REASONABLE FAITH Why Me_ Book of Esther

Some four years later, Haman the Agagite, the son of Hammedatha, a descendant of the Amalekite king Agag, is promoted to the highest-ranking official in the kingdom. With his promotion comes the order that all the servants bow before Him. This would also include Mordecai, who refused, because of his being a Jew. Why would Mordecai take such a strong position now? See the Bible Difficulty question at the end of this chapter before going on, because it will set the foundation for what follows.

Haman is Promoted

Esther 3:1 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

1 After these events King Ahasuerus promoted Haman, the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and advanced him and set his throne above all the princes who were with him.

“After these things” does not mean shortly thereafter by any means, as it is some four years later. Calling Haman the Agagite is a direct reference to Haman and the Amalekite king, Agag, where King Saul failed to execute him, costing Saul his kingship over Israel. However, the prophet Samuel went on to execute Agag (1 Sam. 15:8-33). This term for Haman is used throughout the rest of Esther (3:10; 8:1, 3, 5; 9:10, 24), as a slur for an enemy. We are not told why Ahasuerus promoted Haman over all the other nobles. We see a repetition in the text that states Haman was promoted, exalted, and set to a position above all the officials. The Greek historian Herodotus (484 – 425 B.C.E.), records that “among the Persians a high value is placed on services to the king, and those who perform them are greatly honoured.”[1] Another Greek historian Xenophon (430 – 354 B.C.E.) records,

[8.4.5] Accordingly, Cyrus [the Great (600?-530 B.C.E.)],[2] thus made public recognition of those who stood first in his esteem, beginning even with the places they took when sitting or standing in his company. He did not, however, assign the appointed place permanently, but he made it a rule that by noble deeds any one might advance to a more honoured seat, and that if anyone should conduct himself ill he should go back to one less honoured. And Cyrus felt it a discredit to himself, if the one who sat in the seat of highest honour was not also seen to receive the greatest number of good things at his hands. And we observe, furthermore, that this custom introduced in the time of Cyrus continues in force even to our own times.[3]

If the above is true; then, we can better understand why Haman is always looking to maintain his position with King Ahasuerus. In other words, if someone else in the kingdom carried out some outstanding service to the king, like saving his life, he could replace Haman as the head over all the nobles. All of this history sets the stage for what follows. Haman is now in a position that would require others to bow before him and allowed him to set in motion a plot to exterminate the Jewish people.

Esther 3:2 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

And All the king’s servants who were at the king’s gate bowed down and paid homage to Haman; for so the king had commanded concerning him. But Mordecai neither bowed down nor paid homage.

It was a common practice within the Persian Empire for people to bow down or do obeisance to the king. Obeisance is not necessarily an act of worship (dependent on the heart of the person), it is more of a gesture of respect or deference that is shown to another, especially royalty, in which one bows, kneels, or prostrates the body before another. “The Persian scholar P. Briant raises some questions about the exact meaning of proskynesis (Gr., obeisance), and notes that on the Persian monuments the gesture of obeisance is not prostration but a slight inclination of the body and a hand-kiss.”[4] King Ahasuerus gave a command that Haman was to be shown this honor. The entire account of Esther hangs on the fact that Mordecai will not bow to Haman. It is not stated why Mordecai refuses to do so, because as was stated above, this is not an act of worship for the Israelites (e.g., 1 Sam 24:8; 2 Sam 14:4; 1 Ki 1:16). However, some history says that that Persians saw the king as being divine.

It is obvious from this, that Mordochai had declared to those who asked him the reason why he did not fall down before Haman, that he could not do so because he was a Jew,—that as a Jew he could not show that honour to man which was due to God alone. Now the custom of falling down to the earth before an exalted personage, and especially before a king, was customary among Israelites; comp. 2 Sam. 14:4, 18:28, 1 Kings 1:16. If, then, Mordochai refused to pay this honour to Haman, the reason of such refusal must be sought in the notions which the Persians were wont to combine with the action, i.e., in the circumstance that they regarded it as an act of homage performed to a king as a divine being, an incarnation of Oromasdes.[5]

While the possibility of Mordecai’s failure to bow before Haman might be because the king was viewed as divine, it seems that there is a more likely reason. There had to be occasions for Mordecai to have to do obeisance to King Ahasuerus; otherwise, he would have never received the promotion that comes later in the account. Unquestionably, what motivated Mordecai is the fact that Haman was an Agagite, probably a royal Amalekite, an enemy of the Israelite people in the extreme. Mordecai’s Jewish ancestry stands in opposition to Haman’s Agagite ancestry. Jehovah had declared the subsequent execution of the Amalekites as they had revealed their hatred of God and his people by attacking the Israelites at Rephidim in the wilderness. (Ex 17:8–16; Deut. 25:17–19; 1 Sam. 15:17–20) Therefore, righteous Mordecai faithfully rejected the notion of prostrating himself before Haman. Bowing would symbolize not only respect but also would have possibly sent the message that there was to be peace and perhaps reverence to the point of a worshipful attitude toward this Amalekite.

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Esther 3:3-4 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

Then the king’s servants who were at the king’s gate said to Mordecai, “Why are you transgressing the king’s command?” Now it was when they had spoken daily to him, and he would not listen to them, that they told Haman to see whether Mordecai’s reason would stand; for he had told them that he was a Jew.

