ISLAMIC ESCHATOLOGY: Waiting for the Mahdi or the Messiah?

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DANIEL JANOSIK: Director of Islamic Studies, Adjunct Professor of Apologetics, Historical Theology, and Islamic Studies at Southern Evangelical Seminary, and the adjunct professor in Apologetics at CIU Columbia International University (A.B., College of William and Mary; M.Div., Columbia International University; M.A., Columbia International University; Ph.D., London School of Theology) Dissertation: John of Damascus, First Apologist to the Muslims.

Dr. Michael Youssef, who studied Islamic movements at Emory University, claims that for almost fourteen hundred years the main goal of Islam has been to conquer the world and bring all people under the subjugation of Islam.[1] This may seem like a bold statement, but a number of scholars point out that this view can be clearly evidenced in the Qur’an, the Hadith, the commentaries, and the writings of Muslim scholars from the very beginning up to the present.[2] It is also evidenced in the type of expansion that has taken place and can be seen even in the recent migrations from Islamic countries into the non-Muslim West. Another author, Joel Richardson, in his book The Islamic Antichrist, contends that,

In order to understand Islam properly, one must understand the way that Islam understands itself.  Islam views itself as the only true religion – indeed the only religion worthy to be practiced.  As such Islam has as one of its goals, total world domination.  Islam’s driving goal is to literally eradicate what it sees as the false and misplaced worship of all other religions.  Until the day that everyone says, “none has the right to be worshipped other than Allah,” Islam will continue its fight against unbelievers and unbelieving nations.[3]

This goal of Islam to build a world empire may not be something that is laid out in a single document, but it can be demonstrated through various writings of Muslims over the centuries. For example, in one of the hadiths, Bukhari wrote that Allah’s Apostle (Muhammad) said, “I have been ordered to fight the people till they say: ‘None has the right to be worshipped but Allah.’”[4] The Qur’an states, “Fight those from among the people of the Book, who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor hold as unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have declared to be unlawful, nor follow the true religion, until they pay the tax considering it a favor and acknowledge their subjection” (Q. 9:29). This is followed by Surah 9:33 which states, “He it is Who sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth, that He may make it prevail over every other religion.” Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Muslim historian wrote, “In the Muslim community, the holy war is a religious duty, because of the universalism of the (Muslim) mission and (the obligation to) convert everybody to Islam either by persuasion or by force.”[5]  The 20th-century Islamic scholar, Al Mawdudi, said this about global domination: “Islam is not a normal religion like the other religions in the world, and Muslim nations are not like normal nations.  Muslim nations are very special because they have a command from Allah to rule the entire world and to be over every nation in the world.”[6] Finally, Omar Ahmed, a former Chairman of the Board of CAIR (Council on Arab-Islamic Relations), a Muslim civil rights and advocacy group, boasted that “Islam isn’t in America to be equal to any other faith, but to become dominant.  The Quran should be the highest authority in America, and Islam the only accepted religion on earth.”[7] In his book titled How Islam Plans to Change the World, William Wagner says the premise of his book is simple: “Islam is a world religion with a well-defined culture and a developed strategy for taking control of the world.”[8]


Christianity is a religion that calls sinners to surrender willingly to a God who loves them, while Muhammad and his followers encourage the spread of Islam by force. At this point, someone may raise the objection that Christians say, “we will win the world to Christ,” so what is the difference? A key difference is that Jesus Christ came and died in our place so that all who believed in him would have eternal life. In Matthew 11:28-30 Jesus said, “Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest.  Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls.  For my yoke is easy and my burden is light.” In other words, Jesus comes as the “Prince of Peace,” while Islam advocates constant war until all people submit to Allah.[9]

The bigger question may be, “who will win?” Samuel P. Huntington, in his 1993 article, “Clash of Civilizations,” predicted the present conflict we now have between the Christian West and Islam and put forth the view that Islamic extremism would become the biggest threat to world peace.[10] Huntington received harsh criticism for his thesis shortly after his book came out in 1996, but after the turmoil of these last 20 years, the conflict between Christianity and Islam seems to be growing in intensity.[11] Michael Youssef, in his book Blindsided, argues that “Militant Islamists view Christianity as the foremost foe of Islam” and then outlines four primary reasons why the clash of these two religions is taking place at this time.[12] First, Islamic militants assume that Christian values pervade Western society the way Muslim ideology pervades Islamic society. Therefore, they assume that the perverse values and practices that pervade Hollywood and the corrupt business world must be the result of Christian influences on the society. Second, Islamic militants see Christianity as the dominant force in the Western world, and therefore, if Christianity can be subdued or eradicated, then Islam will be able to easily subdue the West for Allah. Third, Muslims view our Western tolerance, our lenient immigration rules, and our “politically correct” suicidal decisions that seek to destroy the very fabric of America as weaknesses that will allow them to exploit the West, infiltrate our government, and undermine our society. In regard to this point, Joel Richardson tells of a Muslim who stood up in the midst of a dialogue with Christians and said, “Thanks to your democratic laws, we will invade you. Thanks to our religious laws, we will dominate you.”[13] Fourth, Islamic extremists blame the Christian West for many of the problems that plague the Middle East today, such as poverty, civil unrest, and oppression, as well as the introduction of anti-Islamic features of American culture. The greatest blame, however, is reserved for America’s continued support for Israel.[14]


Coming from a similar perspective, William Wagner, a missionary strategist, and religious scholar, believes that Islam has a three-pronged strategy that guides many of the movements: “Jihad (holy war), Da’wah (missions), and mosques (presence).”[15] Jihad is used in order to engage the West on the battlefield, Da’wah in the public arena, and mosques in the religious circles. The key to bringing these three initiatives together seems to be found in Islamic Eschatology, or the views of the end times. In a sense, Islam has always been a religion that looked to the end in order to shape the present, for the Qur’an promised that it is in the next life that followers would be rewarded, and fantasies fulfilled. This is also one of the reasons that Muslim suicide bombers willingly volunteer to sacrifice their lives to kill the infidel, for Islamic traditions promise that the one sure way to enter Paradise is through “martyrdom.”[16] Radical Muslims will say, “We love death while you love life,” with the point being that this is the reason that they will win in the end. What is it about their view of the end times that could persuade them to destroy their own lives, as well as the lives of others, in order to gain what they consider the greatest good? What does their Eschatology teach and how does it impact their goal for domination?

