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Frank Turek, the late John Stott, and others have driven off the path of evangelical hermeneutics into a Jurassic Park movie and they are not alone. My goodness. This is not inferencing, it isn’t even speculation, it is pure fantasy.
Satan did not rebel until the creation of Adam, and there were no other angels rebelling with him at that time. So, no one was destroyed, spirit creature or human, and there was no death prior to Adam. Turek also misinterprets Romans 5:12.
Romans 5:12 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
12 Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned,
Romans 5:12 says that “through one man sin entered into the world,” which Paul tells us is Adam in verse 14. Roman 6:23 tells us that “the wages of sin is death.” So, if there was no sin prior to Adam, there was no death prior to Adam. Matthew 1:1-7 and Luke 3:23-38 give us the genealogy of Jesus Christ from Jesus back to Adam, nothing more.
PRE-ADAMITES (e.g., R. A. Torrey, Gleason L. Archer Jr., John Stott, Hugh Ross)
The pre-Adamite hypothesis or pre-Adamism is the theological belief that humans (or intelligent yet non-human creatures) existed before the biblical character Adam. Pre-Adamism is therefore distinct from the conventional Abrahamic belief that Adam was the first human. Advocates of this hypothesis are known as “pre-Adamites”, along with the humans who they believe existed before Adam.
If you are not interested in this brief introduction on how Pre-Adamism developed as a false doctrine, simply scroll down to the modern-day section.
Early Development of Pre-Adamism
The first known debate about human antiquity took place in 170 AD between a Christian, Theophilus of Antioch, and an Egyptian pagan, Apollonius the Egyptian (probably Apollonius Dyscolus), who argued that the world was 153,075 years old.
An early challenge to biblical Adamism came from the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate, who, upon his rejection of Christianity and his return to paganism, accepted the idea that many pairs of original people had been created, a belief termed co-Adamism or multiple Adamism.
St. Augustine’s The City of God contains two chapters indicating a debate between Christians and pagans over human origins: Book XII, chapter 10 is titled Of the falseness of the history that the world hath continued many thousand years and the title of book XVIII, chapter 40 is The Egyptians’ abominable lyings, to claim their wisdom the age of 100,000 years. These titles tend to indicate that Augustine saw pagan ideas concerning both the history of the world and the chronology of the human race as incompatible with the Genesis creation narrative. Augustine’s explanation aligned with most rabbis and with the church fathers, who generally dismissed views on the antiquity of the world as myths and fables, whereas Jewish and Christian claims were based on revealed truth.
Augustine did take a critical view of the young earth narrative in some aspects, arguing that everything in the universe had been created simultaneously by God, and not seven literal days. He was primarily concerned with arguing against the idea of humanity having existed eternally rather than a Bible-based chronology of human history.
In early Islam, a common belief held that mankind is actually the successor of other intelligent creatures such as Jinn and Hinn. Medieval Muslim traditions referred to the Jinn as pre-Adamites, depicted as human-like in various ways. Although the notion of Jinn as pre-Adamites was generally accepted, the idea that other humans lived before the known Adam was controversial. From the mid-ninth century onward, the idea appeared that God created several Adams, each of whom presides over an era lasting around 50,000 years. This concept was regarded as heretical but was widely accepted by Ismailis and Sufis.
A book titled Nabatean Agriculture, written or translated by Ibn Wahshiyya in 904, collated texts about the activities and beliefs of Arabic groups such as the Nabataeans, in defense of Babylonian culture against Islam. The book discussed the ideas that people lived before Adam, that he had parents, and that he came from India. It proposed that Adam was the father of an agricultural civilization, rather than the father of the entire human race.
