THE BOOK OF ESTHER Chapter 1 The King’s Banquets and Queen Vashti’s Refusal

REASONABLE FAITH Why Me_ Book of Esther

Chapter 1 of the book of Esther begins in the third year of the reign of King Ahasuerus (AKA, Xerxes I), the son of Darius the Great. He is having his servants prepare an enormous banquet for the officials of his empire. Ahasuerus is putting on display the riches and glory of his kingdom for 180 days. This is followed by a grand seven-day long feast for all the people in the ancient city of Shushan. During this same time, Queen Vashti is holding a banquet of her own for the women. When the king drunk with wine, boasting before his officials of his great wealth, he calls for Vashti so she can show her beauty to the people and the princes. However, the queen repeatedly refuses to come. While this is certainly a tremendous embarrassment to the king, it is made clearer by the court officials who advise the king that this sets a bad example for men throughout the empire with their wives. Therefore, King Ahasuerus removes Vashti as queen and he publishes a decree aimed at all wives, “all women will give honor to their husbands” and “that every man should be the master in his own house.” – 1:20, 22.

In the capital city of Susa[1] stood the magnificent fortress palace and administrative complex of Ahasuerus, also known as Xerxes I, who reigned for 21 years (486/5–465/4 B.C.E.)

Fortress Palace and Administrative Complex of Ahasuerus
Fortress Palace and Administrative Complex of Ahasuerus

  • Author: Mordecai
  • Places Written: Susa, Elam
  • Writing Completed: c. 475 B.C.E.
  • Time Covered: 493-c. 475 B.C.E.

The King’s Banquets

Esther 1:1-4 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

1 Now it was in the days of Ahasuerus,[2] the Ahasuerus who reigned from India to Ethiopia[3] over one hundred and twenty-seven provinces, in those days as King Ahasuerus sat on his royal throne in Susa, the citadel, in the third year of his reign, he gave a banquet for all his princes and servants; the army of Persia and Media, the nobles, and princes of the provinces were before him And he showed the riches of his royal glory and the splendor of his great majesty for many days, one hundred and eighty days.

Persian Empire
Persian Empire: India to Cush

Cyrus the Great, who defeated the Babylonian Empire in one night, who founded the Persian dynasty, ended his reign in 530 B.C.E., while on a campaign of war. His son Cambyses was next to the throne, thereafter successfully conquering Egypt in 525 B.C.E. His name Cambyses is not mentioned in Scripture, but he is clearly the “Ahasuerus” to whom those who opposed the temple work “wrote an accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem.” (Ezra 4:6) He is not to be confused with the Ahasuerus found here in the book of Esther, who reigned some 36 years later. Thus, the Persian dynasty would be as follows, Cyrus the Great (559–530 B.C.E.) succeeded by Cambyses (530–522), succeeded by Darius I (522–486), succeeded by Xerxes I, our Ahasuerus (486–465) and succeeded by Artaxerxes I (465–424).

We see from the above verses that the Persian King Ahasuerus reigned over the fourth world power in the Bible, Persia. His kingdom encompassed 127 provinces, which ran from India to Ethiopia. In the above narrative, Ahasuerus is at his part-time home Susa the fortress, which was a compound of royal buildings within a stronghold. He is now in the third year of his reign and requests that all his officials and servants, as well as the army of Persia and Media and the nobles and officials of the provinces, come before his presence. This grand assembly lasted a total of one hundred and eighty days. Such a lengthy gathering could have been due to some officials being unable to be present at the same time. This meeting may have had a far grandeur purpose than is here stated. The Greek historian Herodotus (c.484 – 425 B.C.E.), said that in the third year of Xerxes (Ahasuerus) reign (483 B.C.E.); there was a grand assembly, to plan a war against Greece.

Esther 1:5-6 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

When these days were completed, the king gave a banquet lasting seven days for all the people who were present at the citadel in Susa, from the greatest to the least, in the court of the garden of the king’s palace. There were hangings of fine white and violet linen held by cords of fine purple linen on silver rings and marble pillars, and couches of gold and silver on a mosaic pavement of porphyry, marble, mother-of-pearl and precious stones.

