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1 ΠαῦλοςPaul ἀπόστολοςapostle Χριστοῦof Christ ἸησοῦJesus διὰthrough θελήματοςwill θεοῦof God κατ’according to ἐπαγγελίανpromise ζωῆςof life τῆςthe ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist ἸησοῦJesus 2 Τιμοθέῳto Timothy ἀγαπητῷloved τέκνῳ·child;

χάρις,grace, ἔλεος,mercy, εἰρήνηpeace ἀπὸfrom θεοῦGod πατρὸςFather καὶand Χριστοῦof Christ ἸησοῦJesus τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶν.of us.

3 ΧάρινThanks ἔχωI am having τῷto the θεῷ,God, to whom λατρεύωI am rendering sacred service ἀπὸfrom προγόνωνprogenitors ἐνin καθαρᾷclean συνειδήσει,conscience, ὡςas ἀδιάλειπτονunceasing ἔχωI am having τὴνthe περὶabout σοῦyou μνείανremembrance ἐνin ταῖςthe δεήσεσίνsupplications μου,of me, νυκτὸςof night καὶand ἡμέραςof day 4 ἐπιποθῶνlonging σεyou ἰδεῖν,to see, μεμνημένοςhaving been reminded σουof you τῶνof the δακρύων,tears, ἵναin order that χαρᾶςof joy πληρωθῶI might be filled 5 ὑπόμνησινunder-reminder λαβὼνhaving taken τῆςof the ἐνin σοὶyou ἀνυποκρίτουunhypocritical πίστεως,faith, ἥτιςwhich ἐνῴκησενdwelt in πρῶτονfirst ἐνin τῇthe μάμμῃgrandmother σουof you ΛωίδιLois καὶand τῇto the μητρίmother σουof you Εὐνίκῃ,Eunice, πέπεισμαιI have been confident δὲbut ὅτιthat καὶalso ἐνin σοί.you.

6 δι’Through ἣνwhich αἰτίανcause ἀναμιμνήσκωI am reminding up σεyou ἀναζωπυρεῖνto be making live (as) fire again τὸthe χάρισμαgracious gift τοῦof the θεοῦ,God, which ἐστινis ἐνin σοὶyou διὰthrough τῆςthe ἐπιθέσεωςputting upon τῶνof the χειρῶνhands μου·of me; 7 οὐnot γὰρfor ἔδωκενgave ἡμῖνto us the θεὸςGod πνεῦμαspirit δειλίας,of cowardice, ἀλλὰbut δυνάμεωςof power καὶand ἀγάπηςof love καὶand σωφρονισμοῦ.of soundness of mind. 8 μὴNot οὖνtherefore ἐπαισχυνθῇςshould you be made ashamed upon τὸthe μαρτύριονwitness τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us μηδὲnor ἐμὲme τὸνthe δέσμιονbound one αὐτοῦ,of him, ἀλλὰbut συνκακοπάθησονsuffer bad with τῷto the εὐαγγελίῳgood news κατὰaccording to δύναμινpower θεοῦ,of God, 9 τοῦof the (one) σώσαντοςhaving saved ἡμᾶςus καὶand καλέσαντοςhaving called κλήσειto calling ἁγίᾳ,holy, οὐnot κατὰaccording to τὰthe ἔργαworks ἡμῶνof us ἀλλὰbut κατὰaccording to ἰδίανown πρόθεσινpurpose καὶand χάριν,grace, τὴνthe (one) δοθεῖσανhaving been given ἡμῖνto us ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist ἸησοῦJesus πρὸbefore χρόνωνtimes αἰωνίων,everlasting, 10 φανερωθεῖσαν[it] having been manifested δὲbut νῦνnow διὰthrough τῆςthe ἐπιφανείαςmanifestation τοῦof the σωτῆροςSavior ἡμῶνof us Χριστοῦof Christ Ἰησοῦ,Jesus, καταργήσαντοςhaving made ineffective μὲνindeed τὸνthe θάνατονdeath φωτίσαντοςhaving turned light on δὲbut ζωὴνlife καὶand ἀφθαρσίανincorruption διὰthrough τοῦthe εὐαγγελίου,good news,11 εἰςinto which ἐτέθηνwas put ἐγὼI κῆρυξpreacher καὶand ἀπόστολοςapostle καὶand διδάσκαλος.teacher.

12 δι’Through ἣνwhich αἰτίανcause καὶalso ταῦταthese (things) πάσχω,I am suffering, ἀλλ’but οὐκnot ἐπαισχύνομαι,I am made ashamed upon, οἶδαI have known γὰρfor to whom πεπίστευκα,I have believed, καὶand πέπεισμαιI have been persuaded ὅτιthat δυνατόςable ἐστινhe is τὴνthe παραθήκηνwhat is put alongside μουof me φυλάξαιto guard εἰςinto ἐκείνηνthat τὴνthe ἡμέραν.day. 13 ὑποτύπωσινUnder-type ἔχεbe you having ὑγιαινόντωνof (ones) being healthful λόγωνwords ὧνof which παρ’beside ἐμοῦof me ἤκουσαςyou heard ἐνin πίστειfaith καὶand ἀγάπῃlove τῇthe (one) ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist Ἰησοῦ·Jesus; 14 τὴνthe καλὴνfine παραθήκηνwhat is put alongside φύλαξονguard you διὰthrough πνεύματοςspirit ἁγίουholy τοῦthe ἐνοικοῦντοςdwelling within ἐνin ἡμῖν.us.