The Jewish poet Yehuda Halevi wrote his Kitab al Khazari between 1130 and 1140, featuring a discussion where the King of the Khazars questioned three theologians (a Jewish rabbi, a Christian, and a Muslim) which was the true religion, and raised the challenge that people in India said they had buildings and antiquities which were millions of years old. The rabbi responded that his faith was unshaken, as the Indians lacked “a fixed form of religion, or a book concerning which a multitude of people held the same opinion, and in which no historical discrepancy could be found.” The rabbi dismissed Indians as dissolute, unreliable people; whose claims could be ignored. Later in the book, Halevi rejected the Nabatean claims as these people did not know of the revelation in Scripture, and he dismissed Greek theories of an eternal world. In his conclusion, Halevi maintained that Adam was the first human in this world but left open other possibilities: “If, after all, a believer in the Law finds himself compelled to admit an eternal matter and the existence of many worlds prior to this one, this would not impair his belief that this world was created at a certain epoch, and that Adam and Noah were the first human beings.”
The claims in Nabatean Agriculture were also disputed by Maimonides (1135–1204) in The Guide for the Perplexed. He attributed the concepts to the Sabians and said they were just legends and mythology which deviated from monotheism though drawing on Jewish sources, but in refuting the speculations, he circulated an outline of the ideas among other scholars: “They deem Adam to have been an individual born of male and female like any other human individuals, but they glorify him and say that he was a prophet, the envoy of the moon, who called people to worship the moon. and there are compilations of his on how to cultivate the soil.” He noted the claim that Adam came from India and went on to Babylon.
The presence of a belief in the existence of men before Adam among the Familists, a religious community in Friesland, was noted by John Rogers in 1578.
In 1591, Giordano Bruno argued that, because no one could imagine that the Jews and the Ethiopians had the same ancestry, God must have either created separate Adams or that Africans were the descendants of pre-Adamic races.
The 17th-century French millenarian Isaac La Peyrère is usually credited with formulating the pre-Adamite theory because of his influence on subsequent thinkers and movements. In his Prae-Adamitae, published in Latin in 1655, La Peyrère argued that Paul’s words in Romans 5:12-14 should be interpreted to mean that “if Adam sinned in a morally meaningful sense there must have been an Adamic law according to which he sinned. If law began with Adam, there must have been a lawless world before Adam, containing people.” Thus, according to La Peyrère, there must have been two creations; first the creation of the Gentiles and then the creation of Adam, who was the father of the Hebrews. The existence of pre-Adamites, La Peyrère argued, explained Cain’s taking of a wife and the building of a city after Abel’s murder in the Book of Genesis.
Lazslo Toth writing in Politica Hermetica states that “racial theory has as its official birthdate 24 April 1684,” when François Bernier distinguished four or five races in an article titled A new division of the Earth, according to the different species or races of men who inhabit it published in the Journal des sçavans. Because of widespread theological opposition to the pre-Adamite theories of his friend La Peyrère, Bernier published his paper anonymously.
Age of Enlightenment
During the Age of Enlightenment, pre-Adamism was adopted widely as a challenge to the biblical account of human origins. In the 19th century, the idea was welcomed by advocates of white superiority. A number of racist interpretive frameworks involving the early chapters of Genesis arose from pre-Adamism. Some pre-Adamite theorists held the view that Cain left his family for an inferior tribe described variously as “nonwhite Mongols” or that Cain took a wife from one of the inferior pre-Adamic peoples.
In 19th-century Europe, pre-Adamism was attractive to those intent on demonstrating the inferiority of non-Western peoples, and in the United States, it appealed to those attuned to racial theories who found it unattractive to contemplate a common history with non-whites.
Scientists such as Charles Caldwell, Josiah C. Nott, and Samuel G. Morton rejected the view that non-whites were the descendants of Adam. Morton combined pre-Adamism with cranial measurements. As Michael Barkun explains:
“In such an intellectual atmosphere, pre-Adamism appeared in two different but not wholly incompatible forms. Religious writers continued to be attracted to the theory both because it appeared to solve certain exegetical problems (where did Cain’s wife come from?) and exalted the spiritual status of Adam’s descendants. Those of a scientific bent found it equally attractive but for different reasons, connected with a desire to formulate theories of racial difference that retained a place for Adam while accepting evidence that many cultures were far older than the few thousand years that humanity had existed, according to the biblical chronology. The two varieties differed primarily in the evidence they used, the one relying principally on scriptural texts and the latter on what passed at the time for physical anthropology.”
