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1 ΠαῦλοςPaul καὶand ΤιμόθεοςTimothy δοῦλοιslaves Χριστοῦof Christ ἸησοῦJesus πᾶσινto all τοῖςthe ἁγίοιςholy (ones) ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist ἸησοῦJesus τοῖςto the (ones) οὖσινbeing ἐνin ΦιλίπποιςPhilippi σὺνtogether with ἐπισκόποιςoverseers καὶand διακόνοις·servants;

2 χάριςgrace ὑμῖνto you καὶand εἰρήνηpeace ἀπὸfrom θεοῦGod πατρὸςFather ἡμῶνof us καὶand κυρίουof Lord ἸησοῦJesus Χριστοῦ.Christ.

3 ΕὐχαριστῶI am thanking τῷthe θεῷGod μουof me ἐπὶupon πάσῃevery τῇthe μνείᾳmention ὑμῶνof you 4 πάντοτεalways ἐνin πάσῃevery δεήσειsupplication μουof me ὑπὲρover πάντωνall ὑμῶν,of you, μετὰwith χαρᾶςjoy τὴνthe δέησινsupplication ποιούμενος,making, 5 ἐπὶupon τῇthe κοινωνίᾳsharing ὑμῶνof you εἰςinto τὸthe εὐαγγέλιονgood news ἀπὸfrom τῆςthe πρώτηςfirst ἡμέραςday ἄχριuntil τοῦthe νῦν,now, 6 πεποιθὼςhaving been confident αὐτὸvery τοῦτοthis (thing) ὅτιthat the (one) ἐναρξάμενοςhaving begun within ἐνin ὑμῖνyou ἔργονwork ἀγαθὸνgood ἐπιτελέσειhe will put end upon ἄχριuntil ἡμέραςday Ἰησοῦof Jesus Χριστοῦ·Christ; 7 καθώςaccording as ἐστινit is δίκαιονrighteous ἐμοὶto me τοῦτοthis φρονεῖνto be minding ὑπὲρover πάντωνall ὑμῶν,of you, διὰthrough τὸthe ἔχεινto be having μεme ἐνin τῇthe καρδίᾳheart ὑμᾶς,you, ἔνin τεand τοῖςthe δεσμοῖςbonds μουof me καὶandἐνin τῇthe ἀπολογίᾳdefense καὶand βεβαιώσειstabilizing τοῦof the εὐαγγελίουgood news συνκοινωνούςsharers with μουof me τῆςof the χάριτοςgrace πάνταςall ὑμᾶςyou ὄντας.being.

8 μάρτυςWitness γάρfor μουof me the θεός,God, ὡςas ἐπιποθῶI am longing for πάνταςall ὑμᾶςyou ἐνin σπλάγχνοιςbowels Χριστοῦof Christ Ἰησοῦ.Jesus. 9 καὶAnd τοῦτοthis προσεύχομαιI am praying ἵναin order that the ἀγάπηlove ὑμῶνof you ἔτιyet μᾶλλονrather καὶand μᾶλλονrather περισσεύῃit may be abounding ἐνin ἐπιγνώσειaccurate knowledge καὶand πάσῃall αἰσθήσει,sense-perception, 10 εἰςinto τὸthe δοκιμάζεινto be making proof of ὑμᾶςyou τὰthe (things) διαφέροντα,differing, ἵναin order that     ἦτεyou may be εἰλικρινεῖςsincere καὶand ἀπρόσκοποιnot striking toward εἰςinto ἡμέρανday Χριστοῦ,of Christ, 11 πεπληρωμένοιhaving been filled καρπὸνfruit δικαιοσύνηςof righteousness τὸνthe (one) διὰthrough ἸησοῦJesus ΧριστοῦChrist εἰςinto δόξανglory καὶand ἔπαινονpraise θεοῦ.of God.

12 ΓινώσκεινTo be knowing δὲbut ὑμᾶςyou βούλομαι,I am wishing, ἀδελφοί,brothers, ὅτιthat τὰthe (things) κατ’according to ἐμὲme μᾶλλονrather εἰςinto προκοπὴνstriking ahead τοῦof the εὐαγγελίουgood news ἐλήλυθεν,it has come, 13 ὥστεas-and τοὺςthe δεσμούςbonds μουof me φανεροὺςmanifest ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist γενέσθαιto become ἐνin ὅλῳwhole τῷthe πραιτωρίῳpraetorium καὶand τοῖςto the λοιποῖςleftover (ones) πᾶσιν,all, 14 καὶand τοὺςthe πλείοναςmore (ones) τῶνof the ἀδελφῶνbrothers ἐνin κυρίῳLord πεποιθόταςhaving been confident τοῖςto the δεσμοῖςbonds μουof me περισσοτέρωςmore abundantly τολμᾷνto be daring ἀφόβωςfearlessly τὸνthe λόγονword τοῦof the θεοῦGod λαλεῖν.to be speaking.