15 ΟἶδαςYou have known τοῦτοthis ὅτιthat ἀπεστράφησάνthey were turned away from μεme πάντεςall οἱthe (ones) ἐνin τῇthe ᾿Ασίᾳ,Asia, ὧνof whom ἐστὶνis ΦύγελοςPhygelus καὶand Ἑρμογένης.Hermogenes. 16 δῴηMay he give ἔλεοςmercy the κύριοςLord τῷto the Ὀνησιφόρουof Onesiphorus οἴκῳ,to household, ὅτιbecause πολλάκιςmany times μεme ἀνέψυξεν,he cooled again, καὶand τὴνthe ἅλυσίνchain μουof me οὐκnot ἐπαισχύνθη·he was made ashamed upon; 17 ἀλλὰbut γενόμενοςhaving come to be ἐνin ῬώμῃRome σπουδαίωςspeedily ἐζήτησένhe sought μεme καὶand εὗρεν·—he found;— 18 δῴηmay he give αὐτῷto him the κύριοςLord εὑρεῖνto find ἔλεοςmercy παρὰbeside κυρίουof Lord ἐνin ἐκείνῃthat τῇthe ἡμέρᾳ·—day;— καὶand ὅσαhow many (things) ἐνin ᾿ΕφέσῳEphesus διηκόνησεν,he served, βέλτιονbetter σὺyou γινώσκεις.are knowing.


1 ΣὺYou οὖν,therefore, τέκνονchild μου,of me, ἐνδυναμοῦbe being empowered ἐνin τῇthe χάριτιgrace τῇthe ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist Ἰησοῦ,Jesus, 2 καὶand what (things) ἤκουσαςyou heard παρ’beside ἐμοῦof me διὰthrough πολλῶνmany μαρτύρων,witnesses, ταῦταthese (things) παράθουgive you beside πιστοῖςto faithful ἀνθρώποις,men, οἵτινεςwho ἱκανοὶsufficient (ones) ἔσονταιwill be καὶalso ἑτέρουςdifferent (ones) διδάξαι.to teach. 3 συνκακοπάθησονSuffer you bad with ὡςas καλὸςfine στρατιώτηςsoldier Χριστοῦof Christ Ἰησοῦ.Jesus. 4 οὐδεὶςNo one στρατευόμενοςdoing military service ἐμπλέκεταιis involving himself ταῖςto the τοῦof the βίουliving πραγματίαις,things performed, ἵναin order that τῷto the (one) στρατολογήσαντιhaving enrolled as soldier ἀρέσῃ·he might please; 5 ἐὰνif ever δὲbut καὶalso ἀθλῇmay be acting as athlete τις,anyone,οὐnot στεφανοῦταιhe is being crowned ἐὰνif ever μὴnot νομίμωςlawfully ἀθλήσῃ·he should act as athlete; 6 τὸνthe κοπιῶνταlaboringγεωργὸνfarmer δεῖit is binding πρῶτονfirst τῶνof the καρπῶνfruits μεταλαμβάνειν.to be partaking. 7 νόειBe you seeing mentally what λέγω·I am saying; δώσειwill give γάρfor σοιto you the κύριοςLord σύνεσινcomprehension ἐνin πᾶσιν.all (things).

8 μνημόνευεBe you remembering ἸησοῦνJesus ΧριστὸνChrist ἐγηγερμένονhaving been raised up ἐκout of νεκρῶν,dead (ones), ἐκout of σπέρματοςseed Δαυείδ,of David, κατὰaccording to τὸthe εὐαγγέλιόνgood news μου·of me; 9 ἐνin which κακοπαθῶI am suffering bad μέχριuntil δεσμῶνbonds ὡςas κακοῦργος.worker of bad. ἀλλὰBut the λόγοςword τοῦof the θεοῦGod οὐnot δέδεται·has been bound; 10 διὰthrough τοῦτοthis πάνταall (things) ὑπομένωI am enduring διὰthrough τοὺςthe ἐκλεκτούς,chosen (ones), ἵναin order that καὶalso αὐτοὶthey σωτηρίαςof salvation τύχωσινthey might obtain τῆςof the (one) ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist ἸησοῦJesus μετὰwith δόξηςglory αἰωνίου.everlasting. 11 πιστὸςFaithful the λόγος·word; εἰif γὰρfor συναπεθάνομεν,we died together, καὶalso συνζήσομεν·we shall live together; 12 εἰif ὑπομένομεν,we are enduring, καὶalso συμβασιλεύσομεν·we shall reign together; εἰif ἀρνησόμεθα,we shall deny, κἀκεῖνοςalso that (one) ἀρνήσεταιwill deny ἡμᾶς·us; 13 εἰif ἀπιστοῦμεν,we are unfaithful, ἐκεῖνοςthat (one) πιστὸςfaithful μένει,is remaining, ἀρνήσασθαιto deny γὰρfor ἑαυτὸνhimself οὐnot δύναται.he is able.

14 ΤαῦταThese (things) ὑπομίμνησκε,be you reminding under, διαμαρτυρόμενοςbearing thorough witness ἐνώπιονin sight τοῦof the θεοῦ,God, μὴnot λογομαχεῖν,to be fighting about words, ἐπ’upon οὐδὲνnothing χρήσιμον,useful, ἐπὶupon καταστροφῇoverturning τῶνof the (ones) ἀκουόντων.hearing. 15 σπούδασονSpeed you up σεαυτὸνyourself δόκιμονapproved παραστῆσαιto put alongside τῷto the θεῷ,God, ἐργάτηνworkman ἀνεπαίσχυντον,unashamed, ὀρθοτομοῦνταstraightly cutting τὸνthe λόγονword τῆςof the ἀληθείας.truth. 16 τὰςThe δὲbut βεβήλουςprofane κενοφωνίαςempty voicings περιίστασο·be you standing around; ἐπὶupon πλεῖονmore γὰρfor προκόψουσινthey will strike before ἀσεβείας,of irreverence, 17 καὶand the λόγοςword αὐτῶνof them ὡςas γάγγραιναgangrene νομὴνpasture ἕξει·it will be having; ὧνof whom ἐστὶνis ὙμέναιοςHymenaeus καὶand Φίλητος,Philetus, 18 οἵτινεςwho περὶabout τὴνthe ἀλήθειανtruth ἠστόχησαν,they deviated, λέγοντεςsaying ἀνάστασινresurrection ἤδηalready γεγονέναι,to have occurred, καὶand ἀνατρέπουσινthey are turning up τήνthe τινωνof some (ones) πίστιν.faith. 19 The μέντοιindeed to you στερεὸςsolid θεμέλιοςfoundation τοῦof the θεοῦGod ἕστηκεν,has stood, ἔχωνhaving τὴνthe σφραγῖδαseal ταύτηνthis ἜγνωKnew ΚύριοςLord τοὺςthe (ones) ὄνταςbeing αὐτοῦ,of him, καίand ᾿ΑποστήτωLet stand off ἀπὸfrom ἀδικίαςunrighteousness πᾶςeveryone the (one) ὀνομάζωνnaming τὸthe ὄνομαname Κυρίου.of Lord.