Closing out this extraordinary assembly, Ahasuerus holds a banquet in the courtyard of the king’s palace garden that lasted seven days. If you can imagine, the scene, which included “white and blue cotton curtains tied with linen and purple cords to silver rings on marble columns. Silver and gold couches were arranged on a mosaic pavement of porphyry, marble, mother-of-pearl, and colored stones.”

Model of the audience hall at Susa Amar and Greyevsky, Bible Lands Museum, Jerusalem
Model of the audience hall at Susa: Amar and Greyevsky, Bible Lands Museum, Jerusalem

Drinking Practice: The purported practice for these festival affairs was that everyone drank when the king drank. However, here the king was not obliging his guests to follow the common practice. He gave a command that they need not drink every time he did, but rather each official should drink according to his pleasure. Moreover, the beverages were freely available, which gave them the means of drinking as much as they pleased. Stunningly crafted drinking cups have been discovered dating to the middle of the fifth century B.C.E. One such cup features a winged lion whose rear legs flare up into a goblet shape.

Esther 1:7-8 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

Drinks were served in golden vessels[4] of various kinds, and the royal wine was in abundance, according to the bounty of the king. The drinking was done according to the law, there was no compulsion, for so the king had given orders to each official of his household that he should do according to every man’s pleasure.

Merry with Wine: The Greek historian Herodotus (c. 484 B.C.E. – 425 B.C.E.) informs us that the Persians usually made important decisions while they were drunk and then confirmed them once they were sober.

Eunuchs: The Hebrew word saris apply, when used in a literal sense, to a man or boy, whose testicles have been removed or do not function. In Persian times, eunuchs were sometimes employed to guard the women of a harem or as court officials. Such was also chosen in royal courts as caretakers of the queen. For the reason that they were close to the king’s household, eunuchs of talents regularly rose to high rank. Generally speaking, the term also broadly meant any official given to duties in the court of the king, even though some of these men were not literal eunuchs.

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The drinking at this banquet “were served in gold chalices, each chalice one-of-a-kind. The royal wine flowed freely. The guests could drink as much as they liked.” This certainly was a generous king! The Persians were well known for their ability to drink much wine. However, there was usually a custom that the guests were only allowed to drink a specific amount, which has obviously been set aside for this banquet.

The description of this banquet demonstrates the power and wealth that is available to the king, and he is using both to demonstrate his majesty, by way of his willingness to share his wealth. He is also using this occasion to gather backing for his move to overtake Greece. Karen Jobes, professor of ancient languages notes, “Since the author of Esther was writing long after Xerxes’ defeat; he could have introduced Xerxes as the Persian king who lost a famous battle to the Greeks at Hellespont. Instead, he chose to introduce Xerxes in the splendor and optimism of his glory days. The unstated reversal of the king’s fortune, which would have been known to the author and original readers, sets the stage and foreshadows another reversal of destiny within the book.”[5]

Esther 1:9 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

Queen Vashti also gave a banquet for the women in the palace[6] which belonged to King Ahasuerus.

At this point, queen Vashti has done nothing out of the norm for noble Persian women. The author, by way of the phrase, “Queen Vashti also gave a banquet” is telling the readers that a Persian queen had the freedom and authority to make her own choices, to carry out actions different and apart from her husband. Persian men and women were not set apart from one another, as they ate and drank together, on many occasions, with the women keeping pace with their male counterparts in both eating and drinking.


Queen Vashti Refuses the King’s Request

Esther 1:10-11 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

10 On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, Abagtha, Zethar and Carkas, the seven eunuchs who served in the presence of King Ahasuerus, 11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal crown in order to show her beauty to the people and the princes, for she was very beautiful.

The phrase “merry with wine,” means that the king was intoxicated on the last day of a banquet that had lasted for some 180 days. Throughout, he has taken every opportunity to demonstrate his power and wealth to all of his officials and servants, as well as the army of Persia and Media and the nobles and officials of the provinces. He has saved his greatest treasure for this last day, Queen Vashti, as she was very beautiful. Thus, the king sent for her, to share her great beauty with “the people and the princes.”

Esther 1:12 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

12 But Queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s command delivered by the eunuchs. At this the king became very angry and his wrath burned within him.