Mordecai was alone in his stance, which moved the servants of the king to focus in on him. The issue in the eyes of these servants was not why are you transgressing Haman, but “Why are you transgressing the command of the king?” This question day after day was meant to get Mordecai to change his mind and obey the command. Somehow, it had escaped the attention of Haman that Mordecai was not bowing before him; so, the servants went to Haman to see whether this would not bring Mordecai to his senses.

The fact that Mordecai “told them that he was a Jew,” (the opposite of the counsel given to Esther at 1:10, 20), shows that he was firm in his position because this was a matter of upholding his integrity to God. We must remember while it was just a few verses earlier (2:21-23, but actually about four years earlier, long forgotten), Mordecai was the hero when he saved the king from being assassinated. It seems that for the moment anyway, the view of Mordecai and the Israelite people are about to take a turn for the worse.

Esther 3:5 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

And when Haman saw that Mordecai neither bowed down nor paid homage to him, Haman was filled with rage.

Remember the issue in the eyes of the servants was not why are you transgressing Haman, but “Why are you transgressing the command of the king?” For Haman, the issue was about transgressing him. His rage for Mordecai and the Jewish people had consumed him.

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Esther 3:6 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

But he disdained [in his eyes] to lay hands on Mordecai alone, for they had made known to him who the people of Mordecai were; therefore Haman sought to destroy all the Jews, the people of Mordecai, who were throughout the whole kingdom of Ahasuerus.

The Agagite Haman was so enraged over Mordecai’s failure to bow before him; he then sought to annihilate both Mordecai and the Jewish people, throughout the Persian Empire. Haman’s thirst for worshipful honor saw no bounds, and it would only be quenched by the genocide of a people that had no value in Haman’s eyes. We now see why Esther was miraculously moved into the position of queen.

He [despised] The same word, b-z-h, “disdain, despise, scorn,” is what Memucan worries that all the women will do in 1:17 (Levenson). This is part of the theme of honor and shame that informs the relationship between Haman and Mordecai.[6]

One might think that this extreme rage boiling inside Haman goes tremendously out of the realm of possibilities, when he determines to annihilate the Jewish people, over one person failing to bow before him. However, we must remember that Mordecai stated his reasons were that he was a Jew. Rageful people are not rational people, especially ones that also possess a lust and thirst for power. Haman would have likely reasoned to himself, ‘if Mordecai refused over the fact that he is a Jew, and it violates his loyalty to his God; eventually, there would be other cases if he martyred Mordecai alone, and Haman would lose his honor among the people.’ Think of it; an irrational King Ahasuerus removed Queen Vashti over her one perceived act of disrespect for not coming at his request; believing that all women would have followed in her act of disrespect. Therefore, Haman was of the same irrational thinking, to an even greater degree.

Esther 3:7 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

In the first month, which is the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of King Ahasuerus, they cast Pur (that is, they cast lots) before Haman day after day; and they cast it month after month till the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar.

During the month of Nisan (March-April), the beginning of King Ahasuerus’ twelfth year, the devious Agagite resorts to attempting to foretell the future or discovering the unknown through an astrologer casting Pur that is the lot. The casting of lots was a New Year tradition of the Persians, in order to determine the future of the coming year. This was an attempt by Haman to discover the most favorable day in which to annihilate the Israelite people. The date set for the destruction of the Israelite people is Adar (February-March), which is almost a year for Haman to devise his plan.

The word pur is the Babylonian word for a lot, and Esther’s author provides the Hebrew translation for his readers, who would be unfamiliar with the term. The casting of lots was a common method for determining the will of the gods or deciding any matter of great importance. In the Old Testament, lots were used frequently in cases where choices were needed—for example, to select the scapegoat on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:8) or to identify God’s chosen king (1 Sam. 10:20–21). Herodotus and Xenophon [Greek historians of 5th and 4th centuries B.C.E.] attest to the use of lots in Persia.

The form of the lot and how it was used are uncertain. One possibility is that the lot was cast onto a surface that was divided into sections marked with the names of the months and days. The day on which the lot fell would be considered the gods’ choice. Another possibility is that lots with months and days printed on them would be placed inside a pouch. The pouch would be shaken until one of the lots popped out, thus indicating that a god had chosen that particular date.[7] An Assyrian lot from the ninth century B.C. has been recovered; it is a baked clay square about an inch across, inscribed with a prayer.[8]

Lot of Yahali
Lot of Yahali, 9th c. B.C. using the word puru for the lot: Courtesy of ZIBBC

While the casting of lots in the Ancient Near East by an astrologer or magician was a form of pagan worship, a similar practice was carried out by the Israelites and was an acceptable form of discerning the will of God. Proverbs 16:33 in the ASV says, “The lot is cast into the lap; But the whole disposing thereof is of Jehovah.” The lots were cast to determine the will and purpose of Jehovah.

As Mervin Breneman brings to our attention, there is a bit of irony here. The first readers of the book of Esther would have come to 3:7 and 13 as we know it, and they would have read that the lots had determined that the Jews were to be destroyed eleven months later. However, they would have known that the gods were wrong, because it was, in fact, “those who cast the lots [who] would suffer the fate intended for someone else.”[9] Nevertheless, this should have not really come as a surprise, as the Israelites had a history of the casting of lots, which gave them direction from their God that came true when they had a righteous standing before him. On the other hand, they lived in a pagan nation where the casting of lots each year must have been wrong quite often.