In 1860, Isabella Duncan wrote Pre-Adamite Man, Or, The Story of Our Old Planet and Its Inhabitants, Told by Scripture & Science, a mixture of geology and scriptural interpretation. The book was popular among a number of geologists because it mixed biblical events with science. She suggested that the pre-Adamites are today’s angels. Since they were without sin, for sin did not enter the world until Adam disobeyed God, there was no reason for them not to have been at least raptured into heaven, anticipating what would again occur with the second coming of Jesus Christ. Duncan also believed that some angels had sinned and fallen from Heaven, which caused them to become demons. Duncan supposed that such an upheaval would leave geological scars on the earth. The concept of ice ages, pioneered by Louis Agassiz, seemed to provide evidence of such events, drawing the line between the pre-Adamic era and the modern one, which she posited began about 6,000 years ago.
Buckner H. Payne, writing under the pen name Ariel, published a pamphlet in 1867 entitled The Negro: What is His Ethnological Status? He insisted that all the sons of Noah had been white. This created a problem then regarding non-white races if the Flood had been universal and the only survivors were white. Payne’s solution was to suggest that the Negro is a pre-Adamic beast of the field (specifically, a higher order of monkey), which was preserved on Noah’s Ark. According to Payne, they were a separate species without immortal souls.
The Irish lawyer Dominick McCausland, a Biblical literalist and anti-Darwinian polemicist, maintained the theory to uphold the Mosaic timescale. He held that the Chinese were descended from Cain and that the “Caucasian” race would eventually exterminate all others. He maintained that only the “Caucasian” descendants of Adam were capable of creating civilization, and he tried to explain away the numerous non-“Caucasian” civilizations by attributing them all to a vanished “Caucasian” race, the Hamites.
A. Lester Hoyle wrote a book in 1875, The Pre-Adamite, or who tempted Eve? He claimed that there had been five distinct creations of races, and only the fifth, the white race, of which Adam was the father, had been made in God’s own image and likeness. Hoyle further suggested that Cain was the “mongrel offspring” of Eve’s being seduced by “an enticing Mongolian” with whom she had repeated trysts, thus laying the foundation for the white supremacist bio-theology that miscegenation was “an abomination.”
In an unusual blend of contemporary evolutionary thinking and pre-Adamism, the Vanderbilt University theistic evolutionist and geologist Alexander Winchell argued in his 1878 tract, Adamites and Preadamites, for the pre-Adamic origins of the human race, on the basis that the Negroes were too racially inferior to have developed from the Biblical Adam. Winchell also believed that the laws of evolution operated according to the will of God.
In 1891, William Campbell, under the pen name “Caucasian”, wrote in Anthropology for the People: A Refutation of the Theory of the Adamic Origin of All Races that the non-white peoples were not descendants of Adam and therefore “not brothers in any proper sense of the term, but inferior creations” and that polygenism was the “only theory reconcilable with scripture.” Like Payne before him, Campbell viewed the Great Flood as a consequence of intermarriage between the white (Adamic) and nonwhite (pre-Adamic) peoples “the only union we can think of that is reasonable and sufficient to account for the corruption of the world and the consequent judgement.”
In 1900, Charles Carroll wrote the first of his two books on pre-Adamism, The Negro a Beast; or, In the Image of God in which he sought to revive the ideas previously presented by Buckner H. Payne, describing the Negro as a literal ape rather than human. In a second book published in 1902, The Tempter of Eve, he put forth the idea that the serpent was actually a black female, and that miscegenation was the greatest of all sins. Carroll claimed that the pre-Adamite races, such as blacks, did not have souls. He believed that race mixing was an insult to God and spoiled God’s racial plan of creation, and that the mixing of races had led to the errors of atheism and evolution.
The Scottish millennialist George Dickison wrote The Mosaic Account of Creation, As Unfolded in Genesis, Verified by Science in 1902. The book mixed science with a scientifically enhanced reading of Genesis and lists geological discoveries that showed that men existed before Adam had been created and that Earth was much older than the 6000-year-old span of the Adamic race. Dickison welcomed scientific discoveries from fossil evidence and the palaontological record and used them as evidence for pre-Adamism.
