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On December 14, 2012, 20-year-old Adam Lanza fatally shot twenty children and six adult staff members in a mass murder at Sandy Hook Elementary School, in the village of Sandy Hook in Newtown, Connecticut. Before driving to the school, Lanza shot and killed his mother Nancy at their Newtown home. As first responders arrived, he committed suicide by shooting himself in the head.
Parents, who sent their children to the school that morning, never expected that by the end of the day, Adam Lanza would have murdered them. Worse still, there were signs that, if paid attention to, things may have not turned out the way they did. These parents are certainly, what comes to mind when we think of life being unfair.
Unfairness the World Over
The world is full of these type of accounts the world over. We have social depravities everywhere we look. In the United States, there are hundreds of thousands living in homeless shelters, under bridges, eating at soup kitchens, and many have young children with them as well. On the other hand, the United States throws away more food than any other country. Sadly, the hungry in the United States, while truly unfair, rates very low when one considers the inhumane conditions of other countries. In some countries, like Mexico, you have a millionaire living in a mansion, with a poor person living in a shack next door, and a person living in a car, living next door to him. Almost two billion people live in such hopeless poverty and inhuman conditions that those in the Western part of the world could never relate.
Poverty is defined as a state of want; lacking means; inadequacy. Poverty “brings hunger, disease, high infant mortality, homelessness, and even war.” Poverty “falls on the more vulnerable groups in society, such as women, the elderly, minority groups, and children.” About 1 billion people around the world live on less than $1 a day.
God’s View of Fairness
Leviticus 19:15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
15 ‘You shall do no injustice in judgment; you shall not be partial to the poor nor defer to the great, but in righteousness shall you judge your neighbor.
The New American Commentary (Leviticus) says, “Even though those who are disadvantaged are to be treated properly, no special favors are to be given to the poor in judicial settings (19:15; see Exod 23:3). All proceedings are to be characterized by justice, just as God is just (Job 36:3; Pss 85:10; 89:14; 97:2; 119:42; Isa 42:6; 45:18, 19; Jer 11:20; Hos 2:19).” The irony is, one of the charges Satan made against God was that he is unfair. In addition, he said God was not rightly exercising his sovereignty. Then, he was believing that God was going to fairly hear his case and deal with his rebellion in a fair and just way. In other words, he believed God would allow him to live if Satan could prove the charges he had raised. Thus, Satan’s charge of God being unfair was self-defeating in that he depended on him to be fair in hearing the issues. God is just and impartial.
Deuteronomy 32:4 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
4 “The Rock, his work is perfect,
for all his ways are just.
A God of faithfulness and without injustice,
righteous and upright is he
“This word [rock], representing the stability and permanence of God, was placed at the beginning of the verse for emphasis and was followed by a series of phrases which elaborated the attributes of God as the rock of Israel. It is one of the principal themes in this song (see vv. 15, 18, 30, 31), emphasizing the unchanging nature of God in contrast to the fickle nature of the people.” All of God’s actions are perfect in that he expresses his attributes of justice, wisdom, love, and power in perfect balance.
Acts 10:34-35 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
Kenneth O. Gangel writes, “Cornelius and his family already were worshipers of God and thus had some prior preparation for the gospel. Peter could have assumed such knowledge on their part and not have to start by first introducing the basic monotheistic message of faith in God as he did when preaching to pagan Gentiles. Peter’s sermon at Cornelius’s basically followed the pattern of his prior sermons to the Jews but with several significant differences. One is found at the very outset, where he stressed that God shows no favoritism, accepts people from every nation, and that Jesus is “Lord of all.” This emphasis on the universal gospel is particularly suited to a message to Gentiles. Peter’s vision had led him to this basic insight that God does not discriminate between persons, that there are no divisions between “clean” and “unclean” people from the divine perspective. The Greek word used for favoritism (v. 34) is constructed on a Hebrew idiom meaning to lift a face. Peter saw that God does not discriminate on the basis of race or ethnic background, looking up to some and down on others. But God does discriminate between those whose behavior is acceptable and those whose attitude is not acceptable. Those who reverence God and practice what is right are acceptable to him (v. 35; cf. Luke 8:21).” (Polhill 2001, p. 261)
From Where Does Unfairness Stem?
Genesis 2:17 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
17 “but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you shall surely die.”
“The tree of the knowledge of good and evil,” resulted in man’s failure to respect God’s decree and his sovereignty, which brought man’s fall.
Genesis 3:4-5 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
4 And the serpent [Satan the Devil] said to the woman, “You shall not surely die. 5 For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” knowing good and evil.
6 So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desirable to make one wise, and she took of its fruit and ate, then she also gave some to her husband when with her, and he ate.
Satan the Devil, a very powerful angelic spirit person rebelled against God, seeking glory and power for himself. He use the serpent hanging from the tree, like a ventriloquist uses a dummy to project his voice to deceive Eve and inevitably cause Adam to rebel.
Genesis 3:24 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
24 So he drove the man out, and at the east of the garden of Eden he placed the cherubim and a flaming sword that turned every way to guard the way to the tree of life.
The New American Commentary (Genesis) says, “Such imagery effectively depicts the excommunication of the man and woman from the presence of God. Later Israel was all too aware that an audience with God was the exclusive privilege of Aaron’s lineage and only at the invitation of God once a year. Our parents squandered what men and women have longed to regain ever since. However, not all is lost since God initiates for Israel a new way into his presence but at the costly price of innocent blood. In spite of man’s inability to obtain life through the garden’s tree, the tabernacle revealed at Sinai enabled Israel to live with God, though imperfectly. The means and extent of access to God’s presence was altered because of sin, but divine mercy overtook the wayward man and woman. For their future generations provision was afforded through Israel. This all, however, only foreshadowed the perfect and final passage into the presence of God by the very body of Jesus Christ, whose blood cleanses us so that we might know life through his death (Heb. 9:6–14).” (Mathews 2001, p. 258)
John 8:44 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
44 You are of your father the devil, and your will is to do your father’s desires. That one was a manslayer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks out of his own character, for he is a liar and the father of lies.
John MacArthur writes, “Jesus’ words refer to the fall when Satan tempted Adam and Eve and successfully killed their spiritual life (Gen. 2:17; 3:17–24; Rom. 5:12; Heb. 2:14).”