15 ΤινὲςSome μὲνindeed καὶalso διὰthrough φθόνονenvy καὶand ἔριν,strife, τινὲςsome δὲbut καὶand δι’through εὐδοκίανwell-thinkingτὸνthe χριστὸνChrist κηρύσσουσιν·they are preaching; 16 οἱthe (ones) μὲνindeed ἐξout of ἀγάπης,love, εἰδότεςhaving known ὅτιthat εἰςinto ἀπολογίανdefense τοῦof the εὐαγγελίουgood news κεῖμαι,I am lying, 17 οἱthe (ones) δὲbut ἐξout of ἐριθίαςcontentiousness τὸνthe χριστὸνChrist καταγγέλλουσιν,they are announcing down, οὐχnot ἁγνῶς,purely, οἰόμενοιsupposing θλίψινtribulation ἐγείρεινto be raising up τοῖςto the δεσμοῖςbonds μου.of me. 18 τίWhat γάρ;for? πλὴνBesides ὅτιthat παντὶto every τρόπῳ,manner, εἴτεwhether προφάσειto pretense εἴτεor ἀληθείᾳ,to truth, ΧριστὸςChrist καταγγέλλεται,is being announced down, καὶand ἐνin τούτῳthis χαίρω·I am rejoicing; ἀλλὰbut καὶalso χαρήσομαι,I shall rejoice, 19 οἶδαI have known γὰρfor ὅτιthat τοῦτόthis μοιto me ἀποβήσεταιwill step off εἰςinto σωτηρίανsalvation διὰthrough τῆςthe ὑμῶνof you δεήσεωςsupplication καὶand ἐπιχορηγίαςsupply τοῦof the πνεύματοςspirit Ἰησοῦof Jesus Χριστοῦ,Christ, 20 κατὰaccording to τὴνthe ἀποκαραδοκίανeager expectation καὶand ἐλπίδαhope μουof me ὅτιthat ἐνin οὐδενὶnothing αἰσχυνθήσομαι,I shall be shamed, ἀλλ’but ἐνin πάσῃall παρρησίᾳoutspokenness ὡςas πάντοτεalways καὶalso νῦνnow μεγαλυνθήσεταιwill be magnified ΧριστὸςChrist ἐνin τῷthe σώματίbody μου,of me, εἴτεwhether διὰthrough ζωῆςlife εἴτεor διὰthrough θανάτου.death.

21 ᾿ΕμοὶTo me γὰρfor τὸthe ζῇνto be living ΧριστὸςChrist καὶand τὸthe ἀποθανεῖνto die κέρδος.gain. 22 εἰIf δὲbut τὸtheζῇνto be living ἐνin σαρκί,flesh, τοῦτόthis μοιto me καρπὸςfruitage ἔργου,—of work,— καὶand τίwhat αἱρήσομαιshall I select οὐnot γνωρίζω·I am making known; 23 συνέχομαιI am being held together δὲbut ἐκout of τῶνthe δύο,two (things), τὴνthe ἐπιθυμίανdesire ἔχωνhaving εἰςinto τὸthe ἀναλῦσαιto be loosing up καὶand σὺνtogether with ΧριστῷChrist εἶναι,to be, πολλῷto much γὰρfor μᾶλλονrather κρεῖσσον,better, 24 τὸthe δὲbut ἐπιμένεινto be remaining upon τῇto the σαρκὶflesh ἀναγκαιότερονmore necessary δι’through ὑμᾶς.you. 25 καὶAnd τοῦτοthis πεποιθὼςhaving been confident οἶδαI have known ὅτιthat μενῶI shall remain καὶand παραμενῶI shall remain alongside πᾶσινto all ὑμῖνto you εἰςinto τὴνthe ὑμῶνof you προκοπὴνstriking ahead καὶand χαρὰνjoy τῆςof the πίστεως,faith, 26 ἵναin order that τὸthe καύχημαboasting ὑμῶνof you περισσεύῃmay be abounding ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist ἸησοῦJesus ἐνinἐμοὶme διὰthrough τῆςthe ἐμῆςmy παρουσίαςpresence πάλινagain πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶς.you.

27 ΜόνονOnly ἀξίωςworthily τοῦof the εὐαγγελίουgood news τοῦof the χριστοῦChrist πολιτεύεσθε,be you behaving as citizens, ἵναin order that   εἴτεwhether ἐλθὼνhaving come καὶand ἰδὼνhaving seen ὑμᾶςyou εἴτεor ἀπὼνbeing absent ἀκούωI may be hearing τὰthe (things) περὶabout ὑμῶν,you, ὅτιthat στήκετεyou are standing ἐνin ἑνὶone πνεύματι,spirit, μιᾷto one ψυχῇsoul συναθλοῦντεςstriving together τῇto the πίστειfaith τοῦof the εὐαγγελίου,good news, 28 καὶand μὴnot πτυρόμενοιbeing frightened ἐνin μηδενὶnothing ὑπὸby τῶνthe ἀντικειμένων(ones) lying against ἥτιςwhich ἐστὶνis αὐτοῖςto them ἔνδειξιςshowing within ἀπωλείας,of destruction, ὑμῶνof you δὲbut σωτηρίας,of salvation, καὶand τοῦτοthis ἀπὸfrom θεοῦ,God, 29 ὅτιbecause ὑμῖνto you ἐχαρίσθηit was graciously given τὸthe ὑπὲρover Χριστοῦ,Christ, οὐnot μόνονonly τὸthe εἰςinto αὐτὸνhim πιστεύεινto be believing ἀλλὰbut καὶalso τὸthe ὑπὲρover αὐτοῦhim πάσχειν,to be suffering, 30 τὸνthe αὐτὸνvery ἀγῶναstruggle ἔχοντεςhaving οἷονof what sort εἴδετεyou saw ἐνin ἐμοὶme καὶand νῦνnow ἀκούετεyou are hearing ἐνin ἐμοί.me.


1 ΕἴIf τιςany οὖνtherefore παράκλησιςencouragement ἐνin Χριστῷ,Christ, εἴif τιany παραμύθιονconsolation ἀγάπης,of love, εἴif τιςany κοινωνίαsharing πνεύματος,of spirit, εἴif τιςany σπλάγχναbowels καὶand οἰκτιρμοί,compassions, 2 πληρώσατέfill you μουof me τὴνthe χαρὰνjoy ἵναin order that τὸthe αὐτὸvery (thing) φρονῆτε,   you may be minding, τὴνthe αὐτὴνvery ἀγάπηνlove ἔχοντες,having, σύνψυχοι,together in soul, τὸthe ἓνone (thing) φρονοῦντες,minding, 3 μηδὲνnothing κατ’according to ἐριθίανcontentiousness μηδὲnor κατὰaccording to κενοδοξίαν,vainglory, ἀλλὰbut τῇto the ταπεινοφροσύνῃlowly-mindedness ἀλλήλουςone another ἡγούμενοιconsidering ὑπερέχοντας(ones) having over ἑαυτῶν,of selves,
4 μὴnot τὰthe (things) ἑαυτῶνof selves ἕκαστοιeach (ones) σκοποῦντες,looking at, ἀλλὰbutκαὶalso τὰthe (things) ἑτέρωνof different (ones) ἕκαστοι.each (ones).