20 ἐνIn μεγάλῃgreat δὲbut οἰκίᾳhouse οὐκnot ἔστινis μόνονonly σκεύηvessels χρυσᾶgolden καὶand ἀργυρᾶsilvery ἀλλὰbut καὶalso ξύλιναwooden καὶand ὀστράκινα,of baked clay, καὶand which (ones) μὲνindeed εἰςinto τιμὴνhonor which (ones)δὲbut εἰςinto ἀτιμίαν·dishonor; 21 ἐὰνif ever οὖνtherefore τιςanyone ἐκκαθάρῃshould clean out ἑαυτὸνhimself ἀπὸfrom τούτων,these (things), ἔσταιhe will be σκεῦοςvessel εἰςinto τιμήν,honor, ἡγιασμένον,having been sanctified, εὔχρηστονwell useful τῷto the δεσπότῃ,master, εἰςinto πᾶνevery ἔργονwork ἀγαθὸνgood ἡτοιμασμένον.having been prepared. 22 τὰςThe δὲbut νεωτερικὰςyouthful ἐπιθυμίαςdesires φεῦγε,be you fleeing, δίωκεbe you pursuing δὲbut δικαιοσύνην,righteousness, πίστιν,faith, ἀγάπην,love, εἰρήνηνpeace μετὰwith τῶνthe (ones) ἐπικαλουμένωνcalling on τὸνthe κύριονLord ἐκout of καθαρᾶςclean καρδίας.heart.

23 τὰςThe δὲbut μωρὰςfoolish καὶand ἀπαιδεύτουςuneducated ζητήσειςseekings παραιτοῦ,be asking off for yourself  , εἰδὼςhaving known ὅτιthat γεννῶσιthey are generating μάχας·fights; 24 δοῦλονslave δὲbut κυρίουof Lord οὐnot δεῖit is binding μάχεσθαι,to be fighting, ἀλλὰbut ἤπιονgentle εἶναιto be πρὸςtoward πάντας,all (ones), διδακτικόν,qualified to teach, ἀνεξίκακον,holding up under bad, 25 ἐνin πραΰτητιmildness παιδεύονταinstructing τοὺςthe (ones) ἀντιδιατιθεμένους,putting selves thoroughly against, μήnot ποτεsometime δῴηmay he give αὐτοῖςto them the θεὸςGod μετάνοιανrepentance εἰςinto ἐπίγνωσινaccurate knowledge ἀληθείας,of truth, 26 καὶand ἀνανήψωσινthey might sober up ἐκout of τῆςthe τοῦof the διαβόλουDevil παγίδος,snare, ἐζωγρημένοι(ones) having been caught alive ὑπ’by αὐτοῦhim εἰςinto τὸthe ἐκείνουof that (one) θέλημα.will.


1 ΤοῦτοThis δὲbut γίνωσκεbe you knowing ὅτιthat ἐνin ἐσχάταιςlast ἡμέραιςdays ἐνστήσονταιwill be standing in καιροὶappointed times χαλεποί·fierce; 2 ἔσονταιwill be γὰρfor οἱthe ἄνθρωποιmen φίλαυτοι,fond of selves, φιλάργυροι,fond of silver, ἀλαζόνες,self-assuming, ὑπερήφανοι,superior-appearing, βλάσφημοι,blasphemers, γονεῦσινto parents ἀπειθεῖς,disobedient,ἀχάριστοι,unthankful, ἀνόσιοι,disloyal, 3 ἄστοργοι,without natural affection, ἄσπονδοι,truceless, διάβολοι,devils, ἀκρατεῖς,without (self-)control, ἀνήμεροι,untamed, ἀφιλάγαθοι,not fond of goodness, 4 προδόται,betrayers, προπετεῖς,forward-falling, τετυφωμένοι,having been made to smoke up, φιλήδονοιfond of pleasures μᾶλλονrather than φιλόθεοι,fond of God, 5 ἔχοντεςhaving μόρφωσινform εὐσεβείαςof revering well τὴνthe δὲbut δύναμινpower αὐτῆςof it ἠρνημένοι·having denied; καὶand τούτουςthese ἀποτρέπου.be turning yourself away from. 6 ἐκOut of τούτωνthese γάρfor εἰσινare οἱthe (ones) ἐνδύνοντεςslipping εἰςinto τὰςthe οἰκίαςhouses καὶand αἰχμαλωτίζοντεςleading captive γυναικάριαlittle women σεσωρευμέναhaving been heaped up with ἁμαρτίαις,to sins, ἀγόμεναbeing led ἐπιθυμίαιςto desires ποικίλαις,various, 7 πάντοτεalways μανθάνονταlearning καὶand μηδέποτεnever εἰςinto ἐπίγνωσινaccurate knowledge ἀληθείαςof truth ἐλθεῖνto come δυνάμενα.being able.

