers the churchgoer and textual student a defense against this specific attack on the New Testament. Andrews offers the reader a careful analysis of the relevant evidence, giving his readers logical, reasonable, rational assurances that the New Testament can be trusted more than ever before. He will explain the differences between the older Bible translations and the newer ones. Andrews will explain why we do not need the original manuscripts to have the original Word of God. He will reveal how reliable our manuscripts are, how they survived the elements and the persecution of early Christianity, as well as withstanding careless and even deceitful scribes. Finally, Andrews will deal with the 400,000+ scribal errors in the Greek New Testament manuscripts extensively. The author takes a complicated subject and offers his readers an easy to understand argument for why they can have confidence in the Bible despite various challenges to the trustworthiness of Scripture, offering an insightful, informed, defense of God’s Word.

4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUSMISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Fourth Edition]

This fourth edition will be dealing with the Greek text of our New Testament, through the Eyes of Dr. Bart D. Ehrman, in his New York Times bestseller: Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why (2005). First, in the introduction, we will look into Bart D. Ehrman’s early life and spiritual decline as he moved from being an evangelical conservative Christian to becoming an agnostic skeptic. Second, we will open with chapter one covering the book writing process of the New Testament authors and early Christian scribes. Then, we will spend three lengthy chapters covering the reading culture of early Christianity because of Ehrman’s claim of just how low the literacy rates were in early Christianity. After that, we will take one chapter to investigate the early Christian copyists because of Ehrman’s claim that most of the scribal errors come from the first three centuries. Following this will be one of the most critical chapters examining Ehrman’s claim of 400,000 textual variants [errors] and what impact they have on the integrity of the Greek New Testament. We will then investigate Bible Difficulties and what they mean for the trustworthiness of God’s Word. After that, we will give the reader the fundamentals of some of Ehrman’s complaints, debunking them as we investigate each one throughout seven chapters.

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