Revelation 12:9 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
9 And the great dragon was thrown down, the serpent of old who is called the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole inhabited earth; he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him.
The MacArthur Bible Commentary says, “Satan and his demons were cast out of heaven at the time of their original rebellion, but still have access to it (cf. Job 1:6; 2:1). That access will then be denied, and they will be forever barred from heaven. Devil and Satan. Cf. 20:2. Devil comes from a Greek verb meaning “to slander” or “to falsely accuse.” He is a malignant liar (John 8:44; 1 John 3:8). His accusations against believers (v. 10) are unsuccessful because of Christ our Advocate (1 John 2:1). Satan, meaning “adversary,” or “enemy,” appears especially in Job and the Gospels. deceives the whole world. As he has throughout human history, Satan will deceive people during the Tribulation (cf. 13:14; 20:3; John 8:44). After his temporary release from the bottomless pit at the end of the Millennium, he will briefly resume his deceitful ways (20:8, 10).”
Unfairness in the Last Days
Revelation 12:12 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
12 Therefore, rejoice, O heavens and you who dwell in them! Woe to you, O earth and sea, for the devil has come down to you in great wrath, because he knows he has a short time.”
The Holman New Testament Commentary (Revelation) says, “Satan’s overthrow means that his accusations can never again ascend to the throne of God. This is great news for all the holy angels. It is cause for you who dwell in the heavens to rejoice. What brings heavenly joy causes woe to the earth and the sea. More terrors await them from the sea beast and from the land beast that the dragon will call up. The dragon is filled with fury, for he has never before been so utterly defeated. He recognizes this as a sign: his time is short to damage God and his people, so he must act quickly with renewed energy. (Easley 1998, p. 213)
Daniel 12:4 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
4 But as for you, O Daniel, conceal these words and seal up the book until the time of the end; many will go to and fro, and knowledge will increase.”
The angel “Gabriel, therefore, was instructing Daniel to preserve “the words of the scroll,” not merely this final vision146 but the whole book147 for those who will live at “the time of the end” when the message will be needed. This future generation will undergo the horrors of the tribulation (“time of distress”) and will need the precious promises contained in the Book of Daniel–that God will be victorious over the kingdoms of this world and that the suffering will last for only a brief time–to sustain them.” (Miller 1994, p. 321)
Difficult Times In the Last Days
2 Timothy 3:1-5 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
3 But realize this, that in the last days difficult times will come. 2 For men will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, revilers, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, unholy, 3 unloving, irreconcilable, malicious gossips, without self-control, brutal, not loving good, 4 treacherous, reckless, conceited, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God, 5 having the appearance of godliness, but denying its power; avoid such men as these.
The MacArthur Bible Commentary says, “3:1 the last days. This phrase refers to this age, the time since the first coming of the Lord Jesus. See note on 1 Timothy 4:1. perilous times. Perilous is used to describe the savage nature of two demon-possessed men (Matt. 8:28). The word for times had to do with epochs, rather than clock or calendar time. Such savage, dangerous eras or epochs will increase in frequency and severity as the return of Christ approaches (v. 13). The church age is fraught with these dangerous movements accumulating strength as the end nears. Cf. Matthew 7:15; 24:11, 12, 24; 2 Peter 2:1, 2. 3:2–4 This list of attributes characterizing the leaders of the dangerous seasons is a description of unbelievers similar to the Lord’s in Mark 7:21, 22. 3:5 having a form of godliness but denying its power. Form refers to the outward shape or appearance. Like the unbelieving scribes and Pharisees, false teachers and their followers are concerned with mere external appearances (cf. Matt. 23:25; Titus 1:16). Their outward form of Christianity and virtue makes these individuals all the more dangerous.”
Romans 16:20 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
20 The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.
Do Not Love the World
1 John 2:15-17 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
15 Do not love the world or the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him. 16 For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the boastful pride of life, is not from the Father, but is from the world. 17 The world is passing away, and its lusts; but the one who does the will of God remains forever.
The End of the Age
Matthew 24:1-3 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
24 Jesus came out from the temple and was going away when his disciples came up to point out the temple buildings to him. 2 And he said to them, “Do you not see all these things? Truly I say to you, not one stone here will be left upon another, which will not be torn down.”
3 As he was sitting on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately, saying, “Tell us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign of your coming, and of the end of the age?”
Here in verse three, we have Jesus and the disciples taking a seat on the Mount of Olives, looking down on the temple below. The temple compound was the ninth wonder of the ancient world. Jesus had just told the disciples that this marvel was going to be so devastated in a coming destruction, “there will not be left here one stone upon another that will not be thrown down.” Looking down, the disciples asked Jesus what they thought to be but one question, not knowing the answer that Jesus would give, showed it to be three separate questions. Of course, the initial question (1) was their wondering when the destruction that Jesus spoke of was coming. There second portion of that question was (2) what will be the sign of your coming. The third portion of the question was (3) the end of the age. Herein, we will focus on questions (2) and (3). In short, (1) the destruction of Jerusalem took place in 70 C.E., just 37-years after the death, resurrection, and ascension of Christ.
They ask these questions about the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, his own second coming (… [parousia], presence, common in the papyri for the visit of the emperor), and the end of the world. Did they think that they were all to take place simultaneously? There is no way to answer. At any rate Jesus treats all three in this great eschatological discourse, the most difficult problem in the Synoptic Gospels. … It is sufficient for our purpose to think of Jesus as using the destruction of the temple and of Jerusalem which did happen in that generation in a.d. 70, as also a symbol of his own second coming and of the end of the world (… [sunteleias tou aiōnos]) or consummation of the age. In a painting the artist by skilful perspective may give on the same surface the inside of a room, the fields outside the window, and the sky far beyond. Certainly in this discourse Jesus blends in apocalyptic language the background of his death on the cross, the coming destruction of Jerusalem, his own second coming and the end of the world. He now touches one, now the other. It is not easy for us to separate clearly the various items.
In “what will be the sign of your coming,” the Greek word behind “coming” (parousia) needs a little more in-depth explaining.