8 ὃνWhat τρόπονmanner δὲbut ἸαννῆςJannes καὶand ἸαμβρῆςJambres ἀντέστησανstood against Μωυσεῖ,to Moses, οὕτωςthus καὶalso οὗτοιthese ἀνθίστανταιare standing against τῇto the ἀληθείᾳ,truth, ἄνθρωποιmen κατεφθαρμένοιhaving been corrupted down τὸνthe νοῦν,mind, ἀδόκιμοιdisapproved περὶabout τὴνthe πίστιν.faith. 9 ἀλλ’But οὐnot προκόψουσινwill they strike forward ἐπὶupon πλεῖον,more, the γὰρfor ἄνοιαmindlessness αὐτῶνof them ἔκδηλοςoutwardly evident ἔσταιwill be πᾶσιν,to all (ones), ὡςas καὶalso the ἐκείνωνof those ἐγένετο.became. 10 ΣὺYou δὲbut παρηκολούθησάςyou followed alongsideμουof me τῇto the διδασκαλίᾳ,teaching, τῇto the ἀγωγῇ,leading, τῇto the προθέσει,purpose, τῇto the πίστει,faith, τῇto the μακροθυμίᾳ,longness of spirit, τῇto the ἀγάπῃ,love, τῇto the ὑπομονῇ,endurance, 11 τοῖςto the διωγμοῖς,persecutions, τοῖςto the παθήμασιν,sufferings, οἷάof what sort μοιto me ἐγένετοit occurred ἐνin ᾿Αντιοχείᾳ,Antioch, ἐνin Ἰκονίῳ,Iconium, ἐνin Λύστροις,Lystra, οἵουςwhat sort of διωγμοὺςpersecutions ὑπήνεγκα·I bore under; καὶand ἐκout of πάντωνall (ones) μεme ἐρύσατοdrew for self the κύριος.Lord. 12 καὶAnd πάντεςall δὲbut οἱthe (ones) θέλοντεςwilling ζῇνto be living   εὐσεβῶςreverentially well ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist ἸησοῦJesus διωχθήσονται·they will be persecuted; 13 πονηροὶwicked δὲbut ἄνθρωποιmen καὶand γόητεςbewailers προκόψουσινwill strike forward ἐπὶupon τὸthe χεῖρον,worse, πλανῶντεςmaking err καὶand πλανώμενοι.being made to err.

14 σὺYou δὲbut μένεbe remaining ἐνin οἷςwhat (things) ἔμαθεςyou learned καὶand ἐπιστώθης,you were persuaded to believe, εἰδὼςhaving known παρὰbeside τίνωνof whom ἔμαθες,you learned, 15 καὶand ὅτιthat ἀπὸfrom βρέφουςinfant ἱερὰsacred γράμματαwritings οἶδας,you have known, τὰthe (ones) δυνάμενάbeing able σεyou σοφίσαιto make wise εἰςinto σωτηρίανsalvation διὰthrough πίστεωςfaith τῆςthe ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist Ἰησοῦ·Jesus; 16 πᾶσαall γραφὴScripture θεόπνευστοςGod-breathed καὶand ὠφέλιμοςbeneficial πρὸςtoward διδασκαλίαν,teaching, πρὸςtoward ἐλεγμόν,reproving, πρὸςtoward ἐπανόρθωσιν,straightening up upon, πρὸςtoward παιδείανdiscipline τὴνthe ἐνin δικαιοσύνῃ,righteousness, 17 ἵναin order that ἄρτιοςfit may be the τοῦof the θεοῦGod ἄνθρωπος,man, πρὸςtoward πᾶνevery ἔργονwork ἀγαθὸνgood ἐξηρτισμένος.having been fitted out.


1 ΔιαμαρτύρομαιI am bearing thorough witness ἐνώπιονin sight τοῦof the θεοῦGod καὶand Χριστοῦof Christ Ἰησοῦ,Jesus, τοῦof the (one) μέλλοντοςbeing about κρίνεινto be judging ζῶνταςliving (ones) καὶand νεκρούς,dead (ones), καὶand τὴνthe ἐπιφάνειανmanifestation αὐτοῦof him καὶand τὴνthe βασιλείανkingdom αὐτοῦ·of him; 2 κήρυξονpreach you τὸνthe λόγον,word, ἐπίστηθιbe you standing upon εὐκαίρωςwell-timedly ἀκαίρως,not timedly, ἔλεγξον,reprove you, ἐπιτίμησον,rebuke you, παρακάλεσον,encourage you, ἐνin πάσῃall μακροθυμίᾳlongness of spirit καὶand διδαχῇ.(art of) teaching. 3 ἔσταιWill be γὰρfor καιρὸςappointed time ὅτεwhen τῆςof the ὑγιαινούσης(one) being healthful διδασκαλίαςteaching οὐκnot ἀνέξονται,they will hold selves up, ἀλλὰbut κατὰaccording to τὰςthe ἰδίαςown ἐπιθυμίαςdesires ἑαυτοῖςto themselves ἐπισωρεύσουσινthey will heap upon διδασκάλουςteachers κνηθόμενοιbeing tickled τὴνthe ἀκοήν,hearing, 4 καὶand ἀπὸfrom μὲνindeed τῆςthe ἀληθείαςtruth τὴνthe ἀκοὴνhearing ἀποστρέψουσιν,they will turn away, ἐπὶupon δὲbut τοὺςthe μύθουςmyths ἐκτραπήσονται.they will be turned out. 5 σὺYou δὲbut νῆφεbe sober-minded ἐνin πᾶσιν,all (things), κακοπάθησον,suffer you bad, ἔργονwork ποίησονdo you εὐαγγελιστοῦ,of evangelizer, τὴνthe διακονίανservice σουof you πληροφόρησον.fully bear.

6 ᾿ΕγὼI γὰρfor ἤδηalready σπένδομαι,am being poured as drink offering, καὶand the καιρὸςappointed time τῆςof theἀναλύσεώςlosing up μουof me ἐφέστηκεν.has stood upon. 7 τὸνThe καλὸνfine ἀγῶναstruggle ἠγώνισμαι,I have struggled, τὸνthe δρόμονrunning τετέλεκα,I have ended, τὴνthe πίστινfaith τετήρηκα·I have observed; 8 λοιπὸνleftover (thing) ἀπόκειταίis lying down off μοιto me the τῆςof the δικαιοσύνηςrighteousness στέφανος,crown, ὃνwhich ἀποδώσειwill give back μοιto me the κύριοςLord ἐνin ἐκείνῃthat τῇthe ἡμέρᾳ,day, the δίκαιοςrighteous κριτής,judge, οὐnot μόνονonly δὲbut ἐμοὶto me ἀλλὰbut καὶalso πᾶσινto all τοῖςthe (ones) ἠγαπηκόσιhaving loved τὴνthe ἐπιφάνειανmanifestation αὐτοῦ.of him.