Islamic prophecy points to a small town in Syria, called “Dabiq,” as the site of Armageddon, or the last battle, for the Muslims. They believe that the “armies of Rome,” represented by the US forces together with the coalition of Western nations, will be vanquished once and for all leaving the world open to Muslim dominance.[17] This is why ISIS wanted to draw the United States into the battle for Iraq and Syria. The Muslim leaders were confident that they would succeed in fulfilling the prophecy found in the Hadith.[18] What is more, the followers of ISIS believe that they will be able to make this happen and therefore set the stage for the final act in history. They hope to bring about the resurrection and the day of judgment that will separate Muslims from non-Muslims, those who go to their reward in Paradise, and those who will be punished forever in the fires of Hell (Jahannam). The danger of ISIS, then, is not that the end times are imminent, but that the leaders of ISIS believe they have an active role in bringing these things about.

It is important to note that most Muslims that we meet in America are similar to us in their values and they may deny that Islam seeks to be the only religion in the world They may also refute the belief that the goal of Islam, especially evidenced by their eschatology, seeks to rid the world of all Christians before the end comes. Thus, they would probably claim that ISIS has a wrong view of the end times. However, the beliefs of ISIS support many features that most Muslims believe and follow. More importantly, the views of ISIS are supported by the Qur’an and the Hadith. This chapter will examine the predominant beliefs of Muslims in regard to the end times and then compare them with the beliefs of Christianity.


The Traditional View

Eschatology has to do with those things that cover both what will happen after death as well as the events that will lead up to the end of time. Doctrinally, Muslims do not view this life as the end, but rather the beginning of the next life. Thus, what is done in this life is very important because it will determine, to some extent, the destination of the afterlife. Christians and Muslims do share some of the views concerning the end times. For example, in both religions Jesus plays a central role when he returns at the end. Muslims also hold similar views as Christians regarding judgment in that they believe in a resurrection of the good and the evil (Muslims and non-Muslims), that we all will face the final judgment, and that eternal life in Heaven (Paradise) will be reserved for the saved, and Hell for the lost. There are also some major differences, as will be detailed later in the chapter. In addition, there are some differences between the Sunni and the Shiah views, especially in regard to their messiah figure who is known as the Mahdi. Shias believe that he will be the 12th Imam following Ali’s line and Sunnis believe that he will make himself known by his great leadership skills and devotion to Allah. In the end, though, both look to the Qur’an and the Hadith to support their views on the events that will take place.

One of the primary questions involves what happens after death. What happens when a Muslim dies? What are the steps involved? First of all, the Qur’an (56:83) says that the soul of the dying person comes to their throat and two angels, named Munkar and Nakir, come to remove the soul from the body. They will ask three questions: “Who is your God?” (answer: Allah); “Who is your prophet?” (answer: Muhammad); and “What is your faith?” (answer: Islam). Answering correctly is all-important because the answers will determine what will happen to the body as it awaits the resurrection. Believers who answer correctly will be comforted in the grave, but non-believers will be tormented. However, knowing the answers to the questions will still not assure a person’s final destiny, for that cannot be known in Islam. Even Muhammad prayed often that he would be kept from punishment in the afterlife.[19]

While the order of the major end time events are not always clear in the Qur’an and the Hadith, they are generally marked by a series of signs, both major and minor.[20]  One of the most important signs is that a great leader of the family of Muhammad, known as the Mahdi, will return (from hiding or just emerge from among the people) and come into power.  He will bring “justice and true belief” just at the end of time.[21]  He will be the final caliph and usher in the beginning of the end times, and Jesus (Isa) will then come back from heaven and aid the Mahdi in a series of great battles.  Their primary enemy will be the false Messiah, known as the Dajjal. In time, the Jesus (Isa) defeats the Dajjal, and the remaining Christians will be persuaded to become Muslims because the Jesus (Isa) will abolish the Jizyah, the head tax on non-Muslims, and thus reduce the choices to either conversion or death.  The Mahdi continues the process of spreading Islam, bringing an age of defeat for all other religions and military success for Muslims.  The Madhi and Jesus (Isa) build the new kingdom of Islam together, ushering in a time of Islamic dominance.  Afterward, it is said that Jesus (Isa) will get married, have children, and reign gloriously for 40 years before dying a natural death.  His death will be the last event before the Judgment Day.  These ideas originated from the Hadith, but the account developed its current form during the time of the Abassid Empire (200-300 years after Muhammad’s death).[22] 

Many minor signs of the end times are also mentioned in the Hadith, including: women outnumbering men 50 to 1, the Arabs conquering Constantinople (Istanbul), Mecca being reduced to ruins; an increase in ignorance about the faith, the arising of false prophets; an increase in wars, and calamities arising that cause people to long for death.[23]   The last four signs are clearly similar to Christianity and are more typical examples of end times in other traditional religions.  Others, such as the first three, are unique to Islam and are more unusual in their claims.

All of this leads up to Judgment Day, also known as the Day of Reckoning.  There are many different versions of exactly what will happen, but the main idea is that all people are resurrected and separated into those who are Muslims and non-Muslims – the latter will be cast into Hell and the Muslims will then be judged according to their works. Part of this process involves crossing a razor-sharp bridge called the Bridge of Sirat. Those who safely reach the other side will find themselves in Paradise, but those whose sins are too great will fall off and find themselves in Hell unless the mercy of Allah intervenes. Those who cross successfully will then gather at the Pool of the Prophet where Muhammad will begin to intercede with Allah for the faithful so that they can enter Paradise. When they enter Paradise or Jannah in Arabic, they will find everything they long for in this life. According to the Muslim view, Paradise will have seven levels with the most faithful Muslims dwelling at the highest level.[24]


Paradise is described as a beautiful garden with every delight imaginable, and where everyone will be happy and fulfilled (Q. 13:23-24). Believers will be surrounded by family and friends and will also be served by beautiful eyed maidens that will meet their every need (Q. 55:56-7; 56:35-8). There will be food of every kind, rivers of water, milk, honey, and wine that will not intoxicate (Q. 56:11-24), and delicious fruits of all kinds. Muslims also point to a verse in the Qur’an that indicates that on the Day of Resurrection some will see God, which they believe will be a joy that surpasses all others (Q. 75:22-23). The unbelievers, on the other hand, will not see God but will be cast into the fires of Hell for eternity.