Parousia … lit., “a presence,” para, “with,” and ousia, “being” (from eimi, “to be”), denotes both an “arrival” and a consequent “presence with.” For instance, in a papyrus letter a lady speaks of the necessity of her parousia in a place in order to attend to matters relating to her property there. Paul speaks of his parousia in Philippi, Phil. 2:12 (in contrast to his apousia, “his absence”; see absence). Other words denote “the arrival” (see eisodos and eleusis, above). Parousia is used to describe the presence of Christ with His disciples on the Mount of Transfiguration, 2 Pet. 1:16. When used of the return of Christ, at the rapture of the church, it signifies, not merely His momentary “coming” for His saints, but His presence with them from that moment until His revelation and manifestation to the world. In some passages the word gives prominence to the beginning of that period, the course of the period being implied, 1 Cor. 15:23; 1 Thess. 4:15; 5:23; 2 Thess. 2:1; Jas. 5:7-8; 2 Pet. 3:4. In some, the course is prominent, Matt. 24:3, 37; 1 Thess. 3:13; 1 John 2:28; in others the conclusion of the period, Matt. 24:27; 2 Thess. 2:8.
“What will be the sign of your coming” As we can see from the context of Matthew 24 and Vine’s Expository Dictionary, parousia, describes not only the arrival of Christ, but his presence as well. This does not give us the sense of a coming and some swift departure. Rather, the presence aspect is a period of time that we cannot know the exact length of, so it does no good even to speculate by adding adjectives, like a “lengthy” or “short” presence.
“the end of the age” What is meant by the Greek word aion, which is translated “age.” It refers to a certain period of time, an epoch, or age.
aion (αἰών, 165), “an age, era” (to be connected with aei, “ever,” rather than with ao, “to breathe”), signifies a period of indefinite duration, or time viewed in relation to what takes place in the period.
What period of time is being referred to here? If we look at God’s use of Moses to help in the Exodus of his people from Egypt, and Moses penning of the Mosaic Law, we would say that from the Exodus to the sacrifice ransom death of Christ was an “age” (period of time or epoch) where the Israelite nation was the only way to God. Then, Jesus entered humanity into another age by his ransom sacrifice, which runs up unto his second coming/presence and the end of this age of Christianity.
Jesus answers this two or three-part question throughout the rest of Matthew 24 and chapter 25. Matthew gives us Jesus’ presentation of the events that lead to Jesus coming and presence, to set up his kingdom to rule over the earth for a thousand years. Most will be shocked by my saying “over” the earth, as almost all translations render Revelation 5:10 as “and you have made them a kingdom and priests to our God, and they shall reign on the earth.”
epí  is in the genitive and can range from: “on, upon; over; at, by; before, in the presence of; when, under, at the time of;” Below you are going to find a list of the genitive epi within Revelation that has a similar construction.
If we are to establish that some translations are choosing a rendering because it suits their doctrine, we must compare how they render the same thing elsewhere. I do believe that English is a problem in trying to say, “They shall reign on the earth.” First, because this is not a location issue: i.e., “where.” The genitive epi is dealing not with where, but with authority over, which is expressed by having it over … not on …
Please also take special note that the context of all of these epi genitives that follow the active indicative verb and then are followed by the genitive definite article and noun are dealing with authority.
The verb “to reign” is properly used of kings and queens, and here implies complete power over the world and its inhabitants. So another way of expressing this is “and they shall rule over the world and its inhabitants” or “they shall have power over ….”
Revelation 5:9-10 has a high level of theological content. It either says that Jesus and his co-rulers are going to over the earth or on the earth. It is theological bias to have several cases of similar context and the same grammatical construction, rendering the verses the same every time, yet to then render one verse contrary to the others, simply because it aligns with one’s theology. Please see Revelation 2:26; 6:8; 9:11; 11:6; 13:7; 14:18; 16:9; 17:18, and then look at Revelation 5:10. Nowhere in Scripture does it say that Jesus is going to rule over the earth.
Signs of the End of the Age
Matthew 24:4 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
4 And Jesus answered them, “See that no one leads you astray.
Jesus’ disciples, like any other Jew of the day, would have seen the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 C.E., the first century Jewish historian, Josephus, tells us 1,100,000 Jews were killed in the destruction of Jerusalem, with another 97,000 taken captive. (War VI. 9.3) Therefore, here in advance (33 C.E.), Jesus wanted his disciples to be on the watch, to not be misled, as though the destruction of Jerusalem (66-70 C.E.) also meant “the end of the age.”
Matthew 24:5 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
5 For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ and they will lead many astray.
Yes, this would be one of the ways that many coming in Jesus’ name would have led the disciples astray, claiming to be the Christ (Hebrew Messiah), namely the “anointed one.” Therefore, it would not be Christians alone, who would be filling this role as false christs/messiahs/anointed ones.
“From Josephus it appears that in the first century before the destruction of the Temple [in 70 C.E.] a number of Messiahs arose promising relief from the Roman yoke, and finding ready followers … Thus about 44, Josephus reports, a certain impostor, Theudas, who claimed to be a prophet, appeared and urged the people to follow him with their belongings to the Jordan, which he would divide for them. According to Acts v. 36 (which seems to refer to a different date), he secured about 400 followers. Cuspius Fadus sent a troop of horsemen after him and his band, slew many of them, and took captive others, together with their leader, beheading the latter … Another, an Egyptian, is said to have gathered together 30,000 adherents, whom he summoned to the Mount of Olives, opposite Jerusalem, promising that at his command the walls of Jerusalem would fall down, and that he and his followers would enter and possess themselves of the city. But Felix, the procurator (c. 55-60), met the throng with his soldiery. The prophet escaped, but those with him were killed or taken, and the multitude dispersed. Another, whom Josephus styles an impostor, promised the people “deliverance and freedom from their miseries” if they would follow him to the wilderness. Both leader and followers were killed by the troops of Festus, the procurator (60-62; “Ant.” xx. 8, § 10). Even when Jerusalem was already in process of destruction by the Romans, a prophet, according to Josephus suborned by the defenders to keep the people from deserting announced that God commanded them to come to the Temple, there to receive miraculous signs of their deliverance. Those who came met death in the flames.