9 ΣπούδασονSpeed you up ἐλθεῖνto come πρόςtoward μεme ταχέως·quickly; 10 ΔημᾶςDemas γάρfor μεme ἐγκατέλιπενleft down in ἀγαπήσαςhaving loved τὸνthe νῦνnow αἰῶνα,age, καὶand ἐπορεύθηhe went his way εἰςinto Θεσσαλονίκην,Thessalonica, ΚρήσκηςCrescens εἰςinto Γαλατίαν,Galatia, ΤίτοςTitus εἰςinto Δαλματίαν·Dalmatia; 11 ΛουκᾶςLuke ἐστὶνis μόνοςalone μετ’with ἐμοῦ.me. ΜάρκονMark ἀναλαβὼνhaving taken up ἄγεbe leading μετὰwith σεαυτοῦ,yourself, ἔστινhe is γάρfor μοιto me εὔχρηστοςwell useful εἰςinto διακονίαν,service, 12 ΤύχικονTychicus δὲbut ἀπέστειλαI sent off εἰςinto Ἔφεσον.Ephesus. 13 τὸνThe φελόνην,cloak, ὃνWhich ἀπέλιπονI left off ἐνin ΤρῳάδιTroas παρὰbeside Κάρπῳ,Carpus, ἐρχόμενοςcoming φέρε,be you bearing, καὶand τὰthe βιβλία,little books, μάλισταmostly τὰςthe μεμβράνας.parchments.

14 ᾿ΑλέξανδροςAlexander the χαλκεὺςcoppersmith πολλάmany μοιto me κακὰbad (things) ἐνεδείξατο·—showed in;— ἀποδώσειwill give back αὐτῷto him the κύριοςLord κατὰaccording to τὰthe ἔργαworks αὐτοῦ·—of him;— 15 ὃνwhom καὶalso σὺyou φυλάσσου,be guarding self, λίανexcessively γὰρfor ἀντέστηhe stood against τοῖςto the ἡμετέροιςour λόγοις.words.

16 ᾿ΕνIn τῇthe πρώτῃfirst μουof me ἀπολογίᾳdefense οὐδείςno one μοιto me παρεγένετο,came to be beside, ἀλλὰbut πάντεςall μεme ἐγκατέλιπον·—they left down in;— μὴnot αὐτοῖςto them λογισθείη·—may it be reckoned;— 17 the δὲbut κύριόςLord μοιto me παρέστηstood beside καὶand ἐνεδυνάμωσένhe empowered με,me, ἵναin order that δι’through ἐμοῦme τὸthe κήρυγμαpreachingπληροφορηθῇmight be fully borne καὶand ἀκούσωσινmight hear πάνταall τὰthe ἔθνη,nations, καὶand ἐρύσθηνI was drawn ἐκout of στόματοςmouth λέοντος.of lion. 18 ῥύσεταίWill draw for self μεme the κύριοςLord ἀπὸfrom παντὸςevery ἔργουwork πονηροῦwicked καὶand σώσειhe will save εἰςinto τὴνthe βασιλείανkingdom αὐτοῦof him τὴνthe (one) ἐπουράνιον·heavenly; to whom the δόξαglory εἰςinto τοὺςthe αἰῶναςages τῶνof the αἰώνων,ages, ἀμήν.amen.

19 ἌσπασαιGreet you ΠρίσκανPrisca καὶand ᾿ΑκύλανAquila καὶand τὸνthe Ὀνησιφόρουof Onesiphorous οἶκον.household.

20 ἜραστοςErastus ἔμεινενremained ἐνin Κορίνθῳ,Corinth, ΤρόφιμονTrophimus δὲbut ἀπέλιπονI left off ἐνin ΜιλήτῳMiletus ἀσθενοῦντα.being sick. 21 ΣπούδασονSpeed up πρὸbefore χειμῶνοςwinter ἐλθεῖν.to come.

᾿ΑσπάζεταίIs greeting σεyou ΕὔβουλοςEubulus καὶand ΠούδηςPudens καὶand ΛίνοςLinus καὶand ΚλαυδίαClaudia καὶand οἱthe ἀδελφοὶbrothers πάντες.all.

22 The κύριοςLord μετὰwith τοῦthe πνεύματόςspirit σου.of you. The χάρις  grace μεθ’with ὑμῶν.you



1 ΠαῦλοςPaul δοῦλοςslave θεοῦ,of God, ἀπόστολοςapostle δὲbut Ἰησοῦof Jesus ΧριστοῦChrist κατὰaccording to πίστινfaith ἐκλεκτῶνof chosen (ones) θεοῦof God καὶand ἐπίγνωσινaccurate knowledge ἀληθείαςof truth τῆςthe (one) κατ’according toεὐσέβειανrevering well 2 ἐπ’upon ἐλπίδιhope ζωῆςof life αἰωνίου,everlasting, ἣνwhich ἐπηγγείλατοpromised the ἀψευδὴςnot lying θεὸςGod πρὸbefore χρόνωνtimes αἰωνίωνeverlasting 3 ἐφανέρωσενhe manifested δὲbut καιροῖςto appointed times ἰδίοις,own, τὸνthe λόγονword αὐτοῦof him ἐνin κηρύγματιpreaching which ἐπιστεύθηνwas entrusted with ἐγὼI κατ’according to ἐπιταγὴνenjoinder τοῦof the σωτῆροςSavior ἡμῶνof us θεοῦ,of God, 4 Τίτῳto Titus γνησίῳgenuine τέκνῳchild κατὰaccording to κοινὴνcommon πίστιν·faith;

χάριςgrace καὶand εἰρήνηpeace ἀπὸfrom θεοῦGod πατρὸςFather καὶand Χριστοῦof Christ ἸησοῦJesus τοῦof the σωτῆροςSavior ἡμῶν.of us.