The doctrine known as British Israelism, which developed in England in the 19th century, also sometimes included a pre-Adamic worldview but that was a minority position. The model viewed pre-Adamites as a race of inferior bestial creatures apart from Adam, who was the first white man and consequently the first son of God. In the narrative, Satan seduces Eve, and the resulting offspring is a hybrid creature, Cain. Later, Cain flees to East Turkestan to establish a colony of followers intent on realizing the Devil’s plan for domination of the earth. A further elaboration of this myth involved the identification of the Jews with the Canaanites, the putative descendants of Cain, but the eponymous ancestor of the Canaanites is not Cain but Canaan. It followed that if the tribes of Judah were supposed to have intermarried with Cain’s descendants, the Jews were both the offspring of Satan and the descendants of sundry nonwhite pre-Adamic races.
In the United States, philo-Semitic British Israelism developed into the anti-Semitic Christian Identity movement and the serpent seed doctrine. Identity preacher Conrad Gaard wrote that the serpent was a “beast of the field,” was the father of Cain, and since Cain married a pre-Adamite, his descendants were a “mongrel, hybrid race.”
Are Blacks Cursed by God?
For a full explanation, see the linked article below. What is this Biblical curse? Are the black people that we see today the result of some curse on their ancestors by God? And is the centuries of slavery a fulfillment of that supposed curse by God? What does the Bible say? It reads:
Genesis 9:18-29 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
Prophecies about Descendants of Noah
18 The sons of Noah who went forth from the ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. (Ham was the father of Canaan.) 19 These three were the sons of Noah, and from these the whole earth was scattered.
20 Noah began to be a man of the soil, and he planted a vineyard. 21 He drank of the wine and became drunk, and uncovered himself inside his tent. 22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father and told his two brothers outside. 23 Then Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it on both their shoulders and walked backward and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were turned backward, and they did not see their father’s nakedness. 24 When Noah awoke from his wine, he knew what his youngest son had done to him. 25 And he said,
“Cursed be Canaan;
a slave of slaves shall he be to his brothers.”
26 He also said,
“Blessed be Jehovah, the God of Shem;
and let Canaan be his slave.
27 “May God enlarge Japheth,
and let him dwell in the tents of Shem;
and let Canaan be his slave.”
28 Noah lived three hundred and fifty years after the flood. 29 And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years, and he died.
We notice that there is nothing said here about anyone being cursed by being given a black skin. Also, we note that it is Canaan that is cursed not Ham. Again, for greater detail see the article linked below. Canaan did not have black skin, so his descendants did not have black either. The Canaanites were the descendants of Canaan who settled in what would become known as Palestine. (Gen. 10:15-19) In time, the Canaanites were defeated and enslaved by the Israelites, descendants of Shem, and later by Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome, which were descendants of Japheth. This oppression that the Canaanites went through fulfilled the prophetic curse on their ancestor Canaan. However, the curse had absolutely nothing to do with some black race because they were not black. It had to do with their wicked worship of false gods and extreme child sacrifice to those gods.
500 years after Christianity got its start 1,500 years ago, maybe even going back before Jesus Christ’s life on earth, Jewish rabbis taught a story about the rise of black skin. The Encyclopædia Judaica claims: “Ham’s descendant (Cush) is black skinned as a punishment for Ham’s having had sexual intercourse in the ark.” (Sanh. 108b) Sadly, these kinds of stories have been around all through history and into modern times as well. Nathan Lord, president of Dartmouth College also associated Noah’s curse upon Canaan partly to Ham’s “forbidden intermarriage with the previously wicked and accursed race of Cain.”
The reality is, these teachings are not found in God’s Word. So much great harm has been done by a handful of racists who have latched onto ancient stories that were misinterpretations of the Scriptures by churchmen of this Biblical curse! The slavery of the blacks from Africa, and their abuse since the days of slavery, is not in any way shape, or form justified by God’s Word. The truth is this, black people are not, and have never been, cursed by God!