We do not find difficulty in visualizing the stage as the most powerful man in the world is rebuffed by the refusal of his wife, as guests look around with frightful expressions, the wrath of the anger of the king burned within him, as he grew wrathful. Because the author of the book did not expound on why Vashti refused to appear before the king, there has been speculation. The ancient Jewish Rabbis offer several speculations as to why in the Aramaic Targums ancient version/paraphrase of the Hebrew Scriptures).[7] For example, commentator Mervin Breneman writes,

Vashti was ordered so because of three prior events not mentioned in the Book of Esther. First, the Targum Rishon says that Mordecai prayed for seven days. Second, when Xerxes was inebriated, the Targum says that the Lord “incited an angel against him, the angel of confusion to confound their festivities.” Third, Vashti was to come in the nude because, as the Targum says, she used to make the Israelite girls work in the nude on the Sabbath. Because God is not mentioned explicitly in Esther, the Targums supply the interpretation of God’s activity in these events. See B. Grossfeld, The Two Targums of Esther, The Aramaic Bible, vol. 18 (Collegeville: Liturgical, 1991), 34–35.[8]

Here is what we do know. We do know that it can mean the death penalty for a Persian queen to come before the king without permission, so imagine refusing to come when requested. We also know that if she was to display her beauty, this would mean coming unveiled, which would have violated Persian custom. The question is, would that violation have been in play, being that she was honoring the king’s wishes. Then, we must consider the danger of appearing, in all her beauty, before all of those drunken men, when they had been drinking off and on for some six months. We just do not know (1) if Vashti was attempting to make the safest decision for her wellbeing, or (2) she was trying to honor Persian customs, or (3) was she a woman that had become haughty over her position in the kingdom and knowing the power of a woman’s beauty.

King Xerxes was known for his unpredictable moods and his harsh treatment of others. Here again, the account does not expound on why he was angry with Vashti, just that his “wrath burned within him.” Was it because his request was rejected in front of the officers of kingdoms, or did he know in the back of his mind, he was going to lose his most treasured possession in some way. Certainly, this was a very egregious violation.

King Consults with His Wise Men

HerodotusThe Wise Men: The Greek historian Herodotus (c. 484–c. 425 B.C.E.) was a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides. He is often referred to as “The Father of History,” a title first conferred by Cicero. He informs us that Persians kings had a panel of judges, who were appointed for life, in whom the king depended upon for insight of Persian law.

XenophonThe Greek historian Xenophon (c. 430 B.C.E. – 354 B.C.E.) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates. He confirms this panel of seven primary advisors.

Esther 1:13-15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

13 Then the king said to the wise men who knew the times (for so was the king’s manner toward all who knew law and justice, 14 the men next to him being Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena and Memucan, the seven princes of Persia and Media, who saw the king’s face, and sat first in the kingdom). 15 “According to law, what is to be done with Queen Vashti, because she has not obeyed the command of King Ahasuerus delivered by the eunuchs?”

What we are about to discover is that while the Persian king was head of an authoritarian regime (strict and demanding obedience); it was custom for Persian kings to seek out advice in their own kingdom. This served as a protection. As the President of the United States should have to consult with his experts, Xerxes was obligated by custom to look to those who “knew law and justice.” Here sat seven men who were viewed as being the most insightful, discerning and the shrewdest of his kingdom. The king looked to such men to resolve any internal difficulties. While this consulting an advisor was the custom of the Persians, it should be noted that their counsel had better be sound and effective, without any dishonest gain on their part, nor were they expected to be blatantly critical of the king himself.

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Selfishness Have Cost Vashti Her the Royal Crown

Esther 1:16-18 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

16 To this Memucan said in the presence of the king and the princes, “Queen Vashti has wronged not only the king but also all the princes and all the peoples who are in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus. 17 For this deed of the queen will become known to all the women causing them to look with contempt on their husbands by saying, ‘King Ahasuerus commanded Queen Vashti to be brought before him, and she did not come.’ 18 This very day the princesses of Persia and Media who have heard of the conduct of the queen will speak in the same way to all the king’s princes, and there will be plenty of contempt and wrath.

Take note! Memucan, the chief spokesman of the seven officials, argues that Vashti has not only wronged the king by her insubordinate behavior, “but also all the princes and all the peoples who are in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus.” He contends that her actions will get out and will become known to all of the women of the kingdom, even the princesses, who will then share in this lack of respect, contributing a twofold problem, the wives looking with contempt on their husbands, and the husbands responding in anger just as Xerxes had.