5 ΤούτουOf this χάρινthanks ἀπέλιπόνI left off σεyou ἐνin ΚρήτῃCrete ἵναin order that τὰthe (things) λείπονταbeing wanting ἐπιδιορθώσῃ,you might thoroughly straighten upon, καὶand καταστήσῃςyou might set down κατὰaccording to πόλινcity πρεσβυτέρους,older men, ὡςas ἐγώI σοιto you διεταξάμην,I ordered, 6 εἴif τίςanyone ἐστινis ἀνέγκλητος,unaccusable, μιᾶςof the γυναικὸςwoman ἀνήρ,male person, τέκναchildren ἔχωνhaving πιστά,faithful, μὴnot ἐνin κατηγορίᾳaccusation ἀσωτίαςof unsaving course or ἀνυπότακτα.not self-subjecting. 7 δεῖIt is binding γὰρfor τὸνthe ἐπίσκοπονoverseer ἀνέγκλητονunaccusable εἶναιto be ὡςas θεοῦof God οἰκονόμον,house administrator, μὴnot αὐθάδη,self-pleasing, μὴnot ὀργίλον,prone to wrath, μὴnot πάροινον,one beside wine, μὴnot πλήκτην,dealer of blows, μὴnot αἰσχροκερδῆ,greedy of disgraceful gain, 8 ἀλλὰbut φιλόξενον,fond of strangers, φιλάγαθον,fond of goodness, σώφρονα,sound in mind, δίκαιον,righteous, ὅσιον,loyal, ἐγκρατῆ,self-controlled, 9 ἀντεχόμενονholding self against τοῦof the κατὰaccording to τὴνthe διδαχὴνteaching πιστοῦof faithful λόγου,word,ἵναin order that δυνατὸςable he may be καὶand παρακαλεῖνto be encouraging ἐνin τῇthe διδασκαλίᾳteaching τῇthe (one) ὑγιαινούσῃbeing healthful καὶand τοὺςthe (ones) ἀντιλέγονταςcontradicting ἐλέγχειν.to be reproving.

10 ΕἰσὶνAre γὰρfor πολλοὶmany ἀνυπότακτοι,not self-subjecting, ματαιολόγοιvain talkers καὶand φρεναπάται,seducers of the mind, μάλισταmostly οἱthe (ones) ἐκout of τῆςthe περιτομῆς,circumcision, 11 οὓςwhom δεῖit is bindingἐπιστομίζειν,to be shutting the mouth of, οἵτινεςwho ὅλουςwhole οἴκουςhouseholds ἀνατρέπουσινthey are turning up διδάσκοντες(ones) teaching which (things) μὴnot δεῖit is binding αἰσχροῦof disgraceful κέρδουςgain χάριν.thanks. 12 εἶπένSaid τιςsomeone ἐξout of αὐτῶν,them, ἴδιοςown (one) αὐτῶνof them προφήτης,prophet, ΚρῆτεςCretans ἀεὶever ψεῦσται,liars, κακὰbad θηρία,wild beasts, γαστέρεςbellies ἀργαί.ineffective.

13 The μαρτυρίαwitness αὕτηthis ἐστὶνis ἀληθής.true. δι’Through ἣνwhich αἰτίανcause ἔλεγχεbe reproving αὐτοὺςthem ἀποτόμως,curtly, ἵναin order that ὑγιαίνωσινthey may be healthy ἐνin τῇthe πίστει,faith, 14 μὴnot προσέχοντεςhaving [mind] toward Ἰουδαϊκοῖςto Jewish μύθοιςmyths καὶand ἐντολαῖςto commandments ἀνθρώπωνof men ἀποστρεφομένωνturning selves away from τὴνthe ἀλήθειαν.truth. 15 πάνταAll (things) καθαρὰclean τοῖςto the (ones) καθαροῖς·clean; τοῖςto the δὲbut μεμιαμμένοιςhaving been defiled καὶand ἀπίστοιςfaithless οὐδὲνnothing καθαρόν,clean, ἀλλὰbut μεμίανταιhas been defiled αὐτῶνof them καὶand the νοῦςmind καὶand the συνείδησις.conscience. 16 θεὸνGod ὁμολογοῦσινthey are confessing εἰδέναι,to have known, τοῖςto the δὲbut ἔργοιςworks ἀρνοῦνται,they are denying, βδελυκτοὶdetestable ὄντεςbeing καὶand ἀπειθεῖςdisobedient καὶand πρὸςtoward πᾶνevery ἔργονwork ἀγαθὸνgood ἀδόκιμοι.(ones) disapproved.


1 ΣὺYou δὲbut λάλειbe speaking which (things) πρέπειis befitting τῇto the ὑγιαινούσῃbeing healthful διδασκαλίᾳ.teaching. 2 ΠρεσβύταςOld men νηφαλίουςsober εἶναι,to be, σεμνούς,serious, σώφρονας,sound in mind, ὑγιαίνονταςbeing healthful τῇto the πίστει,faith, τῇto the ἀγάπῃ,love, τῇto the ὑπομονῇ.endurance. 3 πρεσβύτιδαςOld women ὡσαύτωςas-thus ἐνin καταστήματιbehavior ἱεροπρεπεῖς,ones becoming to sacred place, μὴnot διαβόλουςdevils μηδὲnot-but οἴνῳto wine πολλῷmuch δεδουλωμένας,having been enslaved, καλοδιδασκάλους,teachers of what is fine, 4 ἵναin order that σωφρονίζωσιthey may be making mentally sound τὰςthe νέαςyoung [women] φιλάνδρουςfond of male persons εἶναι,to be, φιλοτέκνους,fond of children, 5 σώφρονας,sound in mind, ἁγνάς,chaste, οἰκουργούς,workers at home, ἀγαθάς,good, ὑποτασσομέναςsubjecting themselves τοῖςto the ἰδίοιςown ἀνδράσιν,male persons, ἵναin order that μὴnot the λόγοςword τοῦof the θεοῦGodβλασφημῆται.may be blasphemed.