The occultist Paschal Beverly Randolph published Pre-Adamite Man: Demonstrating The Existence of the Human Race Upon the Earth 100,000 Thousand Years Ago! under the name Griffin Lee in 1863. The book took a primarily scientific view of pre-Adamism, relying on evidence from linguistics, anthropology, archaeology, paleontology, and ancient history. Being a polygenist, Randolph argued that the color of races, particularly black, was not the result of climate and was proof of separate, pre-Adamite origins.
Pre-Adamite theories have also been held by a number of mainstream Christians such as the Congregational evangelist R. A. Torrey (1856–1928), who believed in the Gap Theory. Torrey believed it was possible to accept both evolution and biblical infallibility, with the pre-Adamite as the bridge between religion and science.
Gleason Archer, Jr. was a believer in pre-Adamism. In his 1985 book A Survey of Old Testament Introduction he wrote,
“To revert to the problem of the Pithecanthropus, the Swanscombe man, the Neanderthal and all the rest (possibly even the Cro-magnon man, who is apparently to be classed as Homo sapiens, but whose remains seem to date back at least to 20,000 B.C.) it seems best to regard these races as all prior to Adam’s time, and not involved in the Adamic covenant. We must leave the question open, in view of the cultural remains, whether these pre-Adamic creatures had souls (or, to use the trichotomic terminology, spirits).”
Archer asserted that only Adam and his descendants were infused with the breath of God and a spiritual nature corresponding to God himself, and that all mankind subsequent to Adam’s time must have been literally descended from him. Regarding the concept of pre-Adamic races (such as the Cro-Magnon man), he says: “They may have been exterminated by God for unknown reasons prior to the creation of the original parent of the present human race.”
More recently, such ideas have been promoted by Kathryn Kuhlman and Derek Prince among Pentecostals, John Stott among Anglicans, and Old Earth creationist Hugh Ross
Hugh Ross teaches something similar when he says that “bipedal, tool-using, large-brained primates roamed Earth for hundreds of thousands (perhaps a million) years.”
John R.W. Stott writes: “[M]y acceptance of Adam and Eve as historical is not incompatible with my belief that several forms of pre-Adamic ‘hominid’ seem to have existed for thousands of years previously. … It is conceivable that God created Adam out of one of them. … I think you may even call some of them Homo sapiens … .”
In their attempt to harmonize science and the Bible, some Christians, have turned to Pre-Adamism. However, what Stott, Ross, Turek, Archer, and others have done is add to God’s Word what was never there, that is, Pre-Adamism. The apostle John informs us in the book of Revelation, “I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: if anyone adds to them, God will add to him the plagues which are written in this book; and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his part from the tree of life and out of the holy city, which are written in this book.” (Rev. 22:18-19) Moses, the author of Genesis says the same, “You shall not add to the word which I am commanding you, nor take away from it, that you may keep the commandments of Jehovah your God which I command you.” “Everything that I command you, you shall be careful to do. You shall not add to it or take from it.” (Deut. 4:2; 13:32) They have also rejected Genesis 2:7, “Then Jehovah God formed man of the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.” And this is the very dust that Adam would return to after God had sentenced man to death. “And out of the ground Jehovah God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the heavens; and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man called every living soul, that was its name.” (Gen 3:19)
In addition, it is in opposition to what God tells us about the creation of Eve as well. “So Jehovah God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then he took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh at that place.” (Gen. 2:21) Notice that Eve was made from Adam’s rib, not some pre-existing humans. The account also states of Eve, “Now the man called his wife’s name Eve, because she was the mother of all living.” What we find happening is when a supposed Evangelical cannot accept the plain reading of one part of Scripture, they tend to start the pattern of rejecting other parts as well, like the Genesis earth-wide flood. On this, John Stott writes: “The flood seems to have been a comparatively local—though widespread—disaster.”