5 τοῦτοThis φρονεῖτεbe you minding ἐνin ὑμῖνyou which καὶalso ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist Ἰησοῦ,Jesus, 6 ὃςwho ἐνin μορφῇform θεοῦof God ὑπάρχωνexisting οὐχnot ἁρπαγμὸνsnatching ἡγήσατοhe considered τὸthe εἶναιto be ἴσαequal θεῷ,to God, 7 ἀλλὰbut ἑαυτὸνhimself ἐκένωσενhe emptied μορφὴνform δούλουof slave λαβών,having taken, ἐνin ὁμοιώματιlikeness ἀνθρώπωνof men γενόμενος·having become; 8 καὶand σχήματιto fashion εὑρεθεὶςhaving been found ὡςas ἄνθρωποςman ἐταπείνωσενhe made lowly ἑαυτὸνhimself γενόμενοςhaving become ὑπήκοοςobedient μέχριuntil θανάτου,death, θανάτουof death δὲbut σταυροῦ·of cross; 9 διὸthrough which καὶalso the θεὸςGod αὐτὸνhim ὑπερύψωσεν,put high up over, καὶand ἐχαρίσατοhe graciously gave αὐτῷto him τὸthe ὄνομαname τὸthe ὑπὲρover πᾶνevery ὄνομα,name, 10 ἵναin order that ἐνin τῷthe ὀνόματιname Ἰησοῦof Jesus πᾶνevery γόνυknee κάμψῃshould bend ἐπουρανίωνof those in heaven καὶand ἐπιγείωνof those on earth καὶand καταχθονίων,of those underground, 11 καὶand πᾶσαevery γλῶσσαtongue ἐξομολογήσηταιshould confess out ὅτιthat ΚύριοςLord ἸησοῦςJesus ΧριστὸςChrist εἰςinto δόξανglory θεοῦof God πατρός.Father.

12 Ὥστε,As-and, ἀγαπητοίloved (ones) μου,of me, καθὼςaccording as πάντοτεalways ὑπηκούσατε,you obeyed, μὴnot ὡςas ἐνin τῇthe παρουσίᾳpresence μουof me μόνονonly ἀλλὰbut νῦνnow πολλῷto much μᾶλλονrather ἐνin τῇthe ἀπουσίᾳabsence μου,of me, μετὰwith φόβουfear καὶand τρόμουtrembling τὴνthe ἑαυτῶνof selves σωτηρίανsalvation κατεργάζεσθε,be you working down, 13 θεὸςGod γάρfor ἐστινis the (one) ἐνεργῶνworking within ἐνin ὑμῖνyou καὶboth τὸthe θέλεινto be willing καὶand τὸthe ἐνεργεῖνto be working within ὑπὲρover τῆςthe εὐδοκίας·well-thinking; 14 πάνταall (things) ποιεῖτεbe you doing χωρὶςapart from γογγυσμῶνmurmurings καὶand διαλογισμῶν·divided reckonings; 15 ἵναin order that   γένησθεyou may become ἄμεμπτοιblameless καὶand ἀκέραιοι,unblended, τέκναchildren θεοῦof God ἄμωμαunblemished μέσον(in) midst γενεᾶςof generation σκολιᾶςcrooked καὶand διεστραμμένης,turned through, ἐνin οἷςwhom φαίνεσθεyou are shining ὡςas φωστῆρεςilluminators ἐνin κόσμῳworld 16 λόγονword ζωῆςof life ἐπέχοντες,having upon, εἰςinto καύχημαboasting ἐμοὶto me εἰςinto ἡμέρανday Χριστοῦ,of Christ, ὅτιthat οὐκnot εἰςinto κενὸνempti (ness) ἔδραμονI ran οὐδὲnor εἰςinto κενὸνempti (ness) ἐκοπίασα.I labored.
17 ᾿ΑλλὰBut εἰif καὶalso σπένδομαιI am being poured as libation ἐπὶupon τῇthe θυσίᾳsacrificeκαὶand λειτουργίᾳpublic work τῆςof the πίστεωςfaith ὑμῶν,of you, χαίρωI am rejoicing καὶand συνχαίρωI am rejoicing with πᾶσινall ὑμῖν·you;18 τὸthe δὲbut αὐτὸvery (thing) καὶalso ὑμεῖςyou χαίρετεbe you rejoicing καὶand συνχαίρετέbe you rejoicing with μοι.me.

