REASONABLE FAITH Why Me_ Book of Esther

From chapter 1 of the book of Esther, Ahasuerus (AKA, Xerxes I), the son of Darius the Great, was in his third year as king. It is at that time he held an enormous banquet, which lasted 180 days, for the officials of his Persian Empire. He closed this banquet with a seven-day feast in Susa. During this same event, Vashti the queen held her own banquet for the women. Ahasuerus was boasting of his wealth and power, while he was intoxicated with wine, and he decided to call Vashti to show off her beauty. However, Queen Vashti refused to see him repeatedly, which was a great disrespect to the king. The king turned to his wise men, his trusted counselors, who then recommended that Vashti is removed as queen. They also sent out a decree “that every man should be the master in his own house and should speak according to the language of his people.” – 1:22.

Searching for a New Queen

Esther 2:1-4 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

1 After these things when the anger of King Ahasuerus had subsided, he remembered Vashti and what she had done and what had been decreed against her. Then the king’s attendants, who served him, said, “Let beautiful young virgins be sought for the king. And Let the king appoint officers in all the provinces of his kingdom that they may gather every beautiful young virgin to the citadel of Susa, to the harem, into the custody of Hegai, the king’s eunuch, who is in charge of the women; and let their cosmetics be given them. And let the young woman who pleases the king be queen instead of Vashti.” And this pleased the king, and he did so.

We are not told just how much time passed before “the wrath of king Ahasuerus had subsided.” We get a suspicion that once his anger was gone; he felt regrets over what might have been a rash decision to remove Vashti. His servants wasted no time when they discovered his remorse. They searched through the entire 127 provinces of the kingdom, looking for the most beautiful woman. As these beautiful women were discovered, they were brought to Susa the castle, given over to the eunuch Hegai. The King’s eunuch was put in charge of the beauty treatments of these young virgins. King Ahasuerus would then make the decision between all of them, as to which one pleased him most, and she would replace Vashti as queen. Verse 16 informs us that Ahasuerus was in his seventh year when Esther was brought before him. In other words, about four years had passed between the removal of Vashti and the choice of Esther. It seems that the King was busy with a war against the Greeks.

Esther 2:5-6 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

5 Now there was a Jew in Susa the citadel whose name was Mordecai, the son of Jair, son of Shimei, son of Kish, a Benjaminite, who had been carried away from Jerusalem among the captives carried away with Jeconiah king of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had carried away.

We now have the first introduction of the Jews, Esther’s uncle, Mordecai.  He is a devout Jew from the tribe of Benjamin. He is a descendant of Kish, who had been taken into exile from Jerusalem, with King Jehoiachin (Jeconiah) as well as others, by Nebuchadnezzar, the King of Babylon. Mordecai lived at the palace in Susa, which suggests that he was a servant for Ahasuerus’ officials in some capacity.

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Esther 2:7 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

7 He was bringing up Hadassah, that is Esther, his uncle’s daughter, for she had no father or mother. Now the young woman was beautiful of form and face, and when her father and her mother died, Mordecai took her as his own daughter.

Chapter 2 introduces the new main character of this historical account, namely Esther. She, like most Jewish captives of the day, had both a Jewish and a Gentile name. The Jewish name Hadassah means “Myrtle,” while Esther was her Babylonian or Persian name. Because her father or mother was not alive, her guardian was her older cousin Mordecai. She was the daughter of Abihail, Mordecai’s dead uncle. She was a beautiful young woman, both in form and face.

Esther 2:8-9 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

So it came to pass, when the king’s commandment and his decree was heard and when many young women were gathered together to the citadel of Susa into the custody of Hegai, that Esther was taken into the king’s house, to the custody of Hegai, who had charge of the women. And the young woman pleased him and won his favor. And he quickly provided her with her cosmetics and her portion of food, and with seven chosen young women from the king’s palace and advanced her and her young women to the best place in the harem.