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Esther 3:8-9 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

Then Haman said to King Ahasuerus, “There is a certain people scattered and dispersed among the peoples in all the provinces of your kingdom; their laws are different from those of all other people, and they do not keep the king’s laws, so that it is not to the king’s profit to tolerate them. If it is pleasing to the king, let it be decreed that they be destroyed, and I will pay ten thousand talents of silver into the hands of those who have charge of the king’s business, to put into the king’s treasuries.”

Haman now brings his plan before King Ahasuerus, deceitful, as he portrays the Jews as a stain in his empire, as lawbreakers. Haman tries to use the economy as a motivating factor; the Agagite says, “Let orders be given that they are destroyed. I will pay for it myself. I’ll deposit 375 tons of silver [60 millions of dollars] in the treasury of the king to finance the operation.” Remember, back in verse 5, for Haman, the issue of not bowing before him was about transgressing him. Now it is about transgressing the King’s laws when he is seeking to get a decree issued by the king. How things change when you are before the king as opposed to being in front of the people.

Here Haman is giving the impression that his motivation is for the best interests of the king and the kingdom. While there is a bit of truth to that, because he had his eye on the kingdom for himself, it was not on behalf of King Ahasuerus. He manipulates the king into believing that the Jews ways were anti-Persian, and it would only be a matter of time before the whole of the Israelite nation either rose up against the Persians or with their rebellious spirit contaminated the minds of other cultures living in the Persian Empire. Haman is suggesting that they stamp out this spirit before it spreads. Haman has gone from one man failing to bow before him, to this grand conspiracy.

Carry A. Moore describes the progression this way, “Haman’s accusation of the Jews (v. 8) was diabolically clever in its construction, proceeding as it did from the truth (‘dispersed and scattered’) to half-truth (‘customs are different’) to an outright lie (‘who do not obey the king’s laws’).”[10] Yes, by this time, the Jews were scattered throughout the Persian Empire. This, of course, posed no real threat to the empire, as being dispersed only leads to vulnerability, as a people of dispersion are not able to unite any kind of offensive rebellion. However, the argument of dispersion goes with Haman’s economic point. If the people were dispersed to the point of having no real province, then the treasury of the king would not be receiving any tribute from them, inferring that they are expendable.

The half-truth of the customs being different meant nothing really because the religious practices of the Jews would in no way infringe on the customs or offend the customs of any other peoples. Moreover, the Persian Empire was known for its tolerance of religious practices of all the people that lived within the empire, never requiring they convert to their culture. The out and out lie that the Jews do not observe the laws of the king, should be better understood before we move on. The Law of the Persian Empire was the Imperial law that extended the entire 127 provinces, of which every people were expected to obey.

However, the local law of every people was encouraged by the empire, as long as it did not conflict with the imperial law, which was designed to unite all the laws as one. What Haman was getting at was more of a political issue as opposed to a judicial one; in other words, loyalty to the king. Strictly speaking, Haman was saying that the Jews did not accept the sovereignty of the king, which in essence was an act of treason, punishable by death. This is a complete lie, as the Jews respected every government that had sway over them, as long as that government respected their laws. This had been the case under the Babylonian Empire, as well as the Persian Empire for many decades up to this point and would be so under the Greek and Roman Empires to come.

Thus, Haman argues that it is not in the king’s best interests to tolerate them, namely, to permit them to get away with the accusations that Haman has levied against them. To be exact, it does not serve the king to allow the Jews not to pay their tribute. Quickly, Haman rushes on to the solution, with the treasury of the king taking no losses, and a resolution to the problem altogether. ‘A decree be issued to destroy them, and Haman will pay ten thousand talents of silver to those who do the job.’

THE GREAT TEACHER Jesus Christ King James Bible Book of Proverbs

Esther 3:10-11 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

10 Then the king took his signet ring from his hand and gave it to Haman, the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the enemy of the Jews. 11 And the king said to Haman, “The silver is yours, and the people also, to do with them as you please.”

The King does not even question these accusations, removing his signet ring to give it to Haman, in order to carry out his genocide against the Jews. A signet ring was “usually a ring with a seal carefully crafted upon it that an important or rich person used to authenticate a document. It was used much like a signature on a document today. The ring of kings would carry the highest authority in a land and empowered subordinates to act for the king.”[11]

Egyptian god signet
Egyptian god signet ring portraying pharaoh before Hathor―John H Walton, ZIBBC OT 3, 489.

We have another reference to the writer calling Haman the Agagite, which again is a direct reference to Haman and the Amalekite king, Agag. This is a term of disdain for a people that tried to destroy the Jews the moment that they were led out of Egypt by Moses. It is for that reason Jehovah had ordered their destruction, which was ignored by King Saul.

It seems that King Ahasuerus was quite evil himself, as he tells Haman to keep his money; and do with the people as he saw fit. It appears that Ahasuerus continuously displayed two very bad qualities for a person responsible for the world empire of the time: (1) he is overly generous (later he will offer Esther up to half of the kingdom), and (2) those who were advising him so easily manipulated him.

Esther 3:12 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

12 Then the king’s scribes were summoned on the thirteenth day of the first month, and it was written just as Haman commanded to the king’s satraps, to the governors who were over each province and to the princes of each people, to every province in its own script and every people in its own language. It was written in the name of King Ahasuerus and sealed with the king’s signet ring.

Both Babylonia and Persian cultures viewed the number thirteen as being unlucky. The decree to destroy the Jewish people was issued on Nisan 13th, one day before the Passover celebration of where God had freed Israel from Egyptian bondage. It was issued eleven months before it was to be carried out (as it would take several months to get the message throughout the empire), giving the order to annihilate all Jews, young and old alike. In ancient Persia Empire, the satrap was over the governor, who ruled over the provinces of local officials. At the height of the empire, there were only 20 satraps ruling over the 127 provinces, and their governors. Satraps ruled over major regions, such as Media, Elam, Parthia, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Armenia, Cappadocia, Lydia, Ionia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and Libya.