19 ᾿ΕλπίζωI am hoping δὲbut ἐνin κυρίῳLord ἸησοῦJesus ΤιμόθεονTimothy ταχέωςquickly πέμψαιto send ὑμῖν,to you, ἵναin order thatκἀγὼalso I εὐψυχῶmay be well of soul γνοὺςhaving known τὰthe (things) περὶabout ὑμῶν.you. 20 οὐδέναNo one γὰρfor ἔχωI am having ἰσόψυχονequal-souled ὅστιςwho γνησίωςgenuinely τὰthe (things) περὶabout ὑμῶνyou μεριμνήσει,he will care, 21 οἱthe πάντεςall γὰρfor τὰthe (things) ἑαυτῶνof themselves ζητοῦσιν,they are seeking, οὐnot τὰthe (things) Χριστοῦof Christ Ἰησοῦ.Jesus. 22 τὴνThe δὲbut δοκιμὴνproof αὐτοῦof him γινώσκετε,you are knowing, ὅτιthat ὡςas πατρὶto father τέκνονchild σὺνtogether with ἐμοὶme ἐδούλευσενhe slaved εἰςinto τὸthe εὐαγγέλιον.good news. 23 ΤοῦτονThis (one) μὲνindeed οὖνtherefore ἐλπίζωI am hoping πέμψαιto send ὡςas ἂνlikely ἀφίδωI might see off τὰthe (things) περὶabout ἐμὲme ἐξαυτῆς·out of very [hour]; 24 πέποιθαI have been confident δὲbut ἐνin κυρίῳLord ὅτιthat καὶalso αὐτὸςvery ταχέωςquickly ἐλεύσομαι.I shall come.

25 ἀναγκαῖονNecessary δὲbut ἡγησάμηνI considered ᾿ΕπαφρόδιτονEpaphroditus τὸνthe ἀδελφὸνbrother καὶand συνεργὸνfellow worker καὶand συνστρατιώτηνfellow soldier μου,of me, ὑμῶνof you δὲbut ἀπόστολονapostle καὶand λειτουργὸνpublic worker τῆςof the χρείαςneed μου,of me, πέμψαιto send πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶς,you, 26 ἐπειδὴsince ἐπιποθῶνlonging after ἦνhe was πάνταςall ὑμᾶςyou ἰδεῖν,to see, καὶandἀδημονῶνbeing depressed διότιbecause ἠκούσατεyou heard ὅτιthat ἠσθένησεν.he fell sick. 27 καὶAnd γὰρfor ἠσθένησενhe fell sick παραπλήσιονbeside-near θανάτου·death; ἀλλὰbut the θεὸςGod ἠλέησενhad mercy on αὐτόν,him, οὐκnot αὐτὸνhim δὲbut μόνονonly ἀλλὰbut καὶalso ἐμέ,me, ἵναin order that μὴnot λύπηνsadness ἐπὶupon λύπηνsadness σχῶ.I should have. 28 σπουδαιοτέρωςMore speedily οὖνtherefore ἔπεμψαI sent αὐτὸνhim ἵναin order that ἰδόντεςhaving seen αὐτὸνhim πάλινagain χαρῆτεyou might rejoice κἀγὼand I ἀλυπότεροςless saddened ὦ.I may be.
29 προσδέχεσθεReceive you toward οὖνtherefore αὐτὸνhim ἐνinκυρίῳLord μετὰwith πάσηςall χαρᾶς,joy, καὶand τοὺςthe τοιούτουςsuch (ones) ἐντίμουςin honor ἔχετε,be you having, 30 ὅτιbecauseδιὰthrough τὸthe ἔργονwork Κυρίουof Lord μέχριuntil θανάτουdeath ἤγγισεν,he came near, παραβολευσάμενοςhaving thrown self beside τῇto theψυχῇsoul ἵναin order that ἀναπληρώσῃhe might fill up τὸthe ὑμῶνof you ὑστέρημαlack τῆςof the πρόςtoward μεme λειτουργίας.public work.


1 ΤὸThe λοιπόν,leftover (thing), ἀδελφοίbrothers μου,of me, χαίρετεbe you rejoicing ἐνin κυρίῳ.Lord. τὰThe αὐτὰvery (things) γράφεινto be writing ὑμῖνto you ἐμοὶto me μὲνindeed οὐκnot ὀκνηρόν,troublesome (thing), ὑμῖνto you δὲbut ἀσφαλές.—safe (thing).—

2 ΒλέπετεBe you seeing τοὺςthe κύνας,dogs, βλέπετεbe you seeing τοὺςthe κακοὺςbad ἐργάτας,workers, βλέπετεbe you seeing τὴνthe κατατομήν.cutting down. 3 ἡμεῖςWe γάρfor ἐσμενwe are the περιτομή,circumcision, οἱthe (ones) πνεύματιto spirit θεοῦof God λατρεύοντεςrendering sacred service καὶand καυχώμενοιboasting ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist ἸησοῦJesus καὶand οὐκnot ἐνin σαρκὶflesh πεποιθότες,having been confident, 4 καίπερand-even ἐγὼI ἔχωνhaving πεποίθησινconfidence καὶalso ἐνin σαρκί.flesh.