Unlike these Messiahs, who expected their people’s deliverance to be achieved through divine intervention, Menahem, the son of Judas the Galilean and grandson of Hezekiah, the leader of the Zealots, who had troubled Herod, was a warrior. When the war broke out he attacked Masada with his band, armed his followers with the weapons stored there, and proceeded to Jerusalem, where he captured the fortress Antonia, overpowering the troops of Agrippa II. Emboldened by his success, he behaved as a king, and claimed the leadership of all the troops. Thereby he aroused the enmity of Eleazar, another Zealot leader, and met death as a result of a conspiracy against him (ib. ii. 17, § 9). He is probably identical with the Menahem b. Hezekiah mentioned in Sanh. 98b, and called, with reference to Lam. i. 17, “the comforter [“menaḥem”] that should relieve” (comp. Hamburger, “R. B. T.” Supplement, iii. 80). With the destruction of the Temple the appearance of Messiahs ceased for a time. Sixty years later a politico-Messianic movement of large proportions took place with Bar Kokba at its head. This leader of the revolt against Rome was hailed as Messiah-king by Akiba, who referred to him. The Jewish Encyclopedia lists 28 false Messiahs between the years 132 C.E. and 1744 C.E.
Matthew 24:6 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
6 You will be hearing of wars and rumors of wars. See that you are not alarmed, for those things must take place, but the end is not yet.
There have been religious leaders that have been misled by the two Great Wars of the 20th century, World War I and II, associating each of them with the “end of the age.” The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 C.E.), at times called The Great Revolt, could have misled the disciples into thinking that the end was imminent. Therefore, Jesus tells them that they should not be alarmed, and that the end is not yet. This counsel of Jesus has had to be applied from First Jewish–Roman War to the two Great Wars of the 20th century, every time a war came along, which seems to be an end all for humanity. Nevertheless, this one sign alone is not enough to signal the end, because imperfect humans are prone to war.
Matthew 24:7 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
7 For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and there will be famines and earthquakes in various places.
Here Jesus expounds on his previous comments about war, because the conflicts of humankind have been so pervasive that there was a need for a reference book, Dictionary of Wars by George C. Kohn. Therefore, while we should take note of current events, wars, rumors of wars and even kingdom against kingdom is not enough alone to suppose that the end is here. Therefore, Jesus adds yet another two signs, famines and earthquakes. These two have been a part of humankind’s history. Of course, the impact is going to be far greater with seven billion living people on earth, as opposed to a hundred million in 100 C.E. Nevertheless, these are just the beginning. It seems that a war between the Islamic state and Christian nations is inevitable.
Matthew 24:8 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
8 But all these are but the beginning of the birth pains.
Wars, rumors of wars, kingdoms again kingdom, famines and earthquakes are just the beginning of the things to come. However, they are not the goal post that the end is imminent. Such tragedies being merely a “beginning of the birth pains,” the end was “not yet.” Men likely cannot appreciate this verse, because the woman only knows the pain of giving birth to a child. It is the most natural thing in her life and yet the most painful. Therefore, consider that what comes after this metaphorical concept is going to be far more painful for humankind. These pains will grow in severity until the birth of the end of the age, and the return of Jesus. Nevertheless, like any other birth that has finally reached the end, the joy of a newborn child makes one forget the prior pains. This is true after the tribulation, the joys from the Kingdom will outweigh the previous pains.
Matthew 24:9 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
9 “Then they will deliver you up to tribulation, and will kill you, and you will be hated by all nations because of my name.
Verse 9 of the new section, 9-12, begins with “then” (Greek tote), which brings the reader into another section of signs, offering us more of the lines in the fingerprint, the full picture that we are in the time of to the end. “Then” can have the meaning coming after, or at the same time, or it could mean simply therefore. It would seem that “then” is best understood as meaning ‘at the same time,’ because these signs, as well as those that we covered in 4-7, and those coming in verse 10 are of a composite sign. Meaning, you are looking for a time when they are all happening, and on a worldwide scale.
Who are “they” that deliver Christians up to tribulation? It would those Christians of verse 5, who were led astray, abandoning the Christian faith. The last 30 years, this has truly seen the abandonment of Christianity, as well as much tribulation for those that have remained faithful. What I am primarily referring to is liberal Christianity (80 percent of Christianity), who has abandoned the biblical truth, for the lie, so they can maintain a good relationship with the world, and progressivism. Christianity has never been more hated than it is today. Sadly, conservative Christians have been deeply opposed and persecuted by liberal Christianity, atheists, not to mention Islam and other religions.
Verse 9 says they will deliver you over (ESV), or hand you over (HCSB), to tribulation. If one is handed over, he must first be seized and then delivered to those, who are seeking to do him harm, even death. Why are the Christians hated so? Former Christians and liberal Christians hate the stand that conservative Christians take by truly living by God’s Word, in a world that is anything but. Radical Islam is simply trying to impose themselves on everyone who stands in their way of dominating the world. Thus, being handed over is a result for one’s true faith in Jesus Christ.
Matthew 24:10 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
While early Christianity suffered horrible deaths through being martyred for simply being a Christian, the hatred today is just as vile by those that slaughter Christians around the world. Nevertheless, persecution through social media, news media, and by way of lawsuits, and protests in the streets, has become the new form of persecution in the Western world. Many have fallen away from Jesus, becoming apostates toward their former brothers and sisters, loathing their very existence.
Matthew 24:11 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
11 And many false prophets will arise and will lead many astray
What is a prophet? The primary meaning is one who proclaims the word of God, a spokesperson for God. Therefore, a false prophet would be a spokesperson giving the impression that he is a spokesman for God, but really he is far from it. These ones are very subtle and deceptive in their ability to present themselves as a person representing God. Some modern day examples would be, Jim Bakker, Kenneth Copeland, Benny Hinn, T.D. Jakes, Joyce Meyer, Juanita Bynum, Creflo Dollar, Eddie Long, Pat Robertson, and Joel Olsteen. Of course, these are just some of the televangelists, who are false prophets, with tens of millions of followers. Other false prophet religious leaders have tens of millions of followers as well. Then, there are charismatic Christian denominations that numbered over 500 million followers. These ones claim gifts of God (faith healing, speaking in tongues, etc.), which clearly are anything but. The true Christians are falling away in great numbers, being led astray by these false prophets, and those who have not, need to remain awake!