Persia is a “country laying just to the east of Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) and covering virtually the same territory as present-day Iran. It was known in ancient times by various forms of Fars or Pars, which came down to us as Persia. It continued to be known as Persia until 1935 when its name was changed to Iran. The modern official language of the country is Persian, an Indo-European language written in Arabic characters.”[12] Medo-Persia “conquered the ancient Near East, including Israel, and ruled the region for about 200 years (circa 550–330 BC). It was the largest and longest-lived empire the world had yet seen, ruling from India to Ethiopia.”[13]

Medo-Persian Empire

The decree was to be sent out into the provinces according to its own script and to all people according to their own language. “The language emphasizes by its repetition the intensity, totality, and speed of the destruction.”[14] Here we have a decree being sent out to destroy the Jews on the so-called unlucky day of the Persian people, probably believing that it would run against the Jewish people, yet one day before the most sacred day of the Jewish people. Again, the first readers must have seen the oddness between what actually happened and what Haman expected to happen, especially when the disparity was so absurd.

REASONABLE FAITH Why Me_ FEARLESS-1

Esther 3:13 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

13 Letters were sent by couriers to all the king’s provinces to destroy, to kill and to annihilate all the Jews, both young and old, women, and children, in one day, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to plunder their goods.

Sadly enough, the Jewish people have been the object of hatred from the time of Moses, up until this very day. Genocide of the Jewish people has been the plan of more world rulers than one cares to count. Here Haman gives the orders to “to destroy, to kill, and to annihilate all the Jews, both young and old, women and children” on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month. Imagine waiting for so many months with the death penalty looming on the horizon. Moreover, some of the other people living in the Persian Empire would have developed a hatred for the Jewish people as the day grew near, lusting after the land and personal property that they may acquire in the ensuing destruction.

Is it any different today, as the Israelite people sit, waiting for Iran (modern-day Persia) to develop a nuclear weapon, with the intention of annihilating them, while the world passively watches on? The radical Islamic elements of Palestine are waiting and believing that the time is near when they will occupy Israel. It seems that in this case, history continually repeats itself. However, while Israel seems to suffer, they also escape the genocide plans.

Esther 3:14 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

14 A copy of the document was to be issued as a decree in every province was published to all the peoples so that they should be ready for that day.

Persian law was unique in that once something was written into law, it could not be annulled (withdrawn). Being that the Persian Empire was the world power of the time, there was little hope of finding any allies or conceivably outrunning this death sentence.

Esther 3:15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

15 The couriers went out quickly by order of the king while the decree was issued at the citadel in Susa. And the king and Haman sat down to drink, but the city of Susa was thrown into confusion.

The couriers went out hurriedly in all directions, to the ends of the realm, while the news hit the capital of Susa and Mordecai. Certainly, the Jews of Susa were distraught to no end, as opposed to Haman and the king, who sat down to drink. We can only imagine that the Jewish people had many friends among the other peoples of the Empire, who would have also been overwhelmed as well by this news.

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BIBLE DIFFICULTIES Esther Chapter 3

ESTHER 3:2 What is the most likely reason for Mordecai refusing to bow before Haman?

As was stated in the coverage of the chapter, the Israelites had no problem accepting the sovereignty of a nation that they may have been under, if it did not violate their worship to their God, Jehovah. Thus, they had a history of bowing before leaders out of respect, not worship. The issue here between Mordecai and Haman is more involved. Haman was an Agagite, an Amalekite, to which the Scriptures below will address. Mordecai felt that his bowing before Haman was an act of disloyalty to Jehovah. His refusal is based on his being a Jew. (3:3-4)

Exodus 17:14-16 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

14 Then Jehovah said to Moses, “Write this as a memorial in the book and recite it in the ears of Joshua, that I will utterly blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven.” 15 And Moses built an altar, and he called its name Jehovah Is My Banner; 16 and he said, “Because a hand is against the throne of Jah; Jehovah will have war against Amalek from generation to generation.”

Deuteronomy 25:17-19 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

Revenge on the Amalekites

17 “Remember what Amalek did to you on the way as you came out of Egypt, 18 how he met you along the way and attacked among you all the stragglers at your rear when you were faint and weary; and he did not fear God. 19 Therefore it shall come about when Jehovah your God has given you rest from all your surrounding enemies, in the land which Jehovah your God gives you as an inheritance to possess it, you shall blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven; you must not forget.

Amalek was a grandson of Esau, who was one of the chieftains of Edom. (Gen. 36:15, 16) Amalek’s name also stood for his ancestral descendants, The Amalekites.[15] The two sources below help us appreciate the level of hatred that Haman must have carried for the Jewish people, especially Mordecai.