ΕἴIf τιςany δοκεῖthinks ἄλλοςother πεποιθέναιto have been confident ἐνin σαρκί,flesh, ἐγὼI μᾶλλον·rather; 5 περιτομῇto circumcision ὀκταήμερος,eighth day (one), ἐκout of γένουςrace Ἰσραήλ,of Israel, φυλῆςof tribe Βενιαμείν,of Benjamin, ᾿ΕβραῖοςHebrew ἐξout of ᾿Εβραίων,Hebrews, κατὰaccording to νόμονlaw Φαρισαῖος,Pharisee, 6 κατὰaccording to ζῆλοςzeal διώκωνpersecuting τὴνthe ἐκκλησίαν,ecclesia, κατὰaccording to δικαιοσύνηνrighteousness τὴνthe ἐνin νόμῳlaw γενόμενοςhaving come to be ἄμεμπτος.blameless.7 ᾿ΑλλὰBut ἅτιναwhat (things) ἦνwas μοιto me κέρδη,gains, ταῦταthese (things) ἥγημαιI have considered διὰthrough τὸνthe χριστὸνChrist ζημίαν.loss. 8 ἀλλὰBut μὲνindeed οὖνtherefore γεin fact καὶalso ἡγοῦμαιI am considering πάνταall (things) ζημίανloss εἶναιto be διὰthrough τὸthe ὑπερέχονsuperior (ness) τῆςof the γνώσεωςknowledge Χριστοῦof Christ ἸησοῦJesus τοῦthe κυρίουLord μουof me δι’through ὃνwhom τὰthe πάνταall (things) ἐζημιώθην,I suffered loss, καὶand ἡγοῦμαιI am considering σκύβαλαpieces of refuse ἵναin order that ΧριστὸνChrist κερδήσωI might gain 9 καὶand εὑρεθῶI might be found ἐνin αὐτῷ,him, μὴnot ἔχωνhaving ἐμὴνmy δικαιοσύνηνrighteousness τὴνthe ἐκout of νόμουlaw ἀλλὰbut τὴνthe διὰthrough πίστεωςfaith Χριστοῦ,of Christ, τὴνthe ἐκout of θεοῦGod δικαιοσύνηνrighteousness ἐπὶupon τῇthe πίστει,faith, 10 τοῦof the γνῶναιto know αὐτὸνhim καὶand τὴνthe δύναμινpower τῆςof the ἀναστάσεωςresurrection αὐτοῦof him καὶand κοινωνίανsharing παθημάτωνof sufferings αὐτοῦ,of him, συμμορφιζόμενοςbeing conformed τῷto the θανάτῳdeath αὐτοῦ,of him, 11 εἴif πωςsomehow καταντήσωI might attain down εἰςinto τὴνthe ἐξανάστασινstanding up out-(resurrection) τὴνthe ἐκout ofνεκρῶν.dead (ones).

12 οὐχNot ὅτιthat ἤδηalready ἔλαβονI received or ἤδηalready τετελείωμαι,I have been perfected, διώκωI am pursuing δὲbut εἰif καὶalso καταλάβω,I might receive down, ἐφ’upon which καὶalso κατελήμφθηνI was received down ὑπὸby ΧριστοῦChrist Ἰησοῦ.Jesus. 13 ἀδελφοί,Brothers, ἐγὼI ἐμαυτὸνmyself οὔπωnot yet λογίζομαιI am reckoning κατειληφέναι·to have received down; ἓνone (thing) δέ,but, τὰthe (things) μὲνindeed ὀπίσωbehind ἐπιλανθανόμενοςforgetting τοῖςto the (things) δὲbut ἔμπροσθενin front ἐπεκτεινόμενος,stretching myself out upon, 14 κατὰaccording to σκοπὸνgoal διώκωI am pursuing εἰςinto τὸthe βραβεῖονprize τῆςof the ἄνωupward κλήσεωςcalling τοῦof the θεοῦGod ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist Ἰησοῦ.Jesus. 15 ὍσοιAs many as    οὖνtherefore τέλειοι,perfect (ones), τοῦτοthis φρονῶμεν·let us be minding; καὶand εἴif τιanything ἑτέρωςdifferently φρονεῖτε,you are minding, καὶalso τοῦτοthis (thing) the θεὸςGod ὑμῖνto you ἀποκαλύψει·will reveal; 16 πλὴνbesides εἰςinto which ἐφθάσαμεν,we came ahead, τῷto the αὐτῷvery στοιχεῖν.to be walking in line.

17 ΣυνμιμηταίJoint imitators μουof me γίνεσθε,be you becoming, ἀδελφοί,brothers, καὶand σκοπεῖτεbe you looking at τοὺςthe (ones) οὕτωthus περιπατοῦνταςwalking καθὼςaccording as ἔχετεyou are having τύπονtype ἡμᾶς·us; 18 πολλοὶmany γὰρfor περιπατοῦσινthey are walking οὓςwhom πολλάκιςmany times ἔλεγονI was saying ὑμῖν,to you, νῦνnow δὲbut καὶalso κλαίωνweeping λέγω,I am saying, τοὺςthe ἐχθροὺςenemies τοῦof the σταυροῦcross τοῦof the χριστοῦ,Christ, 19 ὧνof which ones τὸthe τέλοςend ἀπώλεια,destruction, ὧνof which ones the θεὸςgod the κοιλίαcavity καὶand the δόξαglory ἐνin τῇthe αἰσχύνῃshame αὐτῶν,of them, οἱthe (ones) τὰthe ἐπίγειαearthly (things) φρονοῦντες.minding. 20 ἡμῶνOf us γὰρfor τὸthe πολίτευμαcitizenship ἐνin οὐρανοῖςheavens ὑπάρχει,is existing, ἐξout of οὗwhere καὶalso σωτῆραsavior ἀπεκδεχόμεθαwe are eagerly awaiting κύριονLord ἸησοῦνJesus Χριστόν,Christ, 21 ὃςwho μετασχηματίσειwill refashion τὸthe σῶμαbody τῆςof the ταπεινώσεωςlowliness ἡμῶνof us σύμμορφονconformed τῷto the σώματιbody τῆςof the δόξηςglory αὐτοῦof him κατὰaccording to τὴνthe ἐνέργειανoperation within τοῦof the δύνασθαιto be able αὐτὸνhim καὶalso ὑποτάξαιto subject αὑτῷto himself τὰthe πάντα.all (things).


1 Ὥστε,As-and, ἀδελφοίbrothers μουof me ἀγαπητοὶloved καὶand ἐπιπόθητοι,longed for, χαρὰjoy καὶand στέφανόςcrown μου,of me, οὕτωςthus στήκετεbe you standing ἐνin κυρίῳ,Lord, ἀγαπητοί.loved (ones).