Matthew 24:12 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
12 And because lawlessness will be increased, the love of many will grow cold.
The world we live in is overflowing with murders, rapes, armed robberies and assaults, not to mention war. It has grown so pervasive that many have grown callused to seeing the newspapers, websites and television news filled with one heinous crime, one after another. In looking at just one city in the United States, in 2012, 532 people were murdered in the city of Chicago, with a population of 2.7 million. However, in San Pedro Sula of the country Honduras, 1,143 people were murdered with only a population of 719,447. Statistics from the United Nations report 250,000 cases of rape or attempted rape annually. However, it must be kept in mind that because of the savagery of the times, in “many parts of the world, rape is very rarely reported, due to the extreme social stigma cast on women who have been raped, or the fear of being disowned by their families, or subjected to violence, including honor killings.”
Verse 12 says that the love of “the love of many will grow cold,” and indeed it has. There are atrocious crimes against individuals, groups, nations, which would cripple the mind of anyone living decades ago. However, because of seeing it every day, all day long, the world has grown hardened to the lawlessness that exists around them. Christians carry the hope of salvation in their heart, which Jesus addresses next.
Matthew 24:13 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
13 But the one who endures to the end will be saved.
What are we to endure? We are to endure while we maintain our walk with God through false Christs who will lead many astray, the wars, and the natural disasters. We are to endure while we maintain our walk with God through the loss of many of our spiritual brothers and sisters who fall away, the betrayal of former Christians, and the hatred of humankind who is alienated from God. We are to endure while we maintain our walk with God through false prophets that have arisen and lead many astray, the increase of the lawlessness in this world, and the love of humanity growing colder. Yes, each of us, who survives to the end of the Christian era, to the return of Christ, will be saved from Jesus’ destruction of the wicked. However, we are not to simply sit around, we have a work to accomplish that is the last sign of the end of the age.
Matthew 24:14 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
14 And this gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed in all the inhabited earth as a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will come.
This is the last of the signs that Jesus gave that should concern us, as it is directly related to the end of the age, and the return of Christ, namely ‘the gospel of the kingdom being proclaimed throughout the whole world.’ Jesus makes it very clear what he meant by “the whole world,” by then saying “all nations” (Gk., ethnos). What Jesus meant here was more directed toward all races, not so much the “nations” that we know the world to be divided into today. Therefore, Jesus speaking of the whole world was a reference to “a body of persons united by kinship, culture, and common traditions, nation, people.” Today, while for the most part, nations are made up of different races, the world is also becoming a melting pot.
In the phrase “testimony to all nations,” we find the Greek word martyrion, which was a legal term of “that which serves as testimony or proof, testimony, proof.” The testimony here that is to be shared by Christ’s disciples has to with Jesus and the kingdom. Evidence, proof, testimony has the ability to overcome the false reasoning of those in the world, to win them over, as well as convict those who refuse to see the evidence for what it is. Elsewhere Jesus said very clearly,
|Matthew 11:15 (UASV)
15 He who has ears to hear, let him hear.
|Matthew 13:9 (UASV)
9 The one who has ears, let him hear.”
|Matthew 13:43 (UASV)
43 Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears, let him hear.
No One Knows That Day and Hour
Matthew 24:36 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
36 “But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only.
While none of us can know the precise time of Jesus’ return, we do know that we are to be busy in the work that he has given us. Regardless of the time left, how will you use it? Here is how we should use our time before Christ’s return. We should live as though it is tomorrow, but plan as though it is 50-years away. What do we mean by this? We live as though Christ is returning tomorrow, by walking with God, having a righteous standing before him. We plan as though it is 50-years away by living a life that makes strategies for a long-term evangelism that fulfills our end of the great commission. (Matt 24:14; 28:19-20; Ac 1:8)
Our sinful nature would not do well if we knew the exact day and hour. We do badly enough when we simply think Christ’s return is close. You have had religions that have set dates for Christ’s return, or are constantly saying, ‘the end is near!’ The ones who set actual dates for Christ’s return: quit their jobs, sell their homes, take all their money out of the bank, and take their kids out of school, either (1) to have a good time before the end, or (2) to spend the last couple years yelling from the rooftops that “the end is coming!”
Those who are constantly saying, ‘the end is near,’ are similar, in that they do not take job promotions, because it would cut into their evangelism, they do not allow their children to have university educations or plan careers, because to them the end is near. Nevertheless, these groups are at least concerned about their evangelism, but fail to realize, we do not know when the end is coming.
We need to find a way in the time that remains, be it 5 years, 50 years, or 500 years, to encourage and foster “sincere brotherly love,” and to display “obedience to the truth.” What do we need to be obedient to? (1) We need to clean up the household of Christianity. (2) We need to then, carry out the great commission that Jesus assigned, to preach, to teach, and to make disciples! (Matt 24:14; 28:19-20; Ac 1:8) It is our assignment, in the time remaining, to assist God in helping those with a receptive heart, to accept the good news of the kingdom. Yes, we are offering those of the world, the hope of getting on the path of salvation, an opportunity at everlasting life. Just because we do not know the day or the hour, does not mean that we should be less urgent about this assignment. Remember Jesus’ illustration,
Matthew 24:43 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
43 But know this, that if the master of the house had known in what part of the night the thief was coming, he would have stayed awake and would not have let his house be broken into.
Moreover, remember Jesus’ question,
Luke 18:8 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
8 I tell you that he will bring about justice for them quickly. However, when the Son of Man comes, will he find the faith on the earth?”
If we were to consider the chaos within Christianity today, the 41,000 different denominations of Christianity, all believing differently, could we honestly say that Jesus would truly find the faith?
Isaiah 2:1-4 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
1 The word that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem.
2 It will come to pass in the latter days
that the mountain of the house of Jehovah
will be established on the top of the mountains,
and will be lifted up above the hills;
and all the nations will stream to it,
3 and many peoples will come, and say:
“Come, let us go up to the mountain of Jehovah,
to the house of the God of Jacob,
that he may teach us concerning his ways
and that we may walk in his paths.”
For the law will go forth from Zion,
and the word of Jehovah from Jerusalem.
4 He will judge between the nations,
and will correct matters for many peoples;
and they shall beat their swords into plowshares,
and their spears into pruning hooks;
nation shall not lift up sword against nation,
neither shall they learn war anymore.