[The Amalekites were a] Nomadic tribe of formidable people that first [led an unprovoked] attacked the Israelites after the exodus at Rephidim. Descendants of Amalek, the grandson of Esau (Gen. 36:12), they inhabited the desolate wasteland of the northeast Sinai Peninsula and the Negev. They were the first to attack Israel after the exodus (Num. 24:20). Israel won the initial battle (Exod. 17:8–16), but later was driven back into the Sinai wilderness by a coalition of Amalekites and Canaanites (Num. 14:39–45). Thereafter the Amalekites waged a barbaric guerrilla war against Israel (Deut. 25:17–19). Fighting continued after Israel settled in Canaan. Because of their atrocities, God commanded Saul to exterminate the Amalekites (1 Sam. 15:2–3). Saul disobeyed and the Amalekites were not defeated completely until late in the eighth century B.C. (1 Chron. 4:43). No archaeological data concerning the Amalekites has been discovered to date.[16]

The Amalekites were a nomadic people descended from Esau (Gen. 36:12, 16). They typically ranged through the Negev and Sinai Peninsula, where they clashed with Israel during the Exodus (Ex. 17:8–13; Deut. 25:17–18). But during the reign of King Saul, the conflict became fateful. God ordered Saul to utterly destroy the Amalekites and to take no booty from them. But Saul saved some of the loot and took the Amalekite king, Agag, as a captive. The prophet Samuel killed Agag, but not before informing Saul that his disobedience would cost him his throne (1 Sam. 15). Since Mordecai is associated with the house of Saul, the clash between Mordecai and Haman is set up as a “rematch” of the Saul-Agag affair.[17]

As one would expect there is no love lost between the descendants of Amalek and the Jewish people, especially the house of Saul. Haman is filled with fury when he discovers that the one person, who fails to bow before him, is also a Jew, and is of the house of Saul. Haman has the perfect opportunity to exact revenge on the Jewish people. Verse 1 of chapter three begins with Haman’s promotion.

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Review Questions/Assignments:

(3:1) Who is Haman?

(3:2-5) What is the most likely reason for Mordecai refusing to bow before Haman?

(3:6-7) Why was Haman enraged? What was his intentions toward the Jews throughout the whole of the Persian Empire? Why did this plan not seem unreasonable in the Mind of Haman? What is the Casting of lots? What irony would there be for the first readers of the book of Esther as they came upon 3:7, 10?

(3:8-9) What truth, half-truth, and outright lie does Haman tell King Ahasuerus? What was the actual truth of the matter?

(3:10-11) How does the King react to Haman’s accusations? What is a signet ring? Why does the author of Esther keep referring to Haman as the Agagite”

(3:12) What was the irony of having the decree going out on the 13th of Nisan? Explain the difference between a satrap, governor, and the officials. Who is the modern-day Persian, and what are their intentions?

(3:13) What is to happen to the Jews on the thirteenth day of the month of Adar? What would life be like for the Jewish people as they waited that day?

(3:14) What was unique about Persian law? What little hope did the Jewish people have?

(3:15) What contrasted picture do we get between the people of Susa as opposed to Haman and the king? Why would many non-Jews be just as distraught by this news?

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THE POWER OF GODTHE POWER OF GOD: The Word That Will Change Your Life Today 

Yes, God will be pleased to give you strength. He even gives “extraordinary power” to those who are serving him. (2 Cor. 4:7) Do you not feel drawn to this powerful Almighty God, who uses his power in such kind and principled ways? God is certainly a “shield for all those who take refuge in him.” (Psalm 18:30) You understand that he does not use his power to protect you from all tragedy now. He does, however, always use his protective power to ensure the outworking of his will and purpose. In the long run, his doing so is in your best interests. Andrews shares a profound truth …

BLESSED IN SATAN'S WORLDBLESSED BY GOD IN SATAN’S WORLD How All Things Are Working for Your Good

All of us will go through difficult times that we may not fully understand. The apostle Paul wrote, “in the last days difficult times will come.” (2 Tim. 3:1) Those difficulties are part of the human imperfection (Rom. 5:12) and living in a fallen world that is ruled by Satan (2 Cor. 4:3-4). But when we find ourselves in such a place, it’s crucial that we realize God has given us a way out. (1 Cor. 10:13) Edward Andrews writes that if we remain steadfast in our faith and apply God’s Word correctly when we go through difficult times, we will not only grow spiritually, but we will …

AMERICA IN BIBLE PROPHECY_UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN BIBLE PROPHECY: The Kings of the North & South of Daniel and the Seven Kings of Revelation 

Why should you be interested in the prophecy recorded by Daniel in chapter 11 of the book that bears his name? The King of the North and the King of the South of Daniel are locked in an all-out conflict for domination as a world power. As the centuries pass, turning into millenniums, …

YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE: Why and How Your Christian Life Makes a DifferenceYOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE: Why and How Your Christian Life Makes a Difference

The theme of Andrews’ new book is YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE. As a Christian, you touch the lives of other people, wherein you can make a positive difference. Men and women of ancient times such as David, Nehemiah, Deborah, Esther, and the apostle Paul had a positive influence on others …

TURN OLD HABITS INTO NEW HABITS: Why and How the Bible Makes a DifferenceTURN OLD HABITS INTO NEW HABITS: Why and How the Bible Makes a Difference

Many have successfully conquered bad habits and addictions by applying suggestions found in the Bible and by seeking help from God through prayer. You simply cannot develop good habits and kick all your bad ones overnight. See how to establish priorities. Make sure that your new habits …

GOD WILL GET YOU THROUGH THIS: Hope and Help for Your Difficult TimesGOD WILL GET YOU THROUGH THIS: Hope and Help for Your Difficult Times

It may seem to almost all of us that we are either entering into a difficult time, living in one, or just getting over one and that we face one problem after another. This difficulty may be the loss of a loved one in death or a severe marriage issue, a grave illness, the lack of a job, or …