2 ΕὐοδίανEuodia παρακαλῶI am encouraging καὶand ΣυντύχηνSyntyche παρακαλῶI am encouraging τὸthe αὐτὸvery (thing) φρονεῖνto be minding ἐνin κυρίῳ.Lord. 3 ναὶYes ἐρωτῶI am requesting καὶalso σέ,you, γνήσιεgenuine σύνζυγε,yokefellow, συνλαμβάνουbe holding self with αὐταῖς,them, αἵτινεςwhich [women] ἐνin τῷthe εὐαγγελίῳgood news συνήθλησάνthey strove together μοιto me μετὰwith καὶalso ΚλήμεντοςClement καὶand τῶνof the λοιπῶνleftover συνεργῶνfellow workers μου,of me, ὧνof whom τὰthe ὀνόματαnames ἐνinβίβλῳbook ζωῆς.of life.

4 ΧαίρετεBe you rejoicing ἐνin κυρίῳLord πάντοτε·always; πάλινagain ἐρῶ,I shall say, χαίρετε.be you rejoicing. 5 τὸThe ἐπιεικὲςyielding (ness) ὑμῶνof you γνωσθήτωlet it be known πᾶσινto all ἀνθρώποις.men. The κύριοςLord ἐγγύς·near; 6 μηδὲνnothingμεριμνᾶτε,be you being anxious over, ἀλλ’but ἐνin παντὶeverything τῇto the προσευχῇprayer καὶand τῇto the δεήσειsupplication μετ’with εὐχαριστίαςthanksgiving τὰthe αἰτήματαpetitions ὑμῶνof you γνωριζέσθωlet it be being made known πρὸςtoward τὸνthe θεόν·God; 7 καὶand the εἰρήνηpeace τοῦof the θεοῦGod the ὑπερέχουσαhaving over πάνταall νοῦνmind φρουρήσειit will keep under watch τὰςthe καρδίαςhearts ὑμῶνof you καὶand τὰthe νοήματαmental powers ὑμῶνof you ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist Ἰησοῦ.Jesus.

8 ΤὸThe λοιπόν,leftover (thing), ἀδελφοί,brothers, ὅσαas many (things) as ἐστὶνis ἀληθῆ,true, ὅσαas many (things) asσεμνά,serious, ὅσαas many (things) as δίκαια,righteous, ὅσαas many (things) as ἁγνά,chaste, ὅσαas many (things) as προσφιλῆ,affection-inducing, ὅσαas many (things) as εὔφημα,well-spoken of, εἴif τιςany ἀρετὴvirtue καὶand εἴif τιςany ἔπαινος,praise, ταῦταthese (things) λογίζεσθε·be you reckoning; 9 which (things) καὶalso ἐμάθετεyou learned καὶand παρελάβετεyou received alongside καὶand ἠκούσατεyou heard καὶand εἴδετεyou saw ἐνin ἐμοί,me, ταῦταthese (things) πράσσετε·be you performing; καὶand the θεὸςGod τῆςof the εἰρήνηςpeace ἔσταιwill be μεθ’with ὑμῶν.you.

10 ᾿ΕχάρηνI rejoiced δὲbut ἐνin κυρίῳLord μεγάλωςgreatly ὅτιthat ἤδηalready ποτὲsometime ἀνεθάλετεyou made flourish again τὸthe ὑπὲρover ἐμοῦme φρονεῖν,to be minding, ἐφ’upon which καὶalso ἐφρονεῖτεyou were minding ἠκαιρεῖσθεyou were being without opportunity δέ.but. 11 οὐχNot ὅτιthat καθ’according to ὑστέρησινlack λέγω,I am saying, ἐγὼI γὰρfor ἔμαθονI learned ἐνin οἷςwhat (things) εἰμὶI am αὐτάρκηςself-sufficient εἶναι·to be; 12 οἶδαI have known καὶand ταπεινοῦσθαι,to be being made lowly, οἶδαI have known καὶalso περισσεύειν·to be abounding; ἐνin παντὶeverything καὶand ἐνin πᾶσινall (things) μεμύημαι,I have been initiated into secrets, καὶand χορτάζεσθαιto be being sated with food καὶand πεινᾷν,to be hungering, καὶand περισσεύεινto be abounding καὶand ὑστερεῖσθαι·to be lacking; 13 πάνταall (things) ἰσχύωI am having strength for ἐνin τῷthe (one) ἐνδυναμοῦντίempowering με.me.

14 πλὴνBesides καλῶςfinely ἐποιήσατεyou did συνκοινωνήσαντέςhaving shared with μουme τῇto the θλίψει.tribulation. 15 οἴδατεyou have known δὲbut καὶalso ὑμεῖς,you, Φιλιππήσιοι,Philippians, ὅτιthat ἐνin ἀρχῇbeginning τοῦof the εὐαγγελίου,good news, ὅτεwhen ἐξῆλθονI went out ἀπὸfrom Μακεδονίας,Macedonia, οὐδεμίαnot one μοιto me ἐκκλησίαecclesia ἐκοινώνησενshared εἰςinto λόγονword δόσεωςof giving καὶand λήμψεωςreceiving εἰif μὴnot ὑμεῖςyou μόνοι,alone, 16 ὅτιbecause καὶalso ἐνin ΘεσσαλονίκῃThessalonica καὶand ἅπαξonce καὶand δὶςtwice εἰςinto τὴνthe χρείανneed μοιto me ἐπέμψατε.you sent. 17 οὐχNot ὅτιthat ἐπιζητῶI am seeking upon τὸthe δόμα,gift, ἀλλὰbut ἐπιζητῶI am seeking upon τὸνthe καρπὸνfruitage τὸνthe πλεονάζονταbecoming more εἰςinto λόγονword ὑμῶν.of you. 18 ἀπέχωI am having from δὲbut πάνταall (things) καὶand περισσεύω·I am abounding; πεπλήρωμαιI have been filled δεξάμενοςhaving received παρὰbeside ᾿Επαφροδίτουof Epaphroditus τὰthe (things) παρ’beside ὑμῶν,of you, ὀσμὴνodor εὐωδίας,of sweet-smelling, θυσίανsacrifice δεκτήν,acceptable, εὐάρεστονwell-pleasing τῷto the θεῷ.God. 19 The δὲbut θεόςGod μουof me πληρώσειwill fill πᾶσανall χρείανneed ὑμῶνof you κατὰaccording to τὸthe πλοῦτοςriches αὐτοῦof him ἐνin δόξῃglory ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist Ἰησοῦ.Jesus. 20 τῷTo the δὲbut θεῷGod καὶand πατρὶFather ἡμῶνof us the δόξαGlory εἰςinto τοὺςthe αἰῶναςages τῶνof the αἰώνων·ages; ἀμήν.amen.