On these verses, Trent C. Butler writes, “2:1. This section begins with another introduction much like Isaiah 1:1, but this one only introduces the following sermons, not the entire book. What follows is a vision, what Isaiah … saw. Interestingly, the first part of this vision also appears in Micah 4:1–5. The form of this sermon sounds like a call to worship introduced by a prophetic announcement of salvation. Apparently Isaiah and his younger contemporary Micah both used the same call to worship from the Jerusalem temple to speak to God’s people. This would mean that God used the temple hymnody as a source for his inspired word.”
“2:2. While the destruction of Jerusalem dominated chapter 1, the city’s function as the center of salvation for all nations introduces this section. The last days are still within world history with separate nations acting. Israel used the same language as her Near Eastern neighbors in talking about the national temple as the highest mountain on earth where the deity fights battles for his people (cp. Pss. 46; 48). The prophet Isaiah applied this language to the temple in Jerusalem even though Jerusalem was obviously not the highest of the mountains Israel could see. Jerusalem would be high and lifted up because God was at work there, causing his purpose for the world to be realized in historical events. The emphasis is not on the height of Jerusalem. The emphasis is on the unheard-of foreign nations coming to Jerusalem to worship. God’s hope always encompasses the world, not just one small nation (see Gen. 12:1–4).”
“2:3–4. The prophet, as he often did, took up the popular theology of the people’s hymnody and subtly shifted it from present to future tense. Only in the last days would Zion occupy such an exalted position. God would no longer battle the nations. Jerusalem could no longer glory in the hope that nations would march to her with large gifts and tribute for her victorious king. The prophetic hope is that God’s word will become the world’s weapon. Military academies and weapons will vanish. People will learn to live according to God’s ways. They will obey his teachings. Nations will come to Jerusalem, not because a victorious king forces them to, but because they are attracted to Jerusalem by the God who lives there and the wisdom he gives there. No longer will they have to fight to settle their differences. In Jerusalem God will be the great Mediator who settles all human disputes without battle. Military weapons will become obsolete. The world’s only war will be on poverty and hunger.”
Isaiah 11:3-5 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
3 And he will delight in the fear of Jehovah,
And he will not judge by what his eyes see,
Nor make a decision by what his ears hear;
4 But with righteousness he shall judge the poor,
And decide with fairness for the meek of the earth;
And he shall strike the earth with the rod of his mouth,
And with the breath of his lips he shall kill the wicked.
5 Righteousness shall be the belt of his waist,
And faithfulness the belt of his loins.
On these verses, Trent C. Butler writes, “The wise king would enter the royal courtroom to judge his nation correctly. As judge, the king would be empowered with the breath of his lips, the same word translated “Spirit” in verse 2. By this he would protect the poor from the wicked, establishing the economic justice so central to prophetic preaching. The new age established by the new king would bring righteousness, a dominant theme for Isaiah. Coupled with faithfulness, this clothed the king for his royal reign.”
Isaiah 42:1 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
42 Behold my servant, whom I uphold,
my chosen one, in whom my soul delights;
I have put my Spirit upon him;
he will bring forth justice to the nations.
On this verse, Trent C. Butler writes, “This is the first of four “Servant Songs” in Isaiah 40-55 (49:1–6; 50:4–9; 52:13–53:12). Here God formally presented the servant to an audience, although both the name of the servant and the nature of the audience remain mysteriously unclear. We do not have to find answers to all our questions about the servant. We need to understand that he is God’s chosen one, God takes great delight in him, and God upholds or supports him.”
“The servant’s mission surprised Israel and it surprises us. His mission was not to deliver Israel from captivity and exile. The mission was for the nations. The servant gained power for his mission from the divine Spirit just as earlier rulers and prophets had. The servant’s task was to bring justice to the nations. (For justice, see “Deeper Discoveries,” ch. 1.) Justice involves a much broader meaning than the English term. In verse 4 it stands parallel to Torah, law or teaching. It is the verdict handed down by a judge (2 Kgs. 25:6); the whole court process (Isa. 3:14); the gracious and merciful judgment of God (Isa. 30:18); or the natural right and order claimed by a person or group of persons (Exod. 23:6).”
“In our text, the term for the servant’s mission apparently encompasses a broad meaning. It refers to the natural world order and the rights expected by the nations of the earth within that order. God restores that order with its natural rights through his gracious and merciful judgment on the basis of his law or teaching.”
Isaiah 35:3-7 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
3 Strengthen the weak hands,
and make firm the feeble knees.
4 Say to those who have an anxious heart,
“Be strong; fear not!
Behold, your God
will come with vengeance,
with the recompense of God.
He will come and save you.”
5 Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened,
and the ears of the deaf unstopped;
6 then shall the lame man leap like a deer,
and the tongue of the mute sing for joy.
For waters break forth in the wilderness,
and streams in the desert;
7 the burning sand shall become a pool,
and the thirsty ground springs of water;
in the haunt of jackals, where they lie down,
the grass shall become reeds and rushes.
On these verses, Trent C. Butler writes, “The revelation of God’s glory provided the background for a new prophetic commission (vv. 3-4; cp. ch. 6). If God could change the dry wasteland so radically, how much more he could do so for humanity! The prophet was called to encourage the weak and feeble. Their reason for fear would vanish. God would come in vengeance. The divine appearance would destroy the enemy (34:8) but bring salvation to the people of God. Such salvation is not limited to a spiritual realm. The sick and disabled would find all their reasons for having an inferiority complex destroyed.”
Isaiah 65:20-23 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
20 No more shall there be in it
an infant who lives but a few days,
or an old man who does not fill out his days,
for the young boy shall die a hundred years old,
and the sinner a hundred years old shall be accursed.
21 They shall build houses and inhabit them;
they shall plant vineyards and eat their fruit.
22 They shall not build and another inhabit;
they shall not plant and another eat;
for like the days of a tree will the days of my people be,
and the work of their hands my chosen ones will enjoy to the full.
23 They shall not labor in vain
or bear children for calamity,
for they are the seed made up of those blessed by Jehovah,,
and their descendants with them.
On these verses, Trent C. Butler writes, “The injustices of life would disappear. Long life would be the rule for God’s people, death at a hundred being like an infant’s death that could only be explained as the death of a sinner. All of God’s people would live to a ripe old age and enjoy the fruits of their life. The age of Messiah would clearly have dawned (cp. 11:6–9). No longer would people lose their property and crops to foreign invaders. Each of God’s faithful people would enjoy the works of their hands. Labor would be rewarded in the field and in the birth place. Every newborn would escape the “horror of sudden disaster” (author’s translation; NIV, misfortune). Curses would disappear. Every generation would be blessed by God.”