6 τοὺςThe νεωτέρουςyounger [men] ὡσαύτωςas-thus παρακάλειbe you encouraging σωφρονεῖν·to be sound in mind; 7 περὶabout πάνταall (things) σεαυτὸνyourself παρεχόμενοςhaving self beside τύπονtype καλῶνof fine ἔργων,works, ἐνin τῇthe διδασκαλίᾳteaching ἀφθορίαν,uncorruptness, σεμνότητα,seriousness, 8 λόγονword ὑγιῆhealthful ἀκατάγνωστον,not to be known down, ἵναin order that the (one) ἐξout of ἐναντίαςcontrariness ἐντραπῇmight be turned in μηδὲνnothing ἔχωνhaving λέγεινto be saying περὶabout ἡμῶνus φαῦλον.vile (thing). 9 δούλουςSlaves ἰδίοιςto own δεσπόταιςmasters ὑποτάσσεσθαιto be subjecting selves ἐνin πᾶσιν,all (things), εὐαρέστουςwell-pleasing εἶναι,to be, μὴnot ἀντιλέγοντας,contradicting, 10 μὴnot νοσφιζομένους,setting apart for selves, ἀλλὰbut πᾶσανall πίστινfaith ἐνδεικνυμένουςshowing for selves within ἀγαθήν,good, ἵναin order that τὴνthe διδασκαλίανteaching τὴνthe (one) τοῦof the σωτῆροςSavior ἡμῶνof us θεοῦof God κοσμῶσινthey may be adorning ἐνin πᾶσιν.all (things).

11 ᾿ΕπεφάνηWas made to appear γὰρfor the   χάριςgrace / kindness τοῦof the θεοῦGod σωτήριος[it] saving πᾶσινto all ἀνθρώποις,men, 12 παιδεύουσα[it] instructing ἡμᾶς,us, ἵναin order that ἀρνησάμενοιhaving denied τὴνthe ἀσέβειανirreverence καὶand τὰςthe κοσμικὰςworldly ἐπιθυμίαςdesires σωφρόνωςwith soundness of mind καὶand δικαίωςrighteously καὶand εὐσεβῶςwell-reveringly ζήσωμενwe should live ἐνin τῷthe νῦνnow αἰῶνι,age, 13 προσδεχόμενοιawaiting τὴνthe μακαρίανhappy ἐλπίδαhope καὶand ἐπιφάνειανmanifestation τῆςof the δόξηςglory τοῦof the μεγάλουgreat θεοῦGod καὶand σωτῆροςof Savior ἡμῶνof us Χριστοῦof Christ Ἰησοῦ,Jesus, 14 ὃςwho ἔδωκενgave ἑαυτὸνhimself ὑπὲρover ἡμῶνus ἵναin order that λυτρώσηταιhe might loose by ransom ἡμᾶςus ἀπὸfrom πάσηςall ἀνομίαςlawlessness καὶand καθαρίσῃhe might cleanse ἑαυτῷto himself λαὸνpeople περιούσιον,being overly much, ζηλωτὴνzealous καλῶνof fine ἔργων.works.

15 ΤαῦταThese (things) λάλειbe you speaking καὶand παρακάλειbe you encouraging καὶand ἔλεγχεbe you reproving μετὰwith πάσηςall ἐπιταγῆς.enjoinder. μηδείςNo one σουof you περιφρονείτω.let be minding around.


1 ὙπομίμνησκεBe you reminding αὐτοὺςthem ἀρχαῖςto governments ἐξουσίαιςto authorities ὑποτάσσεσθαιto be subjecting selves πειθαρχεῖν,to be obedient as to rulers, πρὸςtoward πᾶνevery ἔργονwork ἀγαθὸνgood ἑτοίμουςready (ones) εἶναι,to be, 2 μηδέναno one βλασφημεῖν,to be blaspheming, ἀμάχουςnot disposed to fight εἶναι,to be, ἐπιεικεῖς,yielding, πᾶσανall ἐνδεικνυμένουςshowing for selves within πραΰτηταmildness πρὸςtoward πάνταςall ἀνθρώπους.men. 3 ῏ΗμενWe were γάρforποτεsometime καὶalso ἡμεῖςwe ἀνόητοι,senseless, ἀπειθεῖς,disobedient, πλανώμενοι,being made to err, δουλεύοντεςslaving ἐπιθυμίαιςto desires καὶand ἡδοναῖςto pleasures ποικίλαις,various, ἐνin κακίᾳbadness καὶand φθόνῳenvy διάγοντες,going through, στυγητοί,abhorrent, μισοῦντεςhating ἀλλήλους.one another.

4 ὅτεWhen δὲbut the χρηστότηςkindness καὶand the φιλανθρωπίαphilanthropy ἐπεφάνηwas made to appear τοῦof the σωτῆροςSavior ἡμῶνof us θεοῦ,of God, 5 οὐκnot ἐξout of ἔργωνworks τῶνthe ἐνin δικαιοσύνῃrighteousness which (ones) ἐποιήσαμενwe did ἡμεῖςwe ἀλλὰbut κατὰaccording to τὸthe αὐτοῦof him ἔλεοςmercy ἔσωσενhe saved ἡμᾶςus διὰthrough λουτροῦbath παλινγενεσίαςof regeneration καὶand ἀνακαινώσεωςof renovation πνεύματοςof spirit ἁγίου,holy, 6 οὗof which ἐξέχεενhe poured out ἐφ’upon ἡμᾶςus πλουσίωςrichly διὰthrough ἸησοῦJesus ΧριστοῦChrist τοῦthe σωτῆροςSavior ἡμῶν,of us, 7 ἵναin order that δικαιωθέντεςhaving been justified τῇto the ἐκείνουof that (one) χάριτιgrace κληρονόμοιheirs γενηθῶμενwe might become κατ’according to ἐλπίδαhope ζωῆςof life αἰωνίου.everlasting.