Esther 1:19-20 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

19 If it pleases the king, let a royal edict go out from him, and let it be written among the laws of Persia and Media so that it cannot be repealed, that Vashti is never again to come before King Ahasuerus. And let the king give her royal position to another who is better than she. 20 And when the decree of the king is heard in his entire kingdom, for it is vast, all the women will give[9] honor to their husbands, from the greatest to the least.”

Vashti was the queen, who had a royal position, unlike the others within the harem. Now, she would be banished to the harem, never being called to see the king ever again. Her life would go on with no children, or a husband, no life at all really. While Memucan believes, the wives will honor their husbands; this will not be the case, as that really is no honor at all, but rather a fear of being put away if you step out of line.

THE GREAT TEACHER Jesus Christ King James Bible Book of Proverbs

King’s Decree Sent Out

Esther 1:21-22 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

21 This word pleased the king and the princes, and the king did as Memucan proposed. 22 So he sent letters to all the king’s provinces, to each province according to its script and to every people according to their language, that every man should be the master in his own house and should speak according to the language of his people.

Ahasuerus is very pleased with this recommendation. Soon thereafter, he sends documents all throughout the kingdom, to all 127 provinces. These were written to each ethnic group in their own languages. The laws of the Medes and the Persians were unchangeable; thus, this decree provides that every man is to be master over his household, and whatsoever he says, is to be the law of the house. Clearly, Vashti’s insubordination and self-centeredness have not only caused her to lose her own crown, with all the privileges that went with it but likely made life even more difficult for the women throughout the empire. She had brought humiliation on herself.



ESTHER 1:20; 5:4, 13; 7:7 Why is Esther a part of the Bible Canon, when it does not mention God, nor use the Tetragrammaton?[10]

While God is not directly mentioned in the book of Esther, his personal name is found there four times in acrostic form of the Tetragrammaton, JHVH or YHWH, Jehovah or Yahweh. (1:20) “It … and all the women will give.” (Heb.) Hi’ Wekhol-Hannashim Yittenu is the first acrostic of the Tetragrammaton, (YHWH). Also, see 5:4, 13; 7:7. The appropriate acrostic letters of the Tetragrammaton are marked to stand out in no less than three ancient Hebrew manuscripts. In the Masora (margin of the Hebrew text), these same letters are marked in red letters. This is something that the Jewish people would easily recognize, but the Persians would have never noticed. In addition, God’s hand is very involved in Esther’s life from beginning to end, which is all too clear to anyone who reads the account of it, in the book of Esther.

Review Questions/Assignments:

  • (1:1-4) Who was Ahasuerus?
  • (1:1-8) What is a citadel of Susa, and what kind of gathering is held there in the third year of the reign of King Ahasuerus?
  • (1:9-15) What kind of woman is Vashti?
  • (1:16-20) Who has Vashti wronged, and what is the result of her actions?
  • (1:21-22) What lesson(s) can learn from Vashti’s behavior?

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How can you improve your effectiveness as teachers? Essentially, it is by imitating THE GREAT TEACHER: Jesus Christ. You may wonder, ‘But how can we imitate Jesus?’ ‘He was the perfect, divine, Son of God.’ Admittedly, you cannot be a perfect teacher. Nevertheless, regardless of your abilities, you can do your best to imitate the way Jesus taught. THE GREAT TEACHER: Jesus Christ will discuss how you can employ all of his teaching methods.

King James BibleTHE KING JAMES BIBLE: Do You Know the King James Version?

The King James Bible was originally published in 1611. Some have estimated that the number of copies of the King James Version that have been produced in print worldwide is over one billion! There is little doubt that the King James Version is a literary masterpiece, which this author has and will appreciate and value for its unparalleled beauty of expression. This book is in no way trying to take away from what the King James Version has accomplished. The King James Version is a book to be commended for all that it has accomplished. For four centuries, when English-speaking people spoke of “the Bible,” they meant the King James Version. The question that begs to be asked of those who favor the King James Bible is, Do You Know the King James Version? What do most users of the King James Bible not know about their translation? Whether you are one who favors the King James Version or one who prefers a modern translation, Andrews will answer the questions that have long been asked for centuries about the King James Bible and far more.