FEARLESS: Be Courageous and Strong Through Your Faith In These Last DaysFEARLESS: Be Courageous and Strong Through Your Faith In These Last Days

The world that you live in today has many real reasons to be fearful. Many are addicted to drugs, alcohol, bringing violence into even the safest communities. Terrorism has plagued the world for more than a decade now. Bullying in schools has caused many teen suicides. The divorce rate …

JOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the WorldJOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the World

John 3:16 is one of the most widely quoted verses from the Christian Bible. It has also been called the “Gospel in a nutshell,” because it is considered a summary of the central theme of traditional Christianity. Martin Luther called John 3:16 “The heart of the Bible, the Gospel in …

THE BOOK OF JAMES: CPH New Testament Commentary, Vol. 17 (An Apologetic and Background Exposition of the Holy Scriptures) CPH New Testament CommentaryTHE BOOK OF JAMES (CPH New Testament Commentary 17)

…about God and his personal revelation, allowing it to change our lives by drawing closer to God. The Book of James volume is written in a style that is easy to understand. The Bible can be difficult and complex at times. Our effort herein is to make it easier to read and understand, while …

THE OUTSIDER: Coming-of-Age In This MomentTHE OUTSIDER Coming-of-Age In This Moment

THE OUTSIDER is a Coming-of-Age book. SECTION 1 Surviving Sexual Desires and Love will cover such subjects as What Is Wrong with Flirting, The Pornography Deception, Peer Pressure to Have Sexual Relations, Coping With Constant Sexual Thoughts, Fully Understanding Sexting, Is Oral Sex …

THIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING: When Hope and Love VanishTHIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING: When Hope and Love Vanish

Who should read THIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING? Anyone who is struggling with their walk as a young person. Anyone who has a friend who is having difficulty handling or coping with their young life, so you can offer them the help they need. Any parent who has young ones. And …

WAGING WAR: A Christian's Cognitive Behavioral Therapy WorkbookWAGING WAR: A Christian’s Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Workbook

Waging War is a guide to start the youth with the most basic information and work pages to the culmination of all of the facts, scripture, and their newly gained insight to offer a more clear picture of where they are and how to change their lives for the better. Every chapter will have …

THE POWERFUL WEAPON OF PRAYER: A Healthy Prayer LifeTHE POWERFUL WEAPON OF PRAYER: A Healthy Prayer Life

DOZENS OF QUESTIONS WILL BE ANSWERED: Why is prayer necessary? What must we do to be heard by God? How does God answer our prayers? Does God listen to all prayers? Does God hear everyone’s prayers? What may we pray about? Does the Father truly grant everything we ask for? What kind …

HUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For UsHUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For Us

There are many reasons the Christian view of humanity is very important. The Christian view of humanity believes that humans were created in the image of God. We will look at the biblical view of humanity. We are going to look at the nature of man, the freedom of man, the personality of …

FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition]FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition] 

In FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART – SO I A M, Edward D. Andrews offers practical and biblical insights on a host of Christian spiritual growth struggles, from the challenge of forgiveness to eating disorders, anger, alcoholism, depression, anxiety, pornography, masturbation, same-sex …

APPLYING GOD'S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]APPLYING GOD’S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]

There is a genuine happiness, contentment, and joy, which come from reading, studying and applying God’s Word. This is true because the Scriptures offer us guidance and direction that aids us in living a life that coincides with our existence as a creation of Almighty God. For example, we …

PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]

THERE IS ONE MAJOR DIFFERENCE between Christian living books by Andrews and those by others. Generally speaking, his books are filled with Scripture and offer its readers what the Bible authors meant by what they penned. In this publication, it is really God’s Word offering the counsel, …

Walking With Your God_Second EditionWALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD: Putting God’s Purpose First in Your Life [Second Edition]

A clean conscience brings us inner peace, calmness, and a profound joy that is seldom found in this world under the imperfection of fallen flesh that is catered to by Satan, the god of the world. Many who were formerly living in sin and have now turned their life over to God, they now know this amazing relief and are able today to hold a good and clean conscience as they carry out the will of the Father. WALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD, has been written to help its readers to find that same joy, to have and maintain a good, clean conscience in their lives. Of course, it is incapable of covering every detail that one would need to consider and apply in their lives …

WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS: How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?

This book is primarily for WIVES, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. WIVES will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: WIVES BE SUBJECT TO …

HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?

This book is primarily for HUSBANDS, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. HUSBANDS will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: HUSBANDS LOVE …

TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL TRENDS: A Biblical Point of View

Technological and societal change is all around us. What does the future hold? Trying to predict the future is difficult, but we can get a clue from the social and technological trends in our society. The chapters in this book provide a framework as Christians explore the uncharted territory in our world of technology and social change.

CHRISTIANS AND GOVERNMENT: A Biblical Point of View

Government affects our daily lives, and Christians need to think about how to apply biblical principles to politics and government. This book provides an overview of the biblical principles relating to what the apostle Paul calls “governing authorities” (i.e., government) with specific chapters dealing with the founding principles of the American government. This includes an examination of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the Federalist Papers.