Once the edict was sent throughout the kingdom, many young women were being gathered to the fortress palace of Susa under the care of the eunuch Hegai. In a government such as this, where a ruler holds unlimited power and is answerable to no other person, it is not a matter of whether the young women or their families wanted them to go, as they had no choice. Esther was among hundreds of beautiful young women taken to the king’s palace. With so many young beautiful women, it emphasizes the beauty of Esther, so much so, that even the eunuch Hegai found her pleasing. He quickly provided for her beauty treatment and her portion of food, with seven young women being chosen in the best part of the harem.

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Esther 2:10-11 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

10 Esther had not made known her people or kindred, for Mordecai had commanded her not to make it known. 11 And every day Mordecai walked in front of the court of the harem to learn how Esther was and what was happening to her.

Esther does not reveal that she is a Jewess, to carry out the instructions of her older cousin Mordecai. One might wonder why Esther does not object to the unclean pagan food as Daniel had. (Dan 1:8–15) When Jehoiachin was taken captive to Babylon, he also did not protest the king’s food. (2 Ki 25:29) Esther needed to conceal her identity for a greater cause that she did not know was coming, but it looks like Mordecai had the foresight, so her decision may have had something to do with that. The Greek Historian Herodotus (484 – 425 B.C.E.), who was born the same year that the events of Esther took place, said that the King would have chosen his queen from only the best Persian families. If Esther’s identity were discovered, she might have never become queen, because of anti-Jewish sentiments. Mordecai was so concerned over this; he walked in front of the courtyard of the harem day after day, trying to learn some gossip of how she was doing, as he likely was unable to see her, regardless of his being an official.

Esther 2:12 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

12 Now when the turn of each young woman came to go in to King Ahasuerus, after being twelve months under the regulations for the women, since this was the regular period of their beautifying, six months with oil of myrrh and six months with spices and ointments for women,

For six months, the selected young women receive beauty treatments with oil of myrrh, followed by six months with special perfumes and ointments. Thereafter, each girl was given the opportunity of winning the king over in her attempt at becoming queen. Esther’s personality was completely the opposite of Vashti’s stubbornness.

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Esther 2:13-14 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

13 then the young woman went in to the king in this way, she was given whatever she desired to take with her from the harem to the king’s palace. 14 In the evening she would go in and in the morning she would return to the second harem, to the custody of Shaashgaz, the king’s eunuch who was in charge of the concubines. She would not again go in to the king unless the king delighted in her and she was summoned by name.

When it came time for each young woman to go to the king, ‘she was given her choice of whatever clothing or jewelry she wanted to take from the harem.’ Each young woman goes in to Ahasuerus, with most just spending one night, and then returning to “the second harem under the care of Shaashgaz,” the eunuch guardian of the king’s concubines. This king, like so many other pagan kings of ancient times, made his decisions based on raw appetite. In this case, he is choosing his queen, out of hundreds, based on their beauty and sexual performance. Many young women, who did not please the king to his physical satisfaction, would never be called back again and would spend the rest of their lives, locked away in the harem.

The twelve months of beauty treatment provided ‘marriage preparation,’ but the sad part was that for the majority what awaited them was more like widowhood than marriage. Though each girl in turn moved from the house of Hegai to that of Shaashgaz once she had become a concubine, there was no guarantee that the king would remember her by name and call for her even once more.… The prestige of living in the royal palace was small compensation for the king’s neglect, though girls with a passion for luxury could no doubt indulge it to the full.[1]

What about Esther, did she have immoral sexual relations with the king? The Bible does not explicitly say that she had sexual relations with the king and thus gained his favor. It does not tell of Esther being taken to the house of concubines, but rather it simply says: “Esther was taken into the king’s house … The king loved Esther more than all the women, and she found favor and kindness with him …” Recall that earlier, without any sexual concessions of her virginity, she won the favor of Hegai the guardian of the women, “Esther was taken into the king’s house, to the custody of Hegai, who had charge of the women. And the young woman pleased him and won his favor.” Further: “And Esther found favor in the eyes of all who saw her.” (Esther 2:8-9, 15-17) So, Esther evidently impressed the king to the point of winning his respect, even as she had also won the respect of others. For greater detail of this question, see the Bible Difficulties section.