21 ᾿ΑσπάσασθεGreet you πάνταevery ἅγιονholy (one) ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist Ἰησοῦ.Jesus. ᾿ΑσπάζονταιThey are greeting ὑμᾶςyou οἱtheσὺνtogether with ἐμοὶme ἀδελφοί.brothers. 22 ἀσπάζονταιThey are greeting ὑμᾶςyou πάντεςall οἱthe ἅγιοι,holy (ones), μάλισταmostly δὲbut οἱthe (ones) ἐκout of τῆςthe Καίσαροςof Caesar οἰκίας.household.

23 The χάριςgrace τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἸησοῦJesus ΧριστοῦChrist μετὰwith τοῦthe πνεύματοςspirit ὑμῶν.of you.


Translation and Textual Criticism

King James BibleTHE KING JAMES BIBLE: Do You Know the King James Version?

The King James Bible was originally published in 1611. Some have estimated that the number of copies of the King James Version that have been produced in print worldwide is over one billion! There is little doubt that the King James Version is a literary masterpiece, which this author has and will appreciate and value for its unparalleled beauty of expression. This book is in no way trying to take away from what the King James Version has accomplished. The King James Version is a book to be commended for all that it has accomplished. For four centuries, when English-speaking people spoke of “the Bible,” they meant the King James Version. The question that begs to be asked of those who favor the King James Bible is, Do You Know the King James Version? What do most users of the King James Bible not know about their translation? Whether you are one who favors the King James Version or one who prefers a modern translation, Andrews will answer the questions that have long been asked for centuries about the King James Bible and far more.

The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use. The translation of God’s Word from the original languages of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek is a task unlike any other and should never be taken lightly because it carries with it the heaviest responsibility: the translator renders God’s thoughts into a modern language. It is CGBT’s desire to take challenging and complex subjects and make them easy to understand. CGBT will communicate as clearly and powerfully as possible to all of its readers while also accurately communicating information about the Bible. …

DO WE STILL NEEDA LITERAL BIBLE_DO WE STILL NEED A LITERAL BIBLE?: Discover the Truth about Literal Translations

We have come a long, long way from the time that the KJV was The Bible in English and the many translations available today. Finding the right Bible for the right person can be daunting, with almost too many choices available. However, it is still possible to divide the options into two broad categories: literal translations and dynamic equivalents. What is the difference, and why should you care? Bible publishers used to say that literal translations are good for study purposes, and dynamic equivalents are better for reading. So literal translations were advertised with terms like “accurate,” “reliable,” and, of course, “literal.” For dynamic equivalent translations, terms like “contemporary,” “easy to read,” and “written in today’s English” were used. Naturally, publishers do not advertise the negatives, so they did not point out that the literal translations might be a little harder to read, or that the dynamic equivalents might not be entirely faithful to the original languages of the Bible. However, more recently, some scholars have been taking this analysis in a new direction, assessing literal translations as less desirable than dynamic equivalents even for accuracy and reliability.

KING JAMES BIBLE IITHE KING JAMES BIBLE Why Have Modern Bible Translations Removed Many Verses That Are In the King James Version?

Many have asked Edward D. Andrews as a Chief Translator, “In studying the modern Bible translations, I have come across some verses that are left out but that are in my King James Version or even my New King James Version, such as Matthew 18:11; 23:14; Luke 17:36. I have gotten conflicting opinions on social media. Can you please clear this up for me?”

Have you experienced this? The book of Revelation warns: “if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his share in the tree of life and in the holy city, which are described in this book.” Yes, removing a true part of the Bible would be a serious matter. (Rev. 22:19) But had this happened? Do you know why these verses are omitted from modern translations? You might wonder, ‘Is my modern Bible translation lacking something that the King James Version has?’ The reader of the King James Version may feel that they have something that the modern Bibles do not. Andrews will help the reader find the answers to whether verses are being omitted and far more when it comes to the differences between the King James Bible and the Modern Bible translations.


The fascinating story of how we got the English Bible in its present form starts 1,120 years ago. HISTORY OF ENGLISH VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE covers the fascinating journey of the Bible from the 9th century AD to the beginning of the 20th-century. The chief translator of the Updated American Standard Version Edward D. Andrews invites readers to explore the process of from the early manuscripts to contemporary translations today.

And so, it was that translators like William Tyndale were martyred for the honor of giving the people a Bible that could easily be understood. What a price they had paid, however; it was a priceless gift! Tyndale and others before and after him had worked with the shadow of death towering over their heads. However, by delivering the Bible to many people in their native tongue, they opened up before them the possibility, not of death, but life eternal. As Jesus Christ said in the Tyndale Bible, “This is lyfe eternall that they myght knowe the that only very God and whom thou hast sent Iesus Christ.” (John 17:3) May we, therefore, know the value of what we can now hold in our hands, and may we diligently study God’s Word.