The hope of Muslims is that they are found obedient to Allah, so that they may reap the rewards of a life of service to him and to one another.  Fear is seen as a motivating factor, even a healthy one, pushing the believer to work hard and trust in Allah’s mercy for the end of days. Some Muslims are even saying that the rise of the caliphate and the disintegration of the West already mark the beginning of the end.[25] Others believe that this is the time when Islam will bring the New Order (new era) to the whole world ushered in by the Muslim Mahdi (messiah), and the Muslim Jesus (Isa al-Masih), who will both work together to battle against the Muslim antichrist, who is known as the Dajjal. Together, these three major signs are thought to indicate the beginning of the end. This is why it is important to examine these three figures in more detail. 


The Mahdi

The first of the major signs refers to the Mahdi, or the “Guided One.” He is the central figure in the Islamic end-time scenario and is universal among both Sunni and Shia Muslims.[26] The Mahdi is Islam’s messiah, or savior, and his appearance is comparable to the return of Jesus Christ for Christians. Interestingly, in a Pew article published in 2012, the number of Muslims in the world who believed the Mahdi would return in their lifetime was over 50%.[27] According to the Hadith and other traditions, the Mahdi will descend from the family of Muhammad (through Fatima) and will fulfill a number of prophecies. He will be a devout Muslim, and will be viewed as an “unparalleled spiritual, political, and military world leader.”[28] As the final caliph of Islam, the Mahdi will lead a revolution to establish a new world order. At this time, the traditions state that the Mahdi will lead his army from the east and they will conquer Israel carrying the black flag.[29] After killing many Jews, Jerusalem will serve as the center of Islamic rule in the world.[30] During this time of the Mahdi’s reign, a peace agreement will be made between the Muslims and the West, mediated through a Jew from the priestly class, for a period of seven years. At the end of the seven-year period, after the Mahdi has caused Islam to be the only religion practiced on the earth, he will then die.


The Muslim Jesus

The coming of the Muslim Jesus is the second most important event among major signs. According to Islam, Jesus is not God in the flesh/the Son of God. Rather, they do not believe that Jesus ever died on a cross for the sins of mankind.[31] Instead, Muslims believe that he ascended to heaven and remains alive with Allah. He will return again to finish his ministry and complete his life. He is not considered a savior, merely a prophet in the long line of prophets. For example, the Qur’an states in 43:59 that Jesus “was no more than a servant: We granted Our favor to him, and We made him an example to the Children of Israel.” (43:59) Muslims also believe that his return will not be to restore the nation of Israel to the Jewish people. Rather, he will come back and declare himself to be a Muslim, perform the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj), oversee the enforcement of Islamic sharia law throughout the world, and lead many Christians to convert to Islam. He will also testify against those who called him Son of God and abolish Christianity through three specific acts: he will break crosses (meaning that he will abolish the worship of the cross and eliminate all other religions except Islam); he will kill all swine (meaning that he will mandate sharia accepted food); and he will abolish the Jizyah tax, which was the price that non-Muslims had to pay in order to be classified as protected citizens. This also means that the only choices remaining for Christians will be to accept Islam or die.

Some of the hadith state that Jesus’ return will take place at “the white minaret in the eastern side of Damascus”[32] during the time of prayer. The Mahdi will ask Jesus to lead the prayers, but Jesus will defer to the Mahdi, indicating that his role is to support the Mahdi.[33] They will then work together to make Islam the only religion practiced throughout the world. During this time Jesus will kill the Dajjal, the Muslim antichrist (or anti-Mahdi), and bring peace to the world. The traditions also state that Jesus will get married, have children and, after forty years, die a natural death. He will then be buried next to the prophet Muhammad.[34]

The Dajjal, Islam’s Antichrist

The third primary character in Islamic eschatology is known as Al-masih Ad-Dajjal (the messiah, the deceiver). The traditions relate that he will be given great powers to do miracles in order to deceive people. Traditions also describe him as blind in one eye[35] and having the word “kafir”[36] (infidel, unbeliever) written between his eyes (on his forehead), which only true Muslims will see.[37] He will also claim to be divine, even claiming to be God himself.[38] Therefore, Muslims believe that he will impersonate Jesus Christ in order to deceive people and turn them away from Islam. They also believe that he will recruit an army made up mostly from the Jews and fight against the Mahdi and the Muslim Jesus. However, the Muslim Jesus will kill the Dajjal and establish peace on the earth.[39]

Once the Dajjal has been dealt with and the entire population of the world has submitted to Allah, then the Day of Reckoning will come. Everyone who has ever lived will be resurrected in a physical body, joined with their soul, and gathered together at the place where they will be judged by Allah. Those who have faithfully followed Allah, or gained his favor, will be set aside to prove their faith by making it over the razor-thin bridge of Sirat and to gain entrance into Paradise. Those who have opposed the will of Allah will be cast into the fires of Hell for eternal torment. When it comes to the end, every Muslim wants to be on the side of Allah, and when the end determines the beginning of eternal life in Paradise or in Hell, then it becomes everything.

12th Imam

There is one other area of prophecy concerning the end times that needs to be discussed. Although there are many similarities between the beliefs of the Sunni and Shia Muslims, there are also some distinctions that need to be understood. For example, one of the main differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims in regard to the end times is that Sunnis believe the Mahdi has not yet been born, and therefore his identity is not yet known. At the right time, they believe Allah will have the Mahdi appear in order to initiate peace and justice throughout the world. The Muslim Jesus (Isa) will appear at that time as well to join the Mahdi in preparing the world for the Day of Judgment.[40]

However, for 85% of the Shia who call themselves “Twelver Shia,” the Mahdi is known as Muhammad ibn Hassan al-Mahdi and is the 12th Imam in the line of the 4th Caliph, Ali ibn Talib. Therefore, according to the traditions, he would be a direct descendant of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima. He is said to have been born in 869 AD, and Twelvers believe he is still alive in a period of hiding, or occultation until the time is right for his appearance. At a time of great chaos, tyranny, and suppression, the 12th Imam will emerge as the messiah, along with the Muslim Jesus, to fulfill the mission of bringing peace by establishing Islam as the dominant faith throughout the world. There are a number of Middle Eastern leaders, such as the former Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, and the present Grand Ayatollah Khamenei, who are strong followers of the 12th Imam. They believe they can hasten the return of the Mahdi through an apocalyptic event, such as the destruction of Israel. They also believe it is the responsibility of the government to prepare the way for the Mahdi.[41]