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Esther Becomes Queen

Esther 2:15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

15 Now when the turn of Esther, the daughter of Abihail the uncle of Mordecai who had taken her as his daughter, came to go in to the king, she did not request anything except what Hegai, the king’s eunuch who was in charge of the women, advised. And Esther found favor in the eyes of all who saw her.

Esther is selfless, so she does not look to make some showy display, and therefore does not ask for anything beyond what Hegai advised, while the other women picked many jewels, knowing that they were allowed to keep them after their night with the king. As a result, Esther would end up dressing in a way that pleased the king, not what would please her, because she listened to Hegai. From the outset, Esther has been achieving approval in the eyes of everyone who saw her. She retained a measure of selfless-respect in appearance, manner, and speech, especially in relation to the sexual matters at hand, being chase and personally pure, in her refusal to imitate those that had gone before her.

Esther 2:16 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

16 So Esther was taken to King Ahasuerus to his royal palace in the tenth month which is the month Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign.

Esther’s turn came in Tebeth (December and January, the middle of winter), the 10th month in Ahasuerus’ seventh year of his reign. It was now about four years since Vashti had been removed as queen. As had been mentioned earlier, Ahasuerus had spent two of those years in an unsuccessful war against Greece.

Esther 2:17 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

17 The king loved Esther more than all the women, and she found favor and kindness with him more than all the virgins, so that he set the royal crown on her head and made her queen instead of Vashti.

One can only imagine the tension that Esther had been placed under, months of preparation and suspension, and now the big night was here. She is now taken before the king. Was he going to be pleased with her? Undeniably he was! The Persian ruler was so overcome with Esther, more than all the other virgins, so he makes her queen, replacing Vashti. Not depriving Esther of any of her beauty and gracefulness, we must keep in mind that she also had support or help from God.

Esther 2:18 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

18 Then the king gave a great banquet, Esther’s banquet, for all his princes and his servants; granted a remission of taxes to the provinces and gave gifts according to the king’s bounty.

Ahasuerus gave a great feast for all his officials and servants. As the reader can see, this banquet is far different from the one at the outset of this account. Here the king is not focusing all of his attention on himself, as this is about Esther, with marital harmony on display for all to see. In addition, he grants an amnesty for the provinces, such as remission of taxes, or maybe a release from forced labor, military service, even prison. However, this may have just been something akin to a holiday. Ahasuerus gave gifts, something only a king of a huge empire had the ability to do. Mervin Breneman reminds us that God is moving and adjusting world event, for his will and purpose:

Throughout the narrative of chap. 2, the hand of God is understood to be the force behind the development of the story. The author was in no way claiming that the events herein were from human hands but that the course of events was understandably at the direction of a power larger than this story. The first readers of Esther must have been amused at the reading of the text as they realized this important truth. The people were oppressed. Since there was no chance for a Jew to become king, Esther was brought into the royal court to become queen. As Joseph was introduced to the court of the Pharaoh and Daniel to the court of Nebuchadnezzar, Esther came to the court for a similar purpose. Joseph’s leadership meant food for his famine-stricken family and their eventual prosperity. Daniel’s leadership led to a new status of acceptance of Jews in Babylonia. Esther’s leadership would yield similar results. The common element in all three is that it was God who brought about these results.[2]

REASONABLE FAITH Why Me_ FEARLESS-1

Mordecai Exposes a Plot and Saves the King

Esther 2:19 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

19 Now when the virgins were gathered together the second time,[3] then Mordecai was sitting at the king’s gate.

The start of verse 19 has caused a bit of a controversy, as “virgins were for the second time gathered together.”[4] It seems that the king was still trying to quench his fleshly desires and has nothing to do with his search for a queen, as that had been accomplished in Esther. Anyway, two of the king’s eunuchs from the keepers of the threshold became angry, and we will shortly discover, looked to execute the king. Was this over a seeming betrayal of Esther by the king? On the other hand, were they angry that Vashti had been replaced? The account does not give us that detail.