CHRISTIANS AND ECONOMICS A Biblical Point of View

Economics affects our daily lives, and Christians need to think about how to apply biblical principles to money, investment, borrowing, and spending. They also need to understand the free enterprise system and know how to defend capitalism. Chapters in this book not only look at broad economic principles, but a section of the book is devoted to the challenges we face in the 21st century from globalization and tough economic times. A section of the book also provides an in-depth look at other important social and economic issues (gambling, welfare) that we face every day

Christian Apologetics and Evangelism

REASONABLE FAITHREASONABLE FAITH: Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or the church, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” Ours is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the truthfulness of his Word, the Bible. A SUBSTANTIAL PORTION of REASONABLE FAITH is on healing for the elements of emotional doubt. However, much attention is given to more evidenced-based chapters in our pursuit of overcoming any fears or doubts that we may have or that may creep up on us in the future.

THE GREAT TEACHER Jesus ChristTHE GREAT TEACHER JESUS CHRIST: What Made Jesus Christ’s Teaching, Preaching, Evangelism, and Apologetics Outstanding Effective?

How can you improve your effectiveness as teachers? Essentially, it is by imitating THE GREAT TEACHER: Jesus Christ. You may wonder, ‘But how can we imitate Jesus?’ ‘He was the perfect, divine, Son of God.’ Admittedly, you cannot be a perfect teacher. Nevertheless, regardless of your abilities, you can do your best to imitate the way Jesus taught. THE GREAT TEACHER: Jesus Christ will discuss how you can employ all of his teaching methods.

King James BibleTHE KING JAMES BIBLE: Do You Know the King James Version?

The King James Bible was originally published in 1611. Some have estimated that the number of copies of the King James Version that have been produced in print worldwide is over one billion! There is little doubt that the King James Version is a literary masterpiece, which this author has and will appreciate and value for its unparalleled beauty of expression. This book is in no way trying to take away from what the King James Version has accomplished. The King James Version is a book to be commended for all that it has accomplished. For four centuries, when English-speaking people spoke of “the Bible,” they meant the King James Version. The question that begs to be asked of those who favor the King James Bible is, Do You Know the King James Version? What do most users of the King James Bible not know about their translation? Whether you are one who favors the King James Version or one who prefers a modern translation, Andrews will answer the questions that have long been asked for centuries about the King James Bible and far more.

DEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and TrueDEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and True

How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …

Agabus CoverDEFENDING AGABUS AS A NEW TESTAMENT PROPHET: A Content-Based Study of His Predictions In Acts by Sung Cho

Agabus is a mysterious prophetic figure that appears only twice in the book of Acts. Though his role is minor, he is a significant figure in a great debate between cessationists and continualists. On one side are those who believe that the gift of prophecy is on par with the inspired Scriptures, infallible, and has ceased. On the other side are those who define it as fallible and non-revelatory speech that continues today in the life of the church. Proponents of both camps attempt to claim …

WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIEWHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIE?: Should You Be Afraid of Death or of People Who Have Died?

People grow old, get sick, and die. Even some children die. Should you be afraid of death or of anybody who has died? Do you know what happens if we die? Will you ever see your dead loved ones again? “If a man dies, shall he live again?” asked the man Job long ago. (Job 14:14) Did God originally intend for humans to die? Why do you grow old and die? What is the Bible’s viewpoint of death? What is the condition of the dead? Are the dead aware of what is happening around them? What hope is there for the dead?

UNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of ViewUNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of View

Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the BasicsBIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the Basics

Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses: Examining the History of the Watchtower Translation and the Latest Revision

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses is going to challenge your objectivity. Being objective means that personal feelings or opinions do not influence you in considering and representing facts. Being subjective means that your understanding is based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or ideas. If the reader finds these insights offense, it might be a little mind control at work from years of being told the same misinformation repeatedly, so ponder things objectively …

REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES: Sharing CHRIST as You Help Others to Learn about the Mighty works of God

Use of REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES should help you to cultivate the ability to reason from the Scriptures and to use them effectively in assisting others to learn about “the mighty works of God.” – Acts 2:11. If Christians are going to be capable, powerful, efficient teachers of God’s Word, we must not only pay attention to what we tell those who are interested but also how we tell them. Yes, we must focus our attention on…

REASONING WITH THE WORLD’S VARIOUS RELIGIONS: Examining and Evangelizing Other Faiths

God’s will is that “all sorts of men should be saved and come to an accurate knowledge of truth.” (1 Tim. 2:4) God has assigned all Christians the task of proclaiming the Word of God, teaching, to make disciples. (Matt. 24:15; 28:19-20: Ac 1;8 That includes men and women who profess a non-Christian religion, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam to mention just a few. If there are Hindus, Buddhist or Muslims are in your community, why not initiate a conversation with them? Christians who take the Great Commission seriously cannot afford to ignore these religions…

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

FLEECING THE FLOCK_03FLEECING THE FLOCK: Setting the People of God Free From the Lies of Tithing

Evangelist Norman Robertson claims that “Tithing is God’s way of financing His kingdom on the earth.” He asserts that “It is His system of economics which enables the Gospel to be preached.” Not bashful about telling his followers of their duty to give, he flatly states: ‘Tithing isn’t something you do because you can afford it. It is an act of obedience. Not tithing is a clear violation of God’s commandments. It is embezzlement.’ Most likely you accept that giving should be part of Christian worship. However, …

Deception In the ChurchDECEPTION IN THE CHURCH: Does It Matter How You Worship?

DECEPTION IN THE CHURCH by Fred DeRuvo asks Does It Matter How You Worship? There are 41,000 different denominations that call themselves “Christian” and all would claim that they are the truth. Can just any Christian denomination please God? Can all be true or genuine Christianity if they all have different views on the same Bible doctrines? DeRuvo will answer. He will focus on the largest part of Christianity that has many different denominations, the charismatic, ecstatic Signs and Wonders Movements. These ecstatic worshipers claim … DeRuvo will answer all these questions and more according to the truth of God’s Word.—John 8:31-32; 17:17.