Conclusion of The Traditional View

For the most part, the average Muslim has a minimal understanding of what is supposed to happen in the end according to the traditional beliefs. They are often more concerned with their individual eschatology rather than the universal eschatology of the theologians and scholars. In regard to their individual eschatology, Muslims are very much aware that they are responsible for doing everything they can in order to avoid Allah’s displeasure so that they will have a better chance of making it to Paradise. Paradise itself is usually described as a beautiful extension of all the good things on the earth, and they know that they need to do all that they can in order to merit entrance to this realm after death. The bigger picture that makes up universal eschatology is often pushed to the periphery of their beliefs, except where it overlaps with their obligations to follow the Qur’an and the will of Allah, for they believe their individual destiny is often determined by how well they succeed in carrying out the universal goals of Islam. The universal eschatology revolves around the three major signs: the Mahdi, the Muslim Jesus, and the Dajjal. These figures dominate the events of the end times and mark the progression of the events themselves. The focal point of all these events is to demonstrate that Islam will eventually gain control of the whole world and bring everything under the rule of Allah. Once this has been secured, the judgment will come with those who believe in Allah hoping to gain a place in Paradise, while those who have rejected him will find their eternal abode in Hell.

This next section will deal with a critical examination of the claims of Muslims in regard to events they believe will occur in the future and a comparison of the three main figures from both the Muslim and the Christian perspective. This comparison will reveal that even though there are some similarities in their understanding the events of the end times, the actual evidence reveals that the main figures involved are diametrically opposite in their character, intent, and ultimate role.

Young Christians


Before dealing with comparisons of eschatology between Islam and Christianity, it will be helpful to discuss several areas of concern regarding the formation of Muslim views regarding end time events. The first area of concern involves the reliability of the Islamic sources. While the Qur’an discusses judgment, Paradise, and Hell, it does not mention the coming of the Mahdi or false messiah or similar details about the end times.  Rather, many of these elements are from the Hadith and offer less-than-substantial proof of their literary veracity.  A number of the views contradict each other; many can also be traced from other extant religious traditions and from folklore.  All of this makes it difficult to know how much it is reasonable to trust these sources, casting doubt on the cohesion of the entire eschatology of Islam.  Shrouding the end point of life and the world in superstition and a less-than-substantiated revelation make it difficult to reconcile these doctrines of judgment, Paradise, and Hell with the larger claims of Islam.


Copy Cat Religion

A different concern involving the sources of Islam may suggest that many of the traditions describing the events of the end times have been copied from, or influenced by, earlier religions such as Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and even paganism.[42] While this could be argued to be the Islamic “correction” of corrupted sources, it is an equally plausible explanation that the Hadith borrowed heavily from these sources and intermixed them to make a new account. It could have borrowed from Judaism a lot of stories of the prophets in the Old Testament, and from Christianity the stories of Jesus and Mary, though these stories are often distorted and retold in an Arabized fashion. Some of this material focuses on end-time events, such as the return of the Muslim Jesus, but it is from Zoroastrianism that many of the traditions that relate to the Islamic end times are found.

Zoroastrianism is from Persia (modern day Iran) and has roots that go back to the time of Moses and even Abraham. Zoroastrianism contains well-developed traditions that deal with end time events, such as the appearance of a savior, the resurrection of the dead, victory over evil with reward in Paradise and rejection in a fiery Hell when the world is judged by the one supreme God.[43]

For example, in regard to individual eschatology, Zoroastrians believe that at death there are two spiritual creatures waiting by the dead body with the evil one trying to drag the soul off to Hell and the good one protecting the person’s soul. The soul is taken to a bridge that it must cross in order to get into Paradise. The bridge, called “Chinvat,” will be broad and comfortable for the righteous and narrow and perilous for the wicked one. It is at this point that the souls are assigned to Paradise or Hell, or a possible middle state, according to their works in this life. In regard to universal eschatology, Zoroastrians believe that during resurrection the physical body is united to the soul. These events are very similar to the events now described in Muslim traditions. In addition, the concept of the maidens of Paradise, al-hurs, or the houris, may have come from Zoroastrianism.[44] The fires of Hell are a common theme in Zoroastrian eschatology and they also play a dominant role in motivating Muslims to stay on the “straight path.” Some other practices that may have been adopted from Zoroastrianism are the five daily prayers (Jews had three per day), the call to prayer, the ablution before prayer, a covering for the head during prayer, and a direction to face during prayer. There is also a story of a night journey to heaven described in Zoroastrian literature, one which existed well before the time of Muhammad and his particular night journey from Mecca to Jerusalem where it is believed he ascended up into heaven for a visit.[45]

The implication of all of this is that if many of the eschatological views in Islam come from other religions, then how can it be viewed as the only correct view? If many of these ideas were patterned after the traditions of other religions, then this would indicate that either Muslims borrowed many of their ideas from other religions, meaning that Islam is a man-made religion, or, as Muslims would argue, Islam communicates the corrected view and therefore should be the only view represented.

72 Virgins in Paradise

One of the main criticisms of the Islamic view of individual eschatology is that Paradise is often portrayed as a man’s sexual playground with a bevy of virgins created by Allah to satisfy every man’s desires. Other than the celestially created “maidens” with large, beautiful eyes, wives and daughters are scarcely mentioned in the narratives of Paradise. Indeed, there are some hadith that relate one of Muhammad’s visions of Hell where he states that most of the inhabitants were women.[46] So, the question often arises, “What do women have to look forward to in a Paradise made to satisfy men’s desires?” In contrast, one of the chief replies from Christians when they are asked about their views on heaven is that they “want to see Jesus.” One of the focal points for Christians seems to be the physical presence of God among his people, whereas the Muslim Paradise seems to be a place where many of the forbidden things of this world will be paramount in Paradise. For example, if marital fidelity is expected on earth, then how can promiscuity be something that is promoted in the afterlife? Yet, this seems to be one of the foundational characteristics of the Muslim Paradise.