Psalm 37:7-11 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
7 Be still before Jehovah and wait patiently for him;
do not fret because of the one who prospers in his way,
because of the man who carries out evil devices!
8 Refrain from anger, and forsake wrath.
Fret not yourself; it leads only to evildoing.
9 For the evildoers shall be cut off,
but those who wait for Jehovah shall inherit the land.
10 Just a little while longer and the wicked one will be no more;
And you will look carefully for his place and he will not be there.
11 But the meek shall inherit the land
and delight themselves in abundant peace.
On these verses, Stephen J. Lawson wrote, “David repeated his original advice: Do not fret when men succeed. He returned to the earlier thought of verse 2—sinners who seem to flourish for a season will eventually be destroyed (Eccl. 3:16–17). To point this out, he used a series of contrasts between the godly and the ungodly. Refrain from anger, he declared, because these evil men in the final day would be cut off and die before entering eternity damned. But those who hope in the LORD—the meek—will inherit the land (cp. Matt. 5:5). This indicated the fullness of God’s blessing.”
Revelation 21:3-4 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
3 And I heard a loud voice from the throne, saying, “Behold, the tabernacle of God is among men, and he will dwell among them, and they shall be his people, and God himself will be among them, 4 and he will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain anymore, for the former things have passed away.”
On these verses, Kendell Easley wrote, “For the third and final time John hears a loud voice from the throne (16:17; 19:5). The word for dwelling is traditionally translated “tabernacle” or “tent.” When the Israelites had lived in the wilderness after the exodus, God’s presence was evident through the tent (Exod. 40:34). Part of the reward for Israel’s obedience to God was, “I will put my dwelling place [tabernacle] among you, and I will not abhor you. I will walk among you and be your God, and you will be my people” (Lev. 26:11–12). Israel’s disobedience, of course, led finally to the destruction of the temple.”
“The permanent remedy began when God became enfleshed in Jesus: “The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us” (John 1:14). A form of the same verb translated “made his dwelling” in John 1:14 is now used by the heavenly voice: he will live with them. Here, then, is the final eternal fulfillment of Leviticus 26.”
“They will be his people, and God himself will be with them and be their God is a divine promise often made, particularly in context of the new covenant (Jer. 31:33; 32:38; Ezek. 37:27; 2 Cor. 6:16). In eternity, it will find full completion in its most glorious sense. One striking note here is that the word translated “people,” while often singular in Revelation (for example, 18:4), here is plural, literally “peoples.” This points to the great ethnic diversity of those in heaven.”
“The great multitude who came out of the Great Tribulation received the pledge of many blessings including the final removal of any cause for tears (7:15–17). Now this promise extends to every citizen-saint of the New Jerusalem. The picture of God himself gently taking a handkerchief and wiping away all tears is overwhelming. It pictures the removal of four more enemies:
- death—destroyed and sent to the fiery lake (20:14; 1 Cor. 15:26)
- mourning—caused by death and sin, but also ironically the eternal experience of those who loved the prostitute (18:8)
- crying—one result of the prostitute’s cruelty to the saints (18:24)
- pain—the first penalty inflicted on mankind at the Fall is finally lifted at last (Gen. 3:16)”
“All these belonged to the old order of things where sin and death were present. The last thought could also be translated, “The former things are gone.” No greater statement of the end of one kind of existence and the beginning of a new one can be found in Scripture.” (Easley 1998, p. 395)
The resurrection of Life and Judgment
John 5:28-29 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
28 Do not marvel at this, because an hour is coming when all who are in the memorial tombs will hear his voice 29 and come out, those who have done good things to a resurrection of life, and those who have practiced wicked things to the resurrection of judgment.
When Jesus returns, he will bring many angels, and wipe out the wicked. However, the righteous will not be destroyed, and the righteous prior to Jesus first coming back in the first century, will receive a resurrection. The unrighteous, which had never had the opportunity to know God, will also be resurrected for a chance to hear the Good News, and then, they will be judged on what they do during the millennial reign of Christ. (Acts 24:15) Therefore, the punishment for sin is death, the punishment for those, who “keep on sinning deliberately after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins,” i.e., eternal death. However, “there will be a resurrection of both the just and the unjust [i.e., those who never heard the Good News].” – Acts 24:15
In death, Scripture show us as being unable to praise God. The Psalmist tells us, “For in death there is no remembrance of you; in Sheol [gravedom] who will give you praise?” (Psa. 6:5) Isaiah the prophet writes, “For Sheol [gravedom] cannot thank you [God], death cannot praise you; those who go down to the pit cannot hope for your faithfulness. ‘It is the living who give thanks to you, as I do today; a father tells his sons about your faithfulness.’” – Isaiah 38:18-19.
Passing Over from Death to Life
John 5:24 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
24 Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life. He does not come into judgment, but has passed from death to life.
Regeneration is God restoring and renewing somebody morally or spiritually, where the Christian receives a new quality of life. This one goes from the road of death over to the path of life. (John 5:24) Here he becomes a new person, with a new personality, having removed the old person. (Eph. 4:20-24) This does not mean that the imperfection is gone, and the sinful desires are removed, but that he now has the mind of Christ, the Spirit and the Word of God to gain control over his thinking and his fleshly desires. Therefore, if one has truly experienced a conversion it will be evident by the changes in one’s new personality from the old personality, his life, and his actions. If this is the case, he will be fulfilling the words of Jesus, “let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven.” (Matt. 5:16)
Can we see one as truly a man of faith, a committed Christian, who attends the meetings, but never carries out any personal study, never shares the gospel with another, never helps his spiritual brothers or sisters (physically, materially, mentally, or spiritually), nor helps his neighbor, or any of the other things one would find within a man of faith? James had something to say about this back in chapter 1:26-27, “If anyone thinks he is religious and does not bridle his tongue but deceives his heart, this person’s religion is worthless. Religion that is pure and undefiled before God, the Father, is this: to visit orphans and widows in their affliction, and to keep oneself unstained from the world.” One who does not possess real faith, will not help the poor, he will not separate himself from worldly pursuits, he will favor those that he can benefit from (the powerful and wealthy), and ignore those than he cannot make gains from (orphans and widows), he will not know the love of God, nor his mercy. (Jas. 2:8, 9, 13)
Titus 3:5 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
5 he saved us, not by deeds of righteousness that we have done, but because of his mercy, through the washing of regeneration and renewal by the Holy Spirit,
The Greek word polingenesia means to a renewal or rebirth of a new life in Christ, by the Holy Spirit. Jesus told Nicodemus, “unless someone is born of … Spirit, he is not able to enter into the kingdom of God.” (John 3:5). At the moment a person is converted, he is regenerated or renewed, passing over from death to life eternal. Jesus explains this at John 5:24, “the one who hears my word and who believes the one who sent me has eternal life, and does not come into judgment, but has passed from death into life.” The principal feature of rebirth of a new life in Christ, by the Holy Spirit, regeneration, is the passing over from death to life eternal.