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …

DEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in RevelationDEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in Revelation

church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …

JOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK: Experience the Ministry of Jesus in a Spiritually Captivating WayJOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK

Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT The Christian Worldview

An Encouraging Thought elucidates the ways in which Tolkien’s The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are informed by and communicate a biblical worldview. This book will help readers appreciate the ways in which a biblical worldview informs Tolkien’s work, to the end that their own faith may be confirmed in strength, focused in understanding, deepened in joy, and honed in its ability to communicate the Gospel.

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Daily Devotionals

DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS: Growing Up In Christ

Young ones and teens, you are exposed to complex problems that your parents may not understand. Young Christians, you are bombarded with multiple options for solving everyday problems through social media. Where do you turn to find answers? Where can you look to find guidance from Scripture? In order to provide a Christian perspective to problem-solving, the author of this devotional book decided to take a different approach.

DEVOTIONAL FOR TRAGEDYDEVOTIONAL FOR THOSE COPING WITH TRAGEDY: A Journey Back to God

This devotional book follows the author’s own faith journey back to God. Significant life events can shake our world and distort our faith. Following life’s tragedies, a common reaction is to become angry with God or to reject Him altogether. Examples of tragedies or traumas include life-changing events such as physical or sexual assault, destruction of one’s home, the tragic death of a loved one, diagnoses of terminal diseases, divorce, miscarriages, or being a victim of a crime. Tragedies or traumas can cause feelings of anxiety, depression, shame, and guilt.

DEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERSDEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERS: Finding Strength Through Faith 

Throughout the book, common themes emerge to support caregivers. The reader will find interesting Bible Scriptures, offering a Christian perspective, for handling issues that may arise. These inspiring passages will assist the caregiver in finding peace and faith as they travel their journey as a caregiver. Although caregivers may not know how long they will play this role, they take on the responsibility without any question. Taking care of others is often mentioned in the Bible and, as noted in this devotional, this self-sacrificing, highly valued, and often challenging service will ultimately be rewarded.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL Daily Musings From the Old Testament

Humans must breathe in the air of our atmosphere to survive. Many cities because of pollution face a dangerous level of contamination in their air. However, an even more deadly air affects both Christians and nonChristians. Ordinary methods or devices cannot detect this poisonous air.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musing From the New Testament

Paul counseled, “Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth.” (Col. 3:2) It is, for this reason, Marshall has penned the DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musings From the New Testament, which can help us be protected against Satan’s efforts at controlling our mind and heart.  For each day of the year, DAILY DEVOTIONAL provides a Daily Bible Reading and comments for consideration.

BREAD OF HEAVEN: Daily Meditations on Scripture

BREAD OF HEAVEN helps the reader to have a greater understanding of the timeless truths of Scripture and a deeper appreciation of the grandeur of God. It offers meditations on selected Scriptures which will draw the reader’s attention upwards to the Savior.

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE SECRET HIDEAWAYTHE SECRET HIDEAWAY ON BRIDGETON HILL

Rachael Garrison knows all the shrewd ways to successfully close multi-million-dollar real estate deals with her father’s famous New York real estate enterprise. But beyond her savvy to rake in huge deals is her premonition that an impending global takeover of the world’s financial wealth is on the horizon by evil leaders of The Great Ten Nations. From New York City to the Irish Hills of Michigan, and into the streets of Detroit her life takes on enormous purpose as

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] Herodotus, The Histories (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

[2] Cyrus the Great in the 6th century B.C.E. Cyrus the Great established the Persian Empire as the most powerful state in the world. Microsoft Encarta 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

[3] Xenophon, VI, Cyropaedia: Books 5-8 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1914).

[4] Adele Berlin, Esther, JPS Bible Commentary, 35 (Philadephia: Jewish Publication Society, 2001).

[5] Carl Friedrich Keil and Franz Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament, Es 3:3–4 (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1996).

[6] Adele Berlin, Esther, JPS Bible Commentary, 37 (Philadephia: Jewish Publication Society, 2001).

[7] See A. M. Kitz, “The Hebrew Terminology of Lot Casting and its Ancient Near Eastern Context,” CBQ 62 (2000): 207–14.

[8] John H Walton, Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (Old Testament) Volume 3: 1 & 2 Kings, 1 & 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, 488 (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2009).

[9] Mervin Breneman, vol. 10, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, electronic ed., The New American Commentary, 329 (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1993).

[10] Moore, Carrey A. Esther, Anchor Bible Commentary (Garden City: Doubleday, 1971), 42.

[11] Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, ed. Chad Brand, Charles Draper, Archie England et al., 1502 (Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2003).

[12] Walter A. Elwell and Barry J. Beitzel, Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, 1648 (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1988).

[13] Jason M. Silverman, “Persia”, in The Lexham Bible Dictionary, ed. John D. Barry and Lazarus Wentz (Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2012).

[14] Adele Berlin, Esther, JPS Bible Commentary, 42 (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2001).

[15] Deuteronomy 25:17; Judges 7:12; 1 Samuel 15:2

[16] LeBron Matthews, “Amalekite”, in Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, ed. Chad Brand, Charles Draper, Archie England et al., 54 (Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2003).

[17] John H Walton, Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (Old Testament) Volume 3: 1 & 2 Kings, 1 & 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, 486-87 (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2009).

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