One question that comes up often in regard to jihad concerns the promise of 72 beautiful, black-eyed perpetual virgins as wives in Paradise to Muslim men who die in battle against the infidel. This promise even applies to the “shahid” (martyr) who commits suicide in order to kill non-Muslims or other Muslims who are deemed to be heretics.[47] They are told that they will go straight to heaven and their reward will be pleasures beyond belief, including the service of 72 virgins (known as the houri, pl. hur). The Qur’an, hadith and Islamic scholars all mention that virgins will be awarded to Muslim men in Paradise. For example, the word “hur” is used only four times in the Qur’an, in the passages 44:54, 52:20, 55:72, and 56:22, and each time the translation reads, “And we shall join them to Companions, with beautiful Big and lustrous eyes.” This promise is actually made to any man who merits Paradise, not just the “shahid.” It is also true that the number 72 does not appear anywhere in the Qur’an. From where, then, did this idea of martyrs being rewarded with 72 virgins in Paradise come? According to al-Tirmidhi (824-892), one of the first to write on this topic, a martyr has seven special favors from Allah. One of those is that he will be saved from the punishment of the grave. Another is that he is protected from the terror of Judgment Day. A third is that he will marry 72 wives from the beautiful virgins of Paradise.[48] Many other hadith and traditional sayings seem to verify this number of women given to each man. Various Muslim scholars say that while the exact number of virgins cannot be determined, their opinion is that the hadith that mention the narrations of these beautiful maidens is sound (good). For example, Shaykh Gibril F. Haddad says that each man will have two wives in Paradise, along with up to a hundred concubines, while the Shuhada (martyrs) will have 72 wives.[49] These traditions are often brought up by those who recruit terrorists for suicide bombings. However, other Muslims, like the reform-minded Irshad Manji, believe that the use of the word “virgin” or “maiden” is a mistranslation, and the Arabic word houri should be translated as “raisin”! “In other words, martyrs would get raisins in heaven, not virgins.”[50]

Christophe Luxemberg, a scholar of ancient Semitic languages, claims that much of the Qur’an came from an earlier Syriac source, and when the Arabic in the Qur’an is transliterated and translated back into Syriac the word “houri” referred to white, crystalline grapes that were part of the lush fruit found in the gardens of heaven, rather than celestial virgins.[51] This would greatly disrupt the propaganda of those trying to recruit suicide bombers. Who would want to give their life away for a box of raisins!

In conclusion, the Qur’an and Hadith give the impression that if a Muslim dies in battle (holy jihad), then Allah will reward him with an automatic pass to Paradise. This is still only a conjecture, not a verified certainty. The reward of 72 virgins seems to have come much later, with Tirmidhi’s special favors for those martyrs killed in battle. Today, this view seems to be a common belief, especially held by radical Islamists. Interestingly, there are some Muslims who try to counter the Islamists by claiming that the word “hur,” which is often interpreted as “beautiful maiden,” or “virgin,” may instead simply mean “beautiful crystalline grapes,” and have nothing to do with eternal virgins in heaven given to Muslim men as a reward for their sacrificial actions. This interpretation is not accepted by many, but it fits the context much better.

In the end, though, it seems that the promise of 72 virgins as a reward for faithful service unto death for Muslim men was built upon false foundations, misinterpreted words, and a dose of wishful thinking.

How to Interpret the Bible-1

The Grand Delusion

Perhaps the greatest concern in regard to Islamic eschatology is the way that the three main figures in their apocalypse (end time events) seem to be diametrically opposite to the three main figures in Christian eschatology. Following are some charts based on the research of Joel Richardson[52] that will compare the various descriptions of these major figures and provide persuasive evidence revealing that in many ways the roles are polar opposites. For example, Muslims believe that the Muslim Jesus, along with the Mahdi, will attack the Dajjal (Muslim anti-Mahdi) who will be opposing the work of the Mahdi and helping the Jews. However, if the Dajjal is really the Christian Jesus, then the Mahdi and the Muslim Jesus will be trying to kill the real Jesus, while the Muslims will be following the “false” Jesus and trying to kill all the Christians in the name of Allah. This may sound confusing at this point. Hopefully these charts will clarify what may end up being the grand delusion of all time.

Comparison 1: Is the Muslim Mahdi the Christian Antichrist?

A comparison between the Christian Antichrist and the Muslim Mahdi reveals a number of similarities that may point to the same false religious leader. The following chart compares the Christian antichrist with the Muslim Mahdi and reveals some stark similarities between the two figures who may end up being the same individual.

Table 1: Muslim Mahdi and the Christian Antichrist

Christian Antichrist

Muslim Mahdi

The term antichrist is mentioned only once in the Bible. 1 John 2:18: “Children, it is the last hour, and as you have heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come.”

  • Also known as the “beast” in Revelation (Rev. 13:4)
  • “the man of sin” or the “man of lawlessness” (2 Thess. 2)
  • “the oppressor” (Isaiah 14)

He will be a powerful political and military world leader. He will be the “beast” who will rule of the ten nations detailed in Daniel 7 and Revelation 13. He will be given authority over every tribe, people, language, and nation” (Rev. 13:7).


Muslims view the Mahdi as one who will be victorious over all religions and will rule the whole world from Jerusalem with great political and military power.

(Tabari, Dala’il al-imama , Najaf edition, 1369), p. 249)


As the final caliph of Islam, the Mahdi will lead a revolution to establish a new world order.

Comparison 1: Universal false religious leader

The Christian Antichrist will be the universal false religious leader who will lead the whole world astray: “all inhabitants of the earth will worship the beast” (Rev. 13:8). The False Prophet will assist him.


The Mahdi will also be known as a spiritual world leader, and known as the leader of a worldwide religious movement promoting only Islam and forcing non-Muslims to convert and worship Allah alone. Islam will be the only religion allowed. Through this he will institute a “new world order.” The Muslim Jesus will assist him.

Comparison 2: Targeted campaign against Jews and Christians

The Antichrist will target those who resist his plan to establish his religion as the only one in the world. He will be given power to “make war on the saints and to conquer them (Rev. 13:7)

The Mahdi has a special calling to convert Christians and Jews to Islam. If they do not accept Islam, they will be killed (Richardson, 42). One famous hadith makes the point that even if the Jews hide behind rocks to try and escape even the rocks will cry out and reveal their presence (Muslim, 041, #6985)

Comparison 3: Military attack against Israel and the Temple mount

The antichrist will attack Jerusalem in order to conquer it (Ezekiel 38:9-12). He will set up his throne in the Temple (2 Thess. 2:4)

The Mahdi will also attack Jerusalem and conquer it for Islam (Tirmidhi, as quoted by Zubair, Sins of Quhanna, 42 – in Richardson, 45).