Russell Grigg writes, “Christian creationist anthropologist Marvin Lubenow describes the evidence of a sin nature in the (allegedly pre-Adamic) human fossil record, including examples of cannibalism, and injury due to violence, scalping and disease, including syphilis. He writes: ‘Most pre-Adamite and old-Earth advocates seem to be unfamiliar with the extent of this human fossil evidence and may not realize the full significance of what they are proposing when they place the bulk of the human fossils prior to the Fall of the Biblical Adam. … The human fossil record reveals the pre-Adamite theory to be in error. … We find in [the human fossils] the conditions we would expect to find after the Fall of Adam, not before’”
What Does the Bible Really Say?
There is not one Scripture in the Bible from genesis 1 to Revelation 22 that says anything about death before Adam and Eve, about the existence of some pre-Adamite humans. These Christians are simply going beyond the Scriptures and adding to the Scriptures, reinterpreting the inspired, fully inerrant Word of God. They are reading their progressive, liberal atheistic interpretations into the Scriptures. They are simply turning to Pre-Adamism in order to have a response to the evolutionists. Also, the new earth, created in a literal 24 hour day believes that anyone who holds to an old earth view (creation days) are in the same camp with this Pre-Adamism view and this simply is not true. More on that in a moment.
Genesis 1:1 BDC: Is the earth only 6,000 to 10,000 years old? Are the creative days literally, only 24 hours long?
Has anyone ever noticed when science and the Bible are at odds with each other, it is automatically assumed that the Bible is wrong, and science is right? Liberal and moderate Bible scholars will look for natural ways for the Bible to agree with science. Yet, when science grows over the years, it discovers that the Bible was right all along. Scientists and liberal scholars bury their heads in the sand as though science did not end up being wrong, while the Bible had been right for thousands of years.
Scripture, again, in the book of Genesis, tells us man was started, “And God went on to say, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” (Gen 1:26) It goes on to tell us more specifically, “Then Jehovah God formed man of the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.” (Gen 2:7) We are specifically told, “Now no bush of the field was yet in the land and no small plant of the field had yet sprung up, for Jehovah God had not caused it to rain on the land, and there was no man to work the ground.” (Gen. 2:5) And we are told, “And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the birds of the heavens, and to every beast of the field; but for man there was found no helper as a counterpart of him.” (Gen. 2:20) According to Genesis 3:20, “Now the man called his wife’s name Eve, because she was the mother of all living.” All Scripture throughout the rest of the Bible knows no other humans before Adam. To say otherwise, is to add to the Scriptures, is to go beyond the Scriptures, is to read into the Scriptures.
by Edward D. Andrews and Wikipedia
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 Popkin, Richard Henry (1987). Isaac La Peyrère (1596-1676): His Life, Work, and Influence. BRILL, 26.
 Livingstone, David N. (2011). Adam’s ancestors : race, religion, and the politics of human origins. JHU Press, 6.
Popkin, Richard Henry (1987). Isaac La Peyrère (1596-1676): His Life, Work, and Influence. BRILL, 27-28, 125
 Popkin, Richard Henry (1987). Isaac La Peyrère (1596-1676): His Life, Work, and Influence. BRILL, 27.
 Young, David A. (1988). “The Contemporary Relevance of Augustine”. Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith. American Scientific Affiliation. 40 (1): 42–45.
 El-Zein, Amira (2009). Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn. Syracuse University Press, 39.
 Crone, Patricia (2016). Islam, the Ancient Near East and Varieties of Godlessness: Collected Studies in Three Volumes, Volume 3. Brill, 230-232.
 Popkin, Richard Henry (1987). Isaac La Peyrère (1596-1676): His Life, Work, and Influence. BRILL, 28.
 Livingstone, David N. (2011). Adam’s ancestors : race, religion, and the politics of human origins. JHU Press, 7.
 Popkin, Richard Henry (1987). Isaac La Peyrère (1596-1676): His Life, Work, and Influence. BRILL, 27-28.
 Livingstone, David N. (2011). Adam’s ancestors : race, religion, and the politics of human origins. JHU Press. 7-8.
 IBID, 29-30.
 Almond, Philip C. (2008). Adam and Eve in Seventeenth-Century Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 51.