How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …

Agabus CoverDEFENDING AGABUS AS A NEW TESTAMENT PROPHET: A Content-Based Study of His Predictions In Acts by Sung Cho

Agabus is a mysterious prophetic figure that appears only twice in the book of Acts. Though his role is minor, he is a significant figure in a great debate between cessationists and continualists. On one side are those who believe that the gift of prophecy is on par with the inspired Scriptures, infallible, and has ceased. On the other side are those who define it as fallible and non-revelatory speech that continues today in the life of the church. Proponents of both camps attempt to claim …

WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIEWHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIE?: Should You Be Afraid of Death or of People Who Have Died?

People grow old, get sick, and die. Even some children die. Should you be afraid of death or of anybody who has died? Do you know what happens if we die? Will you ever see your dead loved ones again? “If a man dies, shall he live again?” asked the man Job long ago. (Job 14:14) Did God originally intend for humans to die? Why do you grow old and die? What is the Bible’s viewpoint of death? What is the condition of the dead? Are the dead aware of what is happening around them? What hope is there for the dead?


Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …


Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses: Examining the History of the Watchtower Translation and the Latest Revision

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses is going to challenge your objectivity. Being objective means that personal feelings or opinions do not influence you in considering and representing facts. Being subjective means that your understanding is based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or ideas. If the reader finds these insights offense, it might be a little mind control at work from years of being told the same misinformation repeatedly, so ponder things objectively …

REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES: Sharing CHRIST as You Help Others to Learn about the Mighty works of God

Use of REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES should help you to cultivate the ability to reason from the Scriptures and to use them effectively in assisting others to learn about “the mighty works of God.” – Acts 2:11. If Christians are going to be capable, powerful, efficient teachers of God’s Word, we must not only pay attention to what we tell those who are interested but also how we tell them. Yes, we must focus our attention on…

REASONING WITH THE WORLD’S VARIOUS RELIGIONS: Examining and Evangelizing Other Faiths

God’s will is that “all sorts of men should be saved and come to an accurate knowledge of truth.” (1 Tim. 2:4) God has assigned all Christians the task of proclaiming the Word of God, teaching, to make disciples. (Matt. 24:15; 28:19-20: Ac 1;8 That includes men and women who profess a non-Christian religion, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam to mention just a few. If there are Hindus, Buddhist or Muslims are in your community, why not initiate a conversation with them? Christians who take the Great Commission seriously cannot afford to ignore these religions…

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

FLEECING THE FLOCK_03FLEECING THE FLOCK: Setting the People of God Free From the Lies of Tithing

Evangelist Norman Robertson claims that “Tithing is God’s way of financing His kingdom on the earth.” He asserts that “It is His system of economics which enables the Gospel to be preached.” Not bashful about telling his followers of their duty to give, he flatly states: ‘Tithing isn’t something you do because you can afford it. It is an act of obedience. Not tithing is a clear violation of God’s commandments. It is embezzlement.’ Most likely you accept that giving should be part of Christian worship. However, …

Deception In the ChurchDECEPTION IN THE CHURCH: Does It Matter How You Worship?

DECEPTION IN THE CHURCH by Fred DeRuvo asks Does It Matter How You Worship? There are 41,000 different denominations that call themselves “Christian” and all would claim that they are the truth. Can just any Christian denomination please God? Can all be true or genuine Christianity if they all have different views on the same Bible doctrines? DeRuvo will answer. He will focus on the largest part of Christianity that has many different denominations, the charismatic, ecstatic Signs and Wonders Movements. These ecstatic worshipers claim … DeRuvo will answer all these questions and more according to the truth of God’s Word.—John 8:31-32; 17:17.

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …


church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …


Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT The Christian Worldview

An Encouraging Thought elucidates the ways in which Tolkien’s The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are informed by and communicate a biblical worldview. This book will help readers appreciate the ways in which a biblical worldview informs Tolkien’s work, to the end that their own faith may be confirmed in strength, focused in understanding, deepened in joy, and honed in its ability to communicate the Gospel.