Now, why was Mordecai sitting at the king’s gate? Mordecai was seemingly one of the officers of King Ahasuerus. Men of authority, generally sat at the gate, as this was the common place, where they would receive the royal requests. We must surmise that Mordecai had quite a responsible position in the royal court because Haman (an upcoming enemy) would have been able to remove him otherwise. We see that Mordecai had a position that enabled him to keep an eye on Esther, even though she was now queen, and learn of all that went on at Susa. Mordecai’s position gave him the opportunity to learn of a conspiracy to assassinate the king.

Esther 2:20 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

20 Esther had not yet made known her kindred or her people, even as Mordecai had commanded her; for Esther obeyed Mordecai just as when she was brought up by him.

Mordecai, who likely wrote the book of Esther, offers us another parenthetical, to remind us that Esther is keeping her Jewish heritage to herself, as directed by Mordecai. Esther had been raised to value the advice that Mordecai had to offer, and she continued on this path, even as queen. As we will see, this obedience and trust led to the salvation of the Jewish people.

Esther 2:21-22 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

21 In those days, while Mordecai was sitting at the king’s gate, Bigthan and Teresh, two of the king’s eunuchs from those who guarded the door, became angry and sought to lay hands on King Ahasuerus. 22 And the plot became known to Mordecai and he told Queen Esther, and Esther informed the king in Mordecai’s name.

Again, Mordecai was a court official in a responsible position that allowed him to find out the activities within the palace, both good and bad. While sitting at the King’s gate, he discovered the conspiracy to assassinate the king, by Bigthana and Teresh, two of the king’s eunuchs. These eunuchs seem to have had the position of guarding the door to the king’s private quarters. Mordecai tells Esther at once, who goes to the king with the information, giving Mordecai credit for discovering this plot. This incident allows Mordecai to save the Jewish people, some time later because the king favored him for his loyalty. Little did the king know, Mordecai’s loyalty really lied elsewhere, with the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

Esther 2:23 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

23 And when the matter was investigated and found to be so, they were both hanged on a gallows; and it was written in the Book of the Chronicles in the presence of the king.

Esther’s information helped to launch an investigation that leads to the execution of the two conspirators. The dead bodies were left on a stake displayed for all to see because their crimes were against the king himself. At this point, Mordecai does not receive any reward, but his act of loyalty was “written in the scroll of the events of the days before the presence of the king.” According to Herodotus, “whenever [Ahasuerus/ Xerxes] saw one of his officers behaving with distinction, he would find out his name, and his secretaries wrote it down, together with his city and parentage”.[5]

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BIBLE DIFFICULTIES Esther Chapters 2

ESTHER 2:1-18 Was it not wrong for Esther to participate in a pagan contest to become queen?

First, Esther did not seek this out, “Esther also was taken into the king’s palace and put in custody of Hegai.” (2:8) Second, nothing in this historical account suggests that any of the women had to commit some immoral action. If that had been the case, we can be assured that God would not have used her as an instrument to deliver Israel at the appointed time. Moreover, Esther herself would have declined based on what we know about her. Third, when the king chose Esther as his queen, she had no alternative but to be a part of his court. However, we must realize that she was doing all of this because she knew she was going to be called on to risk her life for the sake of God’s people.

ESTHER 2:5-6 Was Mordecai taken into captivity with Jeconiah over 120 years earlier?

Esther 2:5-6 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

5 Now there was a Jew in Susa the citadel whose name was Mordecai, the son of Jair, son of Shimei, son of Kish, a Benjaminite, who had been carried away from Jerusalem among the captives carried away with Jeconiah king of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had carried away.