He will make Jerusalem the center of Islamic rule. (Izzat and ‘Arif, Al Mahdi and the End of Time, 40).

Comparison 4: Seven-year treaty with Israel

The Antichrist will initiate a treaty with Israel for seven years prior to attacking the city (Daniel 9:27). This will give the Israelis a false sense of security. Isaiah refers to this covenant as a “covenant of death.” (Isaiah 28:14-15)

The Mahdi will make a peace treaty for seven years with a Jew from the priestly class (Richardson 47); (Tabarani, as related by Hadrat Abu Umamah, as quoted by Zubair Ali, Signs of Qiyammah, p 43 and Abduallah, p. 55)

Comparison 5: Changing the laws and times

The book of Daniel points out that the antichrist “will speak against the Most High and oppress his saints and try to change the set times and the laws” (Daniel 7:25)

As a Muslim, the Mahdi will seek to change the time  and implement the Muslim calendar, which begins with the Hijrah, or Muhammad’s escape (migration) to Medina in 622 AD. The Mahdi will also implement shariah throughout the world, the Islamic law based on the Qur’an and the Hadith, or the sayings of Muhammad.

“Only Islam fits the bill of a system that has its own unique calendar, a week based on its own religious history, and a clear system of law that it wishes to impose onto the entire earth.” (Richardson, 48)

Comparison 6: Riding on a White Horse

Revelation 6:1-2 portrays the rider on a white horse as a counterfeit Christ who triumphs over the people. However, this is only a false imitation of Christ’s true triumphal appearance on a white horse found later in Revelation 19:11.

The Mahdi is said to be the fulfillment of this passage in Revelation (Rev 6:1-2), and he will ride the white horse in victory over the world as he brings Islam to all people and all countries. (Richardson, 50) also (Izzat and ‘Arif, Al Mahdi and the End of Time, 15, 19).

Comparison 2: Will the Muslim Jesus turn out to be the False Prophet of the Bible? Note the similarities between these two end time figures. Both will seek to lead Christians away from the true Jesus Christ of the Bible. Could it be that the Christian false prophet and the Muslim Jesus are one and the same?

Table 2: The Muslim Jesus and the False Prophet

Christian False Prophet

Muslim Jesus (Isa)

Description of the Christian False Prophet

The Christian False Prophet is mentioned in the book of Revelation (16). He will deceive many and try to lead people away from Jesus Christ.

Description of the Muslim Jesus

According to Muslims, the Muslim Jesus was not crucified, but taken up to heaven alive and awaits his return to earth. He will return from heaven and help the Mahdi conquer the world for Allah. He will kill the Dajjal and persuade many Christians and Jews to convert to Islam.

Comparison 1: The unholy partnership

The False Prophet in the Bible is the assistant to the Antichrist. He is able to perform miracles. His purpose is to deceive people in order to get them to follow the Antichrist.

The Mahdi and the Muslim Jesus form an unholy alliance. The Muslim Jesus is subordinate to the Mahdi and seeks to force Christians to follow the Mahdi.

Comparison 2: Chief Enforcer

The False Prophet will give people two options: to worship the Antichrist or die (Rev. 13:15)

The Muslim Jesus comes to convert the Christian world to Islam. He will institute Islamic law all over the earth. He will abolish the Jizyah tax (protection money), and without this alternative the only two choices left for the non-Muslim will be to convert to Islam or to be executed by the Mahdi and the Muslim Jesus.

Comparison 3: Executioner

Revelation 13:15 indicates that the False Prophet will kill all who refuse to worship the image of the first beast (another name for the Antichrist). According to Revelation 20:4 they will be beheaded. This is one of the preferred ways for Muslims to execute non-believers. It has been this way for 1400 years.

The Muslim Jesus will establish a system of law that will enforce the mass extinction of everyone who refuses to convert to Islam. One of the favorite ways of execution for Muslims is beheading.

Comparison 3: The Biblical Jesus and the Dajjal

Could it be that the person that Muslims fear most, the Dajjal, could really be the biblical Jesus Christ? This would be ironic in a tragic sense for the one that they need most to follow, the true Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, would be twisted into the most hated and fearful creature imaginable for Muslims. This is certainly something that only Satan could devise.

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Table 3: The Muslim Dajjal and the Christian Jesus 

Christian Jesus

Muslim Dajjal

Jesus Christ is the Son of God, Second person of the Trinity, and truly God himself

The Muslim Dajjal is the false Messiah, or the Antichrist figure for Muslims.

The Christian Jesus will claim to be one with the Father and the true Christ (Messiah)

The Dajjal will claim to be Jesus Christ.

The Christian Jesus will make salvation possible for many Jews during the tribulation. Satan will seek to destroy Jesus and his followers.

He will defend Israel against the Mahdi and the Muslim Jesus, who will seek to destroy the Dajjal.

The Christian Jesus is appearing to many Muslims in dreams and visions leading them out of Islam and into a relationship with him.

It is also believed by Muslims that the Dajjal will “deceive” many Muslims into leaving Islam.

The False Prophet will try to kill Jesus Christ

According to Islamic eschatology, the Muslim Jesus will kill the Dajjal

Polar Opposites

This would be especially ironic if the Muslim False Prophet were already here on earth claiming to be Jesus Christ when the real Jesus Christ appears and the Muslims will claim that he is the Dajjal. Everything would be topsy-turvy. On the one hand, the real Jesus Christ would be mistaken for the Dajjal, Islam’s antichrist, and on the other hand the Christian False Prophet would be accepted as the Muslim Jesus, and the real Christian Antichrist would masquerade as the Muslim Mahdi. Again, we can see how Islam is diametrically opposite to Christianity in core areas. We need to be aware of these differences and able to help others make these very important distinctions.

Table 4: Polar Opposites

Christian View

Muslim View

Muslim Mahdi = Christian Antichrist

Muslim Mahdi = Messiah

Muslim Jesus = Christian False Prophet

Muslim Jesus = true Prophet of Islam

The Dajjal = Muslim Antichrist = Christian Jesus Christ (??)

