The first rabbinic Bible—i.e., the Hebrew text furnished with full vowel points and accents, accompanied by the Aramaic Targums and the major medieval Jewish commentaries—was edited by Felix Pratensis and published by Daniel Bomberg (Venice, 1516/17). The second edition, edited by Jacob ben Hayyim ibn Adonijah and issued by Bomberg in four volumes (Venice, 1524/25), became the prototype of future... Continue Reading →
The MT has the reading “Arphaxad fathered Shelah” in verse 24 of Genesis chapter 10. On the other hand, the Greek Septuagint (LXX) has “Arphaxad fathered Cainan, and Cainan fathered Sala [Shelah]” in verse 24 of Genesis chapter 10. ... Continue Reading →
Major Critical Texts and Manuscript Abbreviations of the Old Testament AC: Aleppo Codex AT: Aramaic Targum(s) B.C.E.: Before Common Era BHS: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Edited by Karl Elliger and Wilhelm Rudolph. Stuttgart, 1984. B 19A: Codex Leningrad c.: Circa, about, approximately LXX: The Greek Septuagint (Greek Jewish OT Scriptures in general and specifically used during of... Continue Reading →
The BHS/MT has the reading “to all the beasts of the earth” in verse 10 of chapter 9. On the other hand, the Greek Septuagint (LXX) does not include “to all the beasts of the earth” in verse 10 of chapter 9. The verbal repetition in the Hebrew test is obviously for emphasis. The Septuagint continues to be very much important today and is used by textual scholars to help uncover copyists’ errors ...
En-geʹdi is the name of a city and the surrounding wilderness in the territory of Judah. (Jos 15:62; 1Sa 24:1) The En-Gedi Scroll is an ancient and fragile Hebrew parchment found in 1970 at Ein Gedi, Israel. It has...
We are quoting extensively from the Old Testament textual scholars Ellis R. Brotzman and Eric J. Tully in their OLD TESTAMENT TEXTUAL CRITICISM: A Practical Introduction from Baker Publishing Group. However, there are a number of paragraphs that were written by Edward D. Andrews. Christian Publishing is beginning a free online Old Testament Textual Commentary.... Continue Reading →
God is the Author and Originator of the Bible, as well as its Preserver. He is the One who inspired the prophet Isaiah to write: Isaiah 40:8 Updated American Standard Version (UASV) 8 The grass withers, the flower fades, but the word of our God will stand forever. That statement is absolutely true, even though we have... Continue Reading →
The apostle Paul often quoted from the “Septuagint” The “Septuagint” was understood by many people to whom Paul preached The Septuagint is the common term for the Old Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures. The word means "seventy" and is frequently shortened by using the Roman numeral LXX, which is a reference to the tradition... Continue Reading →
Internal Conditions Judaism has always been a book religion: it stands or falls with the Old Testament, especially with the Pentateuch. Although no manuscript of the Hebrew Old Testament is older than the 10th-century B.C.E, save for one minute papyrus, we know, from citations, translations, etc., that the consonantal text of the Old Testament was... Continue Reading →
Ezra was an inspired scribe/copyist/Bible author about 467-537 B.C.E But how were the inspired writings preserved down to Ezra’s day? There is no way of knowing with absolute certainty just how they were preserved, What we do know is that the 39 books that we accepted as inspired and authoritative in the Hebrew and Aramaic... Continue Reading →