Bible critics and liberal scholarship do not accept the traditional historicity of the Bible book or that Mordecai was a real person. They interpret Esther 2:5-6 as saying that Mordecai was taken into captivity with Jeconiah, which would mean that he was over 120 years old at the time of the events in the book of Esther, also having a young beautiful cousin 100 years younger. This just is not the case, as the author of Esther is not trying to convey the history of Mordecai, but rather to give his lineage. It is likely that Kish was his grandfather, and it is he, who was “carried away from Jerusalem among the captives carried away with Jeconiah king of Judah.” On this Gleason L. Archer writes,

On the basis of Est. 2:5–6 some critics have alleged that the author must have regarded Xerxes as a near successor to King Nebuchadnezzar, since he implies that Mordecai was carried off in the deportation of Jehoiachin in 597 and yet was still very much alive in the reign of Xerxes (485–464 B.C.). But this deduction is founded upon a mistaken interpretation of the Hebrew text; the true antecedent of the relative pronoun who in verse 6 is not Mordecai himself but rather Kish, his great-grandfather. If it was Kish who was Jehoiachin’s contemporary, as the author implies, three generations would have elapsed by the time of Mordecai—a proper interval between 597 and 483.[6]

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ESTHER 2:14-17 Did Esther have sexual immoral relations with the king?

No, she did not. Verse 14 says, “In the evening she would go in and in the morning, she would return to the second harem, to the custody of Shaashgaz, the king’s eunuch who was in charge of the concubines. She would not again go in to the king unless the king delighted in her and she was summoned by name.” The third person pronoun in this verse, “she,” is a reference to “the young women” of verse 13, not Esther. These young women became the king’s concubines or secondary wives. On the other hand, verse 17 says, “The king loved Esther more than all the women, and she found favor and kindness with him more than all the virgins, so that he set the royal crown on her head and made her queen instead of Vashti.”

Thus, with Esther, it says nothing about the next morning, or that she was taken to the house of the concubines. She did not find favor through sexual relations, but through her humble appearance, and the person that everyone else grew to love immediately. Verse 15 says, “Esther was winning favor in the eyes of all who saw her.” Unlike all the women that came before, as well as Vashti, she was not acting as though she were more important or special than everyone else because of her great beauty, nor was she after the King’s possessions. “When the turn came for Esther … to go into the king, she asked for nothing except what Hegai the king’s eunuch, who had charge of the women, advised.” Esther is selfless, so she does not look to make some showy display, and therefore does not ask for anything beyond what Hegai advised, while the other women picked many jewels, knowing that they were allowed to keep them after their night with the king.

Review Questions/Assignments:

  • (2:1-4, 16, 17) What is the process that leads to a queen replacing Vashti?
  • (2:5-8, 15) Who is Mordecai? Who is Esther?
  • (2:9-14) How did Hegai treat Esther? What fact does Esther refrain from sharing?
  • (2:15-18) What quality did Esther demonstrate when it was her turn in front of the king? How did Ahasuerus respond to her, and ending with what outcome?
  • (2:19-20) What quality or characteristic was Esther exhibiting with Mordecai? How can Christian women today benefit from bearing in mind the behavior of Vashti and Esther?
  • (2:21-23) How did Mordecai demonstrate his loyalty to the king? What were the outcome traitors?

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In FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART – SO I A M, Edward D. Andrews offers practical and biblical insights on a host of Christian spiritual growth struggles, from the challenge of forgiveness to eating disorders, anger, alcoholism, depression, anxiety, pornography, masturbation, same-sex …

APPLYING GOD'S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]APPLYING GOD’S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]

There is a genuine happiness, contentment, and joy, which come from reading, studying and applying God’s Word. This is true because the Scriptures offer us guidance and direction that aids us in living a life that coincides with our existence as a creation of Almighty God. For example, we …

PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]