The Dajjal = Muslim Antichrist


It seems that today scholars look at the similarities between Christianity and Islam and try to say that Christian doctrine is often mirrored by Islamic beliefs. However, in this case, the image that portrays Islam seems to be clearly a distorted reversal of Christian beliefs. This may be why Joel Richardson calls Islamic eschatology an “anti-parallel” of Christian theology, especially in reference to the three major figures of Islam. What Christians see as the savior (Jesus Christ), Muslims see as the deceiver and destroyer (Dajjal), and what Christians see as the Antichrist and the False Prophet, Muslims see as their messiah (the Mahdi) and his helper (the Muslim Jesus) who will destroy the one they interpret as the great deceiver and destroyer (Jesus Christ of the Bible).  In this way, could it be that Islam is the “anti-parallel” counterfeit of Christianity? The implications of this would be far-reaching, for it would mean that if Christianity is the true religion then Islam is the strongest adversary and the ultimate enemy of Christ. Could Islam represent the “spirit of the antichrist” that the apostle John writes about in his letter:

1 John 4:1-3 English Standard Version (ESV)

Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, for many false prophets have gone out into the world.By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God, and every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God. This is the spirit of the antichrist, which you heard was coming and now is in the world already.

We know that Islam vehemently rejects the belief that Jesus Christ is God, and therefore even though they will agree that the Jesus of the Qur’an was a prophet and messenger from God, they will not accept any evidence that Jesus Christ is God himself. As John clearly states, this is the spirit of the antichrist, and we need to passionately reject this deceptive and destructive view.

A further implication may be found in the Islamic practice of taqiyya, which allows Muslims to mislead non-believers in regard to the nature of a Muslim’s own belief in order to avoid persecution. This practice allows Muslims, both Shia and Sunni, to lie to non-Muslims in a time of war, persecution, or even minority status if the lie will protect Muslims and further the goals of Islam. In his article on taqiyya, Raymond Ibrahim quotes a Muslim authority, Sami Mukaram, who says,

Taqiyya is of fundamental importance in Islam. Practically every Islamic sect agrees to it and practices it … We can go so far as to say that the practice of taqiyya is mainstream in Islam, and that those few sects not practicing it diverge from the mainstream … Taqiyya is very prevalent in Islamic politics, especially in the modern era.[53]

For Christians, it is difficult to accept that any religion that claims to be a revelation from the true God would freely resort to deception. However, taqiyya may play a major role in shielding the true nature of Islam behind a screen of duplicity and obfuscation. For example, how many times have Muslims defended their religion as a “religion of peace” while the majority of the terrorist activity in the world is carried on by Muslims?[54]

Apologetic Conclusions

The important message for Christians to realize is that the Bible states clearly that the last days will be filled with deception. It would make sense that Islam may be the greatest deception used by Satan to destroy Christianity throughout the world. In his book, The Islamic Antichrist, Richardson writes that, “The biblical picture of the last days is one where deception is the absolute rule of the day. In virtually every passage where the New Testament discusses the end times, the author stresses that believers must guard against deception.”[55] One example of this can be found in Matthew 24:3-4 where Jesus told his disciple, “Watch out that no one deceives you.”  A little further he says, “At that time many will turn away from the faith and will betray and hate each other, and many false prophets will appear and deceive many people…. For false christs and false prophets will appear and perform great signs and miracles to deceive even the elect – if that were possible. See, I have told you ahead of time.” (Matthew 24:10-11, 24-25). The apostle Paul also warns Christians to be aware of the dangers that will take place during the end times:

2 Thessalonians 2:9-12 English Standard Version (ESV)

The coming of the lawless one is by the activity of Satan with all power and false signs and wonders,10 and with all wicked deception for those who are perishing, because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. 11 Therefore God sends them a strong delusion, so that they may believe what is false, 12 in order that all may be condemned who did not believe the truth but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

Is it possible that one of the powerful delusions that God sends will be the lie embodied in Islam, especially in the way that beliefs concerning the end times point to a very different Christ and a very different gospel?

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Building Bridges to Understand

In creating a bridge, it would be good to start with some of the similarities in regard to the end times, such as Jesus playing a central role in both Christian and Muslim views, and both religions believing in a resurrection of the dead, a final judgment, a literal heaven and hell, eternal life in heaven (Paradise) for the saved, and eternal life in hell for the lost. Then, it would be helpful to point out the specific areas where Christ will be the triumphant one in Christianity. It will be important to demonstrate that Christians view Jesus as God himself, and this is important not only for the outcome of the last battle but also for each believer as they will need to face Christ in the judgment. However, for Christians who have put their trust in Jesus Christ, they will not have to fear the judgment. This is not true for Muslims. This may be an opportunity to help Muslims see that Christianity offers a much better option: Christ has done it all. We cannot work our way into heaven (Eph. 2:8-9). This is especially important because Islam offers no sure salvation and therefore no real hope.

There is also the issue of deception (taqiyyah). If even Allah cannot be trusted, then how can Muslims trust anything in the Qur’an, the Hadith, or even promises from their leaders in regard to their own eternal destination? What does history tell us about the broken treaties? What does the fact that most Islamic majority countries are struggling to get into the 21st century and are still under constant strife? Where is the peace? It certainly is not apparent in Islam. Lambert Dolphin, a physicist, and theologian, comments, “The end of the age we live in is marked by deception on a world-wide scale because truth has been so widely and universally rejected by mankind. This is the clear statement of Paul when he speaks about the appearing of the man of sin” (2 Thessalonians 2: 3-12).[56] The whole idea of the prevalence of deception (taqiyyah) in Islam can be used to challenge the idea that Islamic leaders can be trusted. It is also good to compare it with the uprightness of Jesus Christ and the selfless loyalty of his disciples.