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Daily Devotionals


Young ones and teens, you are exposed to complex problems that your parents may not understand. Young Christians, you are bombarded with multiple options for solving everyday problems through social media. Where do you turn to find answers? Where can you look to find guidance from Scripture? In order to provide a Christian perspective to problem-solving, the author of this devotional book decided to take a different approach.


This devotional book follows the author’s own faith journey back to God. Significant life events can shake our world and distort our faith. Following life’s tragedies, a common reaction is to become angry with God or to reject Him altogether. Examples of tragedies or traumas include life-changing events such as physical or sexual assault, destruction of one’s home, the tragic death of a loved one, diagnoses of terminal diseases, divorce, miscarriages, or being a victim of a crime. Tragedies or traumas can cause feelings of anxiety, depression, shame, and guilt.


Throughout the book, common themes emerge to support caregivers. The reader will find interesting Bible Scriptures, offering a Christian perspective, for handling issues that may arise. These inspiring passages will assist the caregiver in finding peace and faith as they travel their journey as a caregiver. Although caregivers may not know how long they will play this role, they take on the responsibility without any question. Taking care of others is often mentioned in the Bible and, as noted in this devotional, this self-sacrificing, highly valued, and often challenging service will ultimately be rewarded.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL Daily Musings From the Old Testament

Humans must breathe in the air of our atmosphere to survive. Many cities because of pollution face a dangerous level of contamination in their air. However, an even more deadly air affects both Christians and nonChristians. Ordinary methods or devices cannot detect this poisonous air.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musing From the New Testament

Paul counseled, “Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth.” (Col. 3:2) It is, for this reason, Marshall has penned the DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musings From the New Testament, which can help us be protected against Satan’s efforts at controlling our mind and heart.  For each day of the year, DAILY DEVOTIONAL provides a Daily Bible Reading and comments for consideration.

BREAD OF HEAVEN: Daily Meditations on Scripture

BREAD OF HEAVEN helps the reader to have a greater understanding of the timeless truths of Scripture and a deeper appreciation of the grandeur of God. It offers meditations on selected Scriptures which will draw the reader’s attention upwards to the Savior.

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …


Rachael Garrison knows all the shrewd ways to successfully close multi-million-dollar real estate deals with her father’s famous New York real estate enterprise. But beyond her savvy to rake in huge deals is her premonition that an impending global takeover of the world’s financial wealth is on the horizon by evil leaders of The Great Ten Nations. From New York City to the Irish Hills of Michigan, and into the streets of Detroit her life takes on enormous purpose as

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] There were several capitals in the Persian Empire. In the east, there was Babylon; in the north, Ecbatana; in the west, Persepolis; and in the south, Susa. In ancient times, Susa had been the capital of the Elamite kingdom, which reached its zenith about 1100 B.C. It was located at the foothills of the Zagros Mountains and at the edge of the Mesopotamian plain, about 225 miles east of Babylon. Here it formed an important cultural and administrative link between Iran and Babylon.― (Walton 2009, 473)

[2] That is Xerxes I, son of Darius the Great (Darius Hystaspis); who reigned 486-465 B.C.E.

[3] Lit Cush

[4] Or “cups; goblets.”

[5] Karen H. Jobes, Esther, The NIV Application Commentary (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999), p. 62.

[6] Lit royal house

[7] The Aramaic word for “interpretation” or “paraphrase” is targum. After the exile from Babylon in 539 B.C.E., the Jews living in the territory of the Persian Empire came to use the common language of Aramaic. Therefore, it became necessary to have a translation of the Hebrew Old Testament in the Aramaic language. They probably assumed their current form by about the fifth century C.E. Although they are simply free paraphrases of the Hebrew text and not an accurate translation, they are a source of rich background to the text and give assistance in determining some problematic passages, as well as a small indication into the history of the interpretation of the Hebrew Old Testament.

[8] Mervin Breneman, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, vol. 10, electronic ed., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1993).

[9] “It … all the wives themselves will give.” Hi’ Wekhol-Hannashim Yittenu (Heb.) is the first acrostic of the Tetragrammaton, יהוה (YHWH).―Appendix 60 From The Companion Bible.

[10] The Tetragrammaton is the Hebrew name for God and is found in the Old Testament 6828 times: a four-letter Hebrew name of God revealed to Moses, usually written JHVH or YHWH (Exodus 3:13-14) .

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