THERE IS ONE MAJOR DIFFERENCE between Christian living books by Andrews and those by others. Generally speaking, his books are filled with Scripture and offer its readers what the Bible authors meant by what they penned. In this publication, it is really God’s Word offering the counsel, …

Walking With Your God_Second EditionWALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD: Putting God’s Purpose First in Your Life [Second Edition]

A clean conscience brings us inner peace, calmness, and a profound joy that is seldom found in this world under the imperfection of fallen flesh that is catered to by Satan, the god of the world. Many who were formerly living in sin and have now turned their life over to God, they now know this amazing relief and are able today to hold a good and clean conscience as they carry out the will of the Father. WALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD, has been written to help its readers to find that same joy, to have and maintain a good, clean conscience in their lives. Of course, it is incapable of covering every detail that one would need to consider and apply in their lives …

WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS: How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?

This book is primarily for WIVES, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. WIVES will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: WIVES BE SUBJECT TO …

HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?

This book is primarily for HUSBANDS, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. HUSBANDS will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: HUSBANDS LOVE …

TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL TRENDS: A Biblical Point of View

Technological and societal change is all around us. What does the future hold? Trying to predict the future is difficult, but we can get a clue from the social and technological trends in our society. The chapters in this book provide a framework as Christians explore the uncharted territory in our world of technology and social change.

CHRISTIANS AND GOVERNMENT: A Biblical Point of View

Government affects our daily lives, and Christians need to think about how to apply biblical principles to politics and government. This book provides an overview of the biblical principles relating to what the apostle Paul calls “governing authorities” (i.e., government) with specific chapters dealing with the founding principles of the American government. This includes an examination of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the Federalist Papers.

CHRISTIANS AND ECONOMICS A Biblical Point of View

Economics affects our daily lives, and Christians need to think about how to apply biblical principles to money, investment, borrowing, and spending. They also need to understand the free enterprise system and know how to defend capitalism. Chapters in this book not only look at broad economic principles, but a section of the book is devoted to the challenges we face in the 21st century from globalization and tough economic times. A section of the book also provides an in-depth look at other important social and economic issues (gambling, welfare) that we face every day

Christian Apologetics and Evangelism

REASONABLE FAITHREASONABLE FAITH: Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or the church, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” Ours is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the truthfulness of his Word, the Bible. A SUBSTANTIAL PORTION of REASONABLE FAITH is on healing for the elements of emotional doubt. However, much attention is given to more evidenced-based chapters in our pursuit of overcoming any fears or doubts that we may have or that may creep up on us in the future.

THE GREAT TEACHER Jesus ChristTHE GREAT TEACHER JESUS CHRIST: What Made Jesus Christ’s Teaching, Preaching, Evangelism, and Apologetics Outstanding Effective?

How can you improve your effectiveness as teachers? Essentially, it is by imitating THE GREAT TEACHER: Jesus Christ. You may wonder, ‘But how can we imitate Jesus?’ ‘He was the perfect, divine, Son of God.’ Admittedly, you cannot be a perfect teacher. Nevertheless, regardless of your abilities, you can do your best to imitate the way Jesus taught. THE GREAT TEACHER: Jesus Christ will discuss how you can employ all of his teaching methods.

King James BibleTHE KING JAMES BIBLE: Do You Know the King James Version?

The King James Bible was originally published in 1611. Some have estimated that the number of copies of the King James Version that have been produced in print worldwide is over one billion! There is little doubt that the King James Version is a literary masterpiece, which this author has and will appreciate and value for its unparalleled beauty of expression. This book is in no way trying to take away from what the King James Version has accomplished. The King James Version is a book to be commended for all that it has accomplished. For four centuries, when English-speaking people spoke of “the Bible,” they meant the King James Version. The question that begs to be asked of those who favor the King James Bible is, Do You Know the King James Version? What do most users of the King James Bible not know about their translation? Whether you are one who favors the King James Version or one who prefers a modern translation, Andrews will answer the questions that have long been asked for centuries about the King James Bible and far more.

DEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and TrueDEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and True

How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …

Agabus CoverDEFENDING AGABUS AS A NEW TESTAMENT PROPHET: A Content-Based Study of His Predictions In Acts by Sung Cho

Agabus is a mysterious prophetic figure that appears only twice in the book of Acts. Though his role is minor, he is a significant figure in a great debate between cessationists and continualists. On one side are those who believe that the gift of prophecy is on par with the inspired Scriptures, infallible, and has ceased. On the other side are those who define it as fallible and non-revelatory speech that continues today in the life of the church. Proponents of both camps attempt to claim …

WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIEWHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIE?: Should You Be Afraid of Death or of People Who Have Died?

People grow old, get sick, and die. Even some children die. Should you be afraid of death or of anybody who has died? Do you know what happens if we die? Will you ever see your dead loved ones again? “If a man dies, shall he live again?” asked the man Job long ago. (Job 14:14) Did God originally intend for humans to die? Why do you grow old and die? What is the Bible’s viewpoint of death? What is the condition of the dead? Are the dead aware of what is happening around them? What hope is there for the dead?

UNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of ViewUNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of View

Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the BasicsBIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the Basics

Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses: Examining the History of the Watchtower Translation and the Latest Revision

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses is going to challenge your objectivity. Being objective means that personal feelings or opinions do not influence you in considering and representing facts. Being subjective means that your understanding is based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or ideas. If the reader finds these insights offense, it might be a little mind control at work from years of being told the same misinformation repeatedly, so ponder things objectively …

REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES: Sharing CHRIST as You Help Others to Learn about the Mighty works of God

Use of REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES should help you to cultivate the ability to reason from the Scriptures and to use them effectively in assisting others to learn about “the mighty works of God.” – Acts 2:11. If Christians are going to be capable, powerful, efficient teachers of God’s Word, we must not only pay attention to what we tell those who are interested but also how we tell them. Yes, we must focus our attention on…

REASONING WITH THE WORLD’S VARIOUS RELIGIONS: Examining and Evangelizing Other Faiths

God’s will is that “all sorts of men should be saved and come to an accurate knowledge of truth.” (1 Tim. 2:4) God has assigned all Christians the task of proclaiming the Word of God, teaching, to make disciples. (Matt. 24:15; 28:19-20: Ac 1;8 That includes men and women who profess a non-Christian religion, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam to mention just a few. If there are Hindus, Buddhist or Muslims are in your community, why not initiate a conversation with them? Christians who take the Great Commission seriously cannot afford to ignore these religions…

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

FLEECING THE FLOCK_03FLEECING THE FLOCK: Setting the People of God Free From the Lies of Tithing

Evangelist Norman Robertson claims that “Tithing is God’s way of financing His kingdom on the earth.” He asserts that “It is His system of economics which enables the Gospel to be preached.” Not bashful about telling his followers of their duty to give, he flatly states: ‘Tithing isn’t something you do because you can afford it. It is an act of obedience. Not tithing is a clear violation of God’s commandments. It is embezzlement.’ Most likely you accept that giving should be part of Christian worship. However, …

Deception In the ChurchDECEPTION IN THE CHURCH: Does It Matter How You Worship?

DECEPTION IN THE CHURCH by Fred DeRuvo asks Does It Matter How You Worship? There are 41,000 different denominations that call themselves “Christian” and all would claim that they are the truth. Can just any Christian denomination please God? Can all be true or genuine Christianity if they all have different views on the same Bible doctrines? DeRuvo will answer. He will focus on the largest part of Christianity that has many different denominations, the charismatic, ecstatic Signs and Wonders Movements. These ecstatic worshipers claim … DeRuvo will answer all these questions and more according to the truth of God’s Word.—John 8:31-32; 17:17.