At that point, the Spirit dwells within this newly regenerated one. From the time of Adam and Eve, God has desired to dwell with man. God fellowshipped with Adam in the Garden of Eden. After Adam’s rebellion, he chose faithful men, to walk with him in their life course, to communicate with them. Enoch, Noah, and Abraham walked with God. In the Hebrew language the tabernacle is called mishkan meaning “dwelling place.” In both the tabernacle and the temple, God was represented as dwelling with the people in the Most Holy. He also dwelt with the people through the Son, “And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth.” (John 1:14) After Jesus’ ascension, God dwelt among the Christians, by way of the Holy Spirit, in the body of each individual Christian, which begins at conversion.
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 (Rooker, Leviticus: The New American Commentary 2001, p. 258)
 MacArthur, John (2005-05-09). The MacArthur Bible Commentary (Kindle Locations 9334-9337). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition.
 This is a reverential fear of displeasing God because of one’s great love for him. It is not a dreadful fear.
 I.e., does what is right
 For God’s judgment on the basis of one’s conduct, see also Gen 4:7; Rom 2:6; Rev 20:12f. For God’s impartiality cf. Eph 6:9; Col 3:25, Jas 2:1, 9; 1 Pet 1:17; Rev 22:12. The idiom “lifting a face” pictures God as an oriental monarch lifting the face of a petitioner. To lift the petitioner’s face is to receive him or her with favor (cf. Esth 4:11; 5:2, where the custom is different but the import is the same).
 MacArthur, John (2005-05-09). The MacArthur Bible Commentary (Kindle Locations 47425-47426). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition.
 MacArthur, John (2005-05-09). The MacArthur Bible Commentary (Kindle Locations 67207-67213). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition.
 I.e. examine the book thoroughly
 MacArthur, John (2005-05-09). The MacArthur Bible Commentary (Kindle Locations 60742-60751). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition.
 Lit and
 Or presence (Gr parousia), which denotes both an “arrival” and a consequent “presence with.”
 Whether one sees this as two questions or three questions is not that big of a difference. If it is two questions; then, the coming/presence of Christ and the end of the age are being treated as one event. However, if there are three; then, the coming/presence of Christ and the end of the age are being treated as two events. Either way, you have Christ’s coming/presence and the end of the age. If the Greek word parousia carries the sense of both the arrival of Christ and his presence for a time before the end of the age, as explained by Vine’s Expository Dictionary, this seems to better support it being a three part question. How long that interval is between the arrival, the presence and the conclusion, no one can truly know.
 A.T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1933), Mt 24:3.
 The reader should be aware that the Greek word parousia does mean presence, the word is derived from para (with) and ousia (being). However, it does not denote the idea of invisible as the Jehovah Witnesses attest to. See W. E. Vine, Merrill F. Unger, and William White Jr., Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Nashville, TN: T. Nelson, 1996), 111.
 W. E. Vine, Merrill F. Unger, and William White Jr., Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Nashville, TN: T. Nelson, 1996), 19.
 William D. Mounce, Mounce’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old & New Testament Words (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2006), 1150.
 Bratcher, Robert G.; Hatton, Howard: A Handbook on the Revelation to John. New York: United Bible Societies, 1993 (UBS Handbook Series; Helps for Translators), S. 105
 Flavius Josephus and William Whiston, The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987).
 Vol. X, pp. 252-255.
 The Second Jewish–Roman War (132–135 C.E.) Simon Bar Kokba, who claimed to be the long awaited Messiah, led a revolt against Roman Emperor Hadrian (76-139), for setting up a shrine to Jupiter (supreme Roman god), on the temple site in Jerusalem, as well as outlawing circumcision and instruction of the Law in public.
 Lit be caused to stumble
24:10 many will be offended, lit. “caused to stumble,” suggesting professing believers who fall away and even turn against “one another” in shocking acts of spiritual treachery. Those who fall away in such a manner give evidence that they never were true believers (see note on v. 13 ).―MacArthur, John. The MacArthur Bible Commentary (Kindle Locations 40393-40395). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition.
 Or hand over
 Or in the whole world
 William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker, and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 276.
 IBID, 619.
 Or find this faith
 Or instruction or teaching
 Anders, Max; Butler, Trent (2002-04-01). Holman Old Testament Commentary – Isaiah (p. 29-30). B&H Publishing.
 “The Messiah will reverse Israel’s earlier dealings with the underprivileged (3:14, 15; 10:2).” – MacArthur, John (2005-05-09). The MacArthur Bible Commentary (Kindle Locations 27444-27445). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition.
 Anders, Max; Butler, Trent (2002-04-01). Holman Old Testament Commentary – Isaiah (p. 83). B&H Publishing.
 Anders, Max; Butler, Trent (2002-04-01). Holman Old Testament Commentary – Isaiah (p. 232). B&H Publishing.
 Anders, Max; Butler, Trent (2002-04-01). Holman Old Testament Commentary – Isaiah (p. 191). B&H Publishing.
 I.e., offspring
 Anders, Max; Butler, Trent (2002-04-01). Holman Old Testament Commentary – Isaiah (p. 374). B&H Publishing.
 Anders, Max; Lawson, Steven (2004-01-01). Holman Old Testament Commentary – Psalms: 11 (p. 199). B&H Publishing.
 Lit he will tabernacle
 Some mss peoples
 One early ms and be their God