Choosing Your BibleCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word of God. Then, there are dynamic equivalents, where the translator determines what the author meant by the original language text, and this is what they give the reader. There is also a paraphrase translation, which is an extremely interpretive translation. Exactly what are these differences? Are some translations better than others? What standards and principles can we use to determine what makes a good translation? Andrews introduces the readers to the central issues in this debate and presents several reasons why literal translations are superior to dynamic equivalent and paraphrase translations. We do not need to be a Bible scholar to understand these issues, as well as the importance of having the most accurate and faithful translation that is reflective of the original text. …


THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT (TTNT) is an introduction, intermediate and advanced level coverage of the text of the New Testament. Andrews introduces the new and relatively new reader to this subject in the first few chapters of the TTNT. Andrews deepens his handling of the material, while still making it easy to understand in the next few chapters of the TTNT, all the while being very informative in both sections. All of this prepares the reader for Wilkins’ advanced chapters. THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews offer the reader an account of the copying by hand and transmission of the Greek New Testament. They present a comprehensive survey of the manuscript history from the penning of the 27 New Testament books to the current critical texts. What did the ancient books look like and how were documents written? How were the New Testament books published? Who would use secretaries? Why was it so hard to be a secretary in the first century? How was such work done? What do we know about the early Christian copyists? What were the scribal habits and tendencies? Is it possible to establish the original text of the NewTestament? …

Introduction to New Testament Textual CriticismINTRODUCTION TO THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: From The Authors and Scribe to the Modern Critical Text

INTRODUCTION TO THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT is a shortened 321 pages of Andrews and Wilkins 602 page TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT without losing the value of content. The foremost thing the reader is going to learn is that the Greek New Testament that our modern translations are based on is a mirror-like reflection of the original and can be fully trusted. The reader will learn how the New Testament authors made and published their books, the secretaries in antiquity and their materials like Teritus who helped Paul pen the epistle to the Romans, and the book writing process of the New Testament authors and early copyists. The reader will also discover the reading culture of early Christianity and their view of the integrity of the Greek New Testament. The reader will also learn how textual scholars known as paleography determine the age of the manuscripts.

The reader will learn all about the different sources that go into our restoring the Greek New Testament to its original form. Then, Andrews will cover the ancient version, the era of the printed text, and the arrival of the critical text. After that, the reader will be given a lengthy chapter on examples of how the textual scholar determines the correct reading by his looking at the internal and external evidence. Finally, and most importantly, the reader will find out the truth about the supposed 400,000 textual errors within the Greek New Testament manuscripts. The last chapter will be faith-building and enable you to defend the Word of God as inerrant.

The Reading Culture of Early ChristianityTHE READING CULTURE OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY: The Production, Publication, Circulation, and Use of Books in the Early Christian Church

THE READING CULTURE OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY provides the reader with the production process of the New Testament books, the publication process, how they were circulated, and to what extent they were used in the early Christian church. It examines the making of the New Testament books, the New Testament secretaries and the material they used, how the early Christians viewed the New Testament books, and the literacy level of the Christians in the first three centuries. It also explores how the gospels went from an oral message to a written record, the accusation that the apostles were uneducated, the inspiration and inerrancy in the writing process of the New Testament books, the trustworthiness of the early Christian copyists, and the claim that the early scribes were predominantly amateurs. Andrews also looks into the early Christian’s use of the codex [book form], how did the spread of early Christianity affect the text of the New Testament, and how was the text impacted by the Roman Empire’s persecution of the early Christians?

400,000 Textual Variants 02400,000+ SCRIBAL ERRORS IN THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT MANUSCRIPTS: What Assurance Do We Have that We Can Trust the Bible?

The Bible has been under attack since Moses penned the first five books. However, the New Testament has faced criticism like no other time over the 50-70-years. Both friend and foe have challenged the reliability of our New Testament. Self-proclaimed Agnostic textual scholar Dr. Bart D. Ehrman has claimed that there are 400,000+ scribal errors in our Greek New Testament manuscripts. A leading textual scholar, Greek grammarian, and Christian apologist Dr. Daniel B. Wallace has stipulated that this is true. This is of particular interest among all Christians, who have been charged with defending the Word of God. – 1 Peter 3:15.

In this volume, textual scholar Edward D. Andrews offers the churchgoer and textual student a defense against this specific attack on the New Testament. Andrews offers the reader a careful analysis of the relevant evidence, giving his readers logical, reasonable, rational assurances that the New Testament can be trusted more than ever before. He will explain the differences between the older Bible translations and the newer ones. Andrews will explain why we do not need the original manuscripts to have the original Word of God. He will reveal how reliable our manuscripts are, how they survived the elements and the persecution of early Christianity, as well as withstanding careless and even deceitful scribes. Finally, Andrews will deal with the 400,000+ scribal errors in the Greek New Testament manuscripts extensively. The author takes a complicated subject and offers his readers an easy to understand argument for why they can have confidence in the Bible despite various challenges to the trustworthiness of Scripture, offering an insightful, informed, defense of God’s Word.

4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUSMISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Fourth Edition]

This fourth edition will be dealing with the Greek text of our New Testament, through the Eyes of Dr. Bart D. Ehrman, in his New York Times bestseller: Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why (2005). First, in the introduction, we will look into Bart D. Ehrman’s early life and spiritual decline as he moved from being an evangelical conservative Christian to becoming an agnostic skeptic. Second, we will open with chapter one covering the book writing process of the New Testament authors and early Christian scribes. Then, we will spend three lengthy chapters covering the reading culture of early Christianity because of Ehrman’s claim of just how low the literacy rates were in early Christianity. After that, we will take one chapter to investigate the early Christian copyists because of Ehrman’s claim that most of the scribal errors come from the first three centuries. Following this will be one of the most critical chapters examining Ehrman’s claim of 400,000 textual variants [errors] and what impact they have on the integrity of the Greek New Testament. We will then investigate Bible Difficulties and what they mean for the trustworthiness of God’s Word. After that, we will give the reader the fundamentals of some of Ehrman’s complaints, debunking them as we investigate each one throughout seven chapters.

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