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …

DEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in RevelationDEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in Revelation

church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …

JOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK: Experience the Ministry of Jesus in a Spiritually Captivating WayJOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK

Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT The Christian Worldview

An Encouraging Thought elucidates the ways in which Tolkien’s The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are informed by and communicate a biblical worldview. This book will help readers appreciate the ways in which a biblical worldview informs Tolkien’s work, to the end that their own faith may be confirmed in strength, focused in understanding, deepened in joy, and honed in its ability to communicate the Gospel.

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Daily Devotionals

DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS: Growing Up In Christ

Young ones and teens, you are exposed to complex problems that your parents may not understand. Young Christians, you are bombarded with multiple options for solving everyday problems through social media. Where do you turn to find answers? Where can you look to find guidance from Scripture? In order to provide a Christian perspective to problem-solving, the author of this devotional book decided to take a different approach.

DEVOTIONAL FOR TRAGEDYDEVOTIONAL FOR THOSE COPING WITH TRAGEDY: A Journey Back to God

This devotional book follows the author’s own faith journey back to God. Significant life events can shake our world and distort our faith. Following life’s tragedies, a common reaction is to become angry with God or to reject Him altogether. Examples of tragedies or traumas include life-changing events such as physical or sexual assault, destruction of one’s home, the tragic death of a loved one, diagnoses of terminal diseases, divorce, miscarriages, or being a victim of a crime. Tragedies or traumas can cause feelings of anxiety, depression, shame, and guilt.

DEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERSDEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERS: Finding Strength Through Faith 

Throughout the book, common themes emerge to support caregivers. The reader will find interesting Bible Scriptures, offering a Christian perspective, for handling issues that may arise. These inspiring passages will assist the caregiver in finding peace and faith as they travel their journey as a caregiver. Although caregivers may not know how long they will play this role, they take on the responsibility without any question. Taking care of others is often mentioned in the Bible and, as noted in this devotional, this self-sacrificing, highly valued, and often challenging service will ultimately be rewarded.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL Daily Musings From the Old Testament

Humans must breathe in the air of our atmosphere to survive. Many cities because of pollution face a dangerous level of contamination in their air. However, an even more deadly air affects both Christians and nonChristians. Ordinary methods or devices cannot detect this poisonous air.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musing From the New Testament

Paul counseled, “Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth.” (Col. 3:2) It is, for this reason, Marshall has penned the DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musings From the New Testament, which can help us be protected against Satan’s efforts at controlling our mind and heart.  For each day of the year, DAILY DEVOTIONAL provides a Daily Bible Reading and comments for consideration.

BREAD OF HEAVEN: Daily Meditations on Scripture

BREAD OF HEAVEN helps the reader to have a greater understanding of the timeless truths of Scripture and a deeper appreciation of the grandeur of God. It offers meditations on selected Scriptures which will draw the reader’s attention upwards to the Savior.

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE SECRET HIDEAWAYTHE SECRET HIDEAWAY ON BRIDGETON HILL

Rachael Garrison knows all the shrewd ways to successfully close multi-million-dollar real estate deals with her father’s famous New York real estate enterprise. But beyond her savvy to rake in huge deals is her premonition that an impending global takeover of the world’s financial wealth is on the horizon by evil leaders of The Great Ten Nations. From New York City to the Irish Hills of Michigan, and into the streets of Detroit her life takes on enormous purpose as

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] Joyce G. Baldwin, Esther: An Introduction and Commentary (Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries), 67–68, (Grand Rapids: Intervarsity Press, 1984).

[2] Mervin Breneman, vol. 10, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, electronic ed., The New American Commentary, 319 (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1993).

[3] 2:19 a second time. Perhaps the king intended to add the second best to his concubine collection. – MacArthur, John. The MacArthur Bible Commentary (Kindle Locations 19403-19404). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition.

[4] Carl Friedrich Keil and Franz Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament, Es 2:19–23 (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1996).

[5] Herodotus, History, 8.90.

[6] Gleason Archer Jr., A Survey of Old Testament Introduction, 3rd. ed. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1994), 465.

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