 Graves, Joseph L. (2003). The Emperor’s New Clothes: Biological Theories of Race at the Millennium. Newark, NJ, 25-26.
 Almond, Philip C. (2008). Adam and Eve in Seventeenth-Century Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 53.
 Barkun, Michael (2014). Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. UNC Press, 152.
 Popkin, Richard Henry (1987). Isaac La Peyrère (1596-1676): His Life, Work, and Influence. BRILL, 43.
 Smith, David (2008). Flood, Gavin (ed.). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Wiley, 52-53.
Jaffrelot, Christophe (2010). Religion, Caste, and Politics in India. Primus Books. p. 124.
 Barkun, Michael (2014). Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. UNC Press, 154.
 Barkun, Michael (2014). Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. UNC Press, 153.
 Livingstone, David N. (2011). Adam’s ancestors : race, religion, and the politics of human origins. JHU Press, 90.
 Duncan, Isabella (1860). Pre-Adamite Man, Or, The Story of Our Old Planet and Its Inhabitants, Told by Scripture & Science. London: Saunders, Otley, and Co. (Originally published anonymously, but known subsequently that the author was the wife of George John C. Duncan, the son of Henry Duncan.)
Gould, Stephen Jay (2011). I Have Landed. Harvard University Press, 142-144.
 Kidd, Colin (2006). The Forging of Races: Race and Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World, 1600 – 2000. Cambridge University Press, 149.
 Maume, Patrick (2011). “Dominick McCausland and Adam’s Ancestors: an Irish Evangelical responds to the Scientific Challenge to Biblical Inerrancy”. In Adelman, Juliana; Agnew, Eadaoin (eds.). Science and Technology in Nineteenth Century Ireland. Dublin: Four Courts Press.
 Kidd, Colin (2006). The Forging of Races: Race and Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World, 1600 – 2000. Cambridge University Press, 150.
 Livingstone, David N. (2011). Adam’s ancestors : race, religion, and the politics of human origins. JHU Press, 197.
 Smith, Christian (2003). The Secular Revolution. University of California Press.
 Harvey, Paul (2005). Freedom’s Coming: Religious Culture and the Shaping of the South from the Civil War through the Civil Rights Era. UNC Press, 43.
 Kim, Claire Jean (2015). Dangerous Crossings: Race, Species, and Nature in a Multicultural Age. Cambridge University Press.
 Fredrickson, George M. (1987). The Black Image in the White Mind, the Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817–1914, 277.
 Kidd, Colin (2006). The Forging of Races: Race and Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World, 1600 – 2000. Cambridge University Press, 150.
 Barkun, Michael (2014). Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. UNC Press, 165-166.
 Barkun, Michael (2014). Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. UNC Press, 150-172.
 Barkun, Michael (2014). Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. UNC Press, 177.178
 Livingstone, David N. (2011). Adam’s ancestors : race, religion, and the politics of human origins. JHU Press, 110-111.
 IBID, 202.
 Archer, Gleason Jr. (1985). A Survey of Old Testament Introduction, Revised edition. Chicago: Moody Press, 204.
 IBID. 20.
 Ross, H., The Genesis Question, NavPress, Colorado, p. 55, 1998. See Exposé of The Genesis Question, J. Creation 13(2):22–30, 1999.
 Stott, J., Understanding the Bible, Scripture Union Publishing, Sydney, Revised Edition, p.49, 1984.
 Ref. 7, p. 50. Just why Noah would spend a hundred years building a monster ship instead of simply migrating to far-distant higher ground is usually not explained. Ross speculates that God commanded Noah to build the Ark because he needed a pulpit(!), but no other prophet needed an ocean-liner-sized pulpit, and the Bible explicitly states that the Ark was to save eight humans and representative animals. Nor is it clear why any animals would have been needed aboard, as there would have been lots of others living elsewhere to reproduce after their kind, and birds could easily have flown to safety—if the Flood had been local. See Noah’s Flood covered the whole Earth, Creation 21(3):49, 1999;
 Lubenow, M. L., Pre-Adamites, Sin, Death and the Human Fossils, J. Creation 12(2):230, 1998; creation.com/pre-adamites.