Since Joel Richardson’s ideas have been heavily used in this chapter, it would be fitting to close with a summary of some of the ideas that he advocates for building bridges with Muslims:[57]

  • Never underestimate the power of the gospel: “It is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes.” (Romans 1:16)
  • How can they hear without a preacher? (Romans 10:14) We must be willing to go to them.
  • We need to reach out in love rather than fear (or despite our fears). Our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but rather against the rulers, authorities, powers, and spiritual forces (Ephesians 6: 10-12)
  • Our critique is against Islam, not Muslims. We are commanded to love Muslims, for even though they are far from the true God, they are made in the image of God and need to “come home.” (Muslims are not our enemy so much as Islam is).
  • The majority of Muslims that we meet will be just like us: they desire to live a good life pleasing to God.
  • We should see them as sincere God seekers.
  • We should not see Muslims as “others,” but rather as “another” one of God’s creatures.
  • We need to be confident that God wants us to be overcomers: We need to overcome our fear with love; we need to overcome hatred with reconciliation.

These are all helpful pointers for us to follow as we reach out to Muslims around us and seek to lead them to the one who has already conquered death. Jesus Christ has a wonderful eternal plan for every person who calls on his name and walks in his footsteps. The true path to heaven can only be found in the one who says, “I am the way… follow me.” (John 14:6, Matthew 16:24).

Questions for Study:

  1. What are some of the positions on eschatology that are similar in both Christianity and Islam?
  2. What are the main differences in the positions on eschatology between Christians and Muslims?
  3. How is the Muslim Jesus different from the Jesus of the Bible?
  4. How are the three main figures in Islamic eschatology – the Mahdi, the Muslim Jesus, and the Dajjal – an “anti-parallel” to the three main figures in Christian eschatology – Jesus Christ, the antichrist, and the false prophet?
  5. What are some ways that you can use this information on Islamic eschatology to build a bridge to your Muslim friend or neighbor?
  6. What would be some of the implications concerning the end times if Christianity is true and Islam is false?



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[1] Youssef, Blindsided, 101.

[2] William Wagner, How Islam Plans to Change the World (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 2004).

[3] Joel Richardson, The Islamic Antichrist: The Shocking Truth about the Real Nature of the Beast (Los Angeles: WND Books, 2009), 138.

[4] Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 84, Number 59, Narrated Abu Huraira.

[5] Ibn Khaldun, The Muqaddimah, trans. by Franz Rosenthal (New York: Pantheon Books Inc., 1958) Vol. 1:473

[6] Mark A. Gabriel, Islam and Terrorism (Lake Mary Florida, Charisma House 2001), 81.

[7] Report in the San Ramon Valley Herald of a speech to California Muslims in July 1998; quoted in Pipes, CAIR: Moderate Friends of Terror, New York Post, April 22, 2002.

[8] Wagner, How Islam Plans to Change the World, 11-12.

[9] However, in the Second Coming, the Bible teaches that Jesus will overcome all of his foes.

[10] Samuel P. Huntington, “The Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, No.3 Summer, 1993), 22-49.


[12] Youssef, Blindsided, 102-3.

[13] Richardson, Islamic Antichrist, 145; Abdullah Al-Araby, The Islamization of America: The Islamic Strategy and the Christian Response (, 2003), 8.

[14] Youssef, Blindsided, 102-103.

[15] Wagner, How Islam Plans to Change the World, 12.

[16] See Qur’an 4:74; 9:111; Sahih Bukhari 52:54; 52:46; 20:4678; 20:4655.

[17] Sahih Muslim 2897, Book 54, Hadith 44.

[18] Glenn Beck, It IS About Islam (Simon and Schuster, 2015), 19.

[19] Bukhari, volume 2, book 23, # 454 and 456.

[20] Dr. Samuel Shahid wrote a book called The Last Trumpet. He attempts to show that the major concepts of Islamic eschatology were borrowed from the Hebrew Scriptures, the Christian New Testament, and the concepts of Zoroastrianism.

[21] see “Mahdi” entry in Oxford Dictionary of Islam. John L. Esposito, ed., The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (Oxford University Press, 2003).

[22] (accessed 1/1/19). See also Joel Richardson, The Islamic Antichrist, 31-32, 58-59, 71-75.

[23] (accessed 1/1/19).

[24] (accessed 1/1/19);

[25] Beck, It IS About Islam, 21.

[26] Richardson, The Islamic Antichrist, 22-23.

[27] (accessed 7/25/18)

[28] Richardson, The Islamic Antichrist, 31.

[29] Richardson, The Islamic Antichrist, 25-6. Tirmidhi, as quoted by Zubair, Signs of Qiyyamah, 42.

[30] Muhammad ibn Izzat and Muhammad Arif, Al Mahdi and the End of Times (Dar Al Taqwa Ltd., 1997), 40.

[31] The Qur’an denies that he was ever crucified (Q. 4: 157).

[32] Sahih Muslim, book 041, #7015.

[33] Muslim, book 001, #0293.

[34] Dawud, Book 37, #4310.

[35] Sahih Muslim, 041, #7005.

[36] K, F, R – assumed but not written out.

[37] Muslim, 041, #7009.

[38] Philips, Ad-Dajjal,found in Richardson, The Antichrist, 73.

[39] Sahih Muslim, 041, #6924

[40] Beck, It Is About Islam, 24-25.

[41] Beck, It Is About Islam, 24-25; see also

[42] See Samuel Shahid, The Last Trumpet (Xulon Press, 2005).

[43]; Encyclopedia Iranica,

[44] Encyclopedia Iranica,

[45] (accessed 1/1/2019).

[46] al-Bukhari vol. 4:464, vol. 2:161; Muslim, vol. 1:143, 147.

[47] Although suicide is forbidden in the Qur’an (Q. 4:29), those who commit suicide in order to carry out their obligation to jihad are praised as faithful martyrs rather than mere “suicide bombers.”

[48] Al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 4, Ch. 21, No. 2687



[51] Christophe Luxemberg, The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran: A Contribution to the Decoding of the Language of the Koran (Berlin: Verlag Hans Schiler, 2007), 352. In Syriac, the word hur is a feminine plural adjective meaning white, with the word “raisin” understood implicitly.]

[52] Joel Richardson, The Islamic Antichrist, 33-50, 61-69, 77-80.

[53] Sami Mukaram, At-Taqiyya fil-Islam (London: Mu’assisat at-Turath ad-Druzi, 2004), 7, quoted in Raymond Ibrahim, Beware Islam’s Doctrine of Deception, PJ Media, September 24, 2015:


[55] Richardson, The Islamic Antichrist, 160.

[56] Lambert Dolphin, (accessed 7/25/2018).

[57] adapted from Richardson, Islamic Antichrist, 203-209.

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