8 ΠιστὸςFaithful the λόγος,word, καὶand περὶabout τούτωνthese (things) βούλομαίI am wishing σεyou διαβεβαιοῦσθαι,to stabilize thoroughly, ἵναin order that φροντίζωσινthey may be mindful καλῶνof fine ἔργωνworks προΐστασθαιto be standing before οἱthe (ones) πεπιστευκότεςhaving believed θεῷ.to God. ΤαῦτάThese (things) ἐστινis καλὰfine (things) καὶand ὠφέλιμαbeneficial τοῖςto the ἀνθρώποις·men;

9 μωρὰςfoolish δὲbut ζητήσειςseekings καὶand γενεαλογίαςgenealogies καὶand ἔρινstrife καὶand μάχαςfights νομικὰςbelonging to law περιίστασο,be you standing around, εἰσὶνthey are γὰρfor ἀνωφελεῖςunbeneficial καὶand μάταιοι.vain. 10 αἱρετικὸνSectarian ἄνθρωπονman μετὰafter μίανone καὶand δευτέρανsecond νουθεσίανputting mind within παραιτοῦ,be you asking off for self, 11 εἰδὼςhaving known ὅτιthat ἐξέστραπταιhas been turned inside out the τοιοῦτοςsuch (one) καὶand ἁμαρτάνει,he is sinning, ὢνbeing αὐτοκατάκριτος.self-condemned.

12 ὍτανWhenever πέμψωI shall send ᾿ΑρτεμᾶνArtemas πρὸςtoward σὲyou or Τύχικον,Tychicus, σπούδασονspeed up ἐλθεῖνto come πρόςtoward μεme εἰςinto Νικόπολιν,Nicopolis, ἐκεῖthere γὰρfor κέκρικαI have judged παραχειμάσαι.to winter. 13 ΖηνᾶνZenas τὸνthe νομικὸνlawyer καὶand ᾿ΑπολλὼνApollos σπουδαίωςspeedily πρόπεμψον,send you forward, ἵναin order that μηδὲνnothing αὐτοῖςto them λείπῃ.may be lacking. 14 ΜανθανέτωσανLet them be learning δὲbut καὶalso οἱthe ἡμέτεροιour (ones) καλῶνof fine ἔργωνworks προΐστασθαιto be standing before εἰςinto τὰςthe ἀναγκαίαςnecessary χρείας,needs, ἵναin order that μὴnot ὦσινthey may be ἄκαρποι.unfruitful.

15 ᾿ΑσπάζονταίAre greeting σεyou οἱthe (ones) μετ’with ἐμοῦme πάντες.all. ἌσπασαιGreet you τοὺςthe (ones) φιλοῦνταςhaving affection for ἡμᾶςus ἐνin πίστει.faith.

The χάριςgrace μετὰwith πάντωνall ὑμῶν.of you.


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Translation and Textual Criticism

King James BibleTHE KING JAMES BIBLE: Do You Know the King James Version?

The King James Bible was originally published in 1611. Some have estimated that the number of copies of the King James Version that have been produced in print worldwide is over one billion! There is little doubt that the King James Version is a literary masterpiece, which this author has and will appreciate and value for its unparalleled beauty of expression. This book is in no way trying to take away from what the King James Version has accomplished. The King James Version is a book to be commended for all that it has accomplished. For four centuries, when English-speaking people spoke of “the Bible,” they meant the King James Version. The question that begs to be asked of those who favor the King James Bible is, Do You Know the King James Version? What do most users of the King James Bible not know about their translation? Whether you are one who favors the King James Version or one who prefers a modern translation, Andrews will answer the questions that have long been asked for centuries about the King James Bible and far more.

The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use. The translation of God’s Word from the original languages of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek is a task unlike any other and should never be taken lightly because it carries with it the heaviest responsibility: the translator renders God’s thoughts into a modern language. It is CGBT’s desire to take challenging and complex subjects and make them easy to understand. CGBT will communicate as clearly and powerfully as possible to all of its readers while also accurately communicating information about the Bible. …

DO WE STILL NEEDA LITERAL BIBLE_DO WE STILL NEED A LITERAL BIBLE?: Discover the Truth about Literal Translations

We have come a long, long way from the time that the KJV was The Bible in English and the many translations available today. Finding the right Bible for the right person can be daunting, with almost too many choices available. However, it is still possible to divide the options into two broad categories: literal translations and dynamic equivalents. What is the difference, and why should you care? Bible publishers used to say that literal translations are good for study purposes, and dynamic equivalents are better for reading. So literal translations were advertised with terms like “accurate,” “reliable,” and, of course, “literal.” For dynamic equivalent translations, terms like “contemporary,” “easy to read,” and “written in today’s English” were used. Naturally, publishers do not advertise the negatives, so they did not point out that the literal translations might be a little harder to read, or that the dynamic equivalents might not be entirely faithful to the original languages of the Bible. However, more recently, some scholars have been taking this analysis in a new direction, assessing literal translations as less desirable than dynamic equivalents even for accuracy and reliability.

KING JAMES BIBLE IITHE KING JAMES BIBLE Why Have Modern Bible Translations Removed Many Verses That Are In the King James Version?

Many have asked Edward D. Andrews as a Chief Translator, “In studying the modern Bible translations, I have come across some verses that are left out but that are in my King James Version or even my New King James Version, such as Matthew 18:11; 23:14; Luke 17:36. I have gotten conflicting opinions on social media. Can you please clear this up for me?”

Have you experienced this? The book of Revelation warns: “if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his share in the tree of life and in the holy city, which are described in this book.” Yes, removing a true part of the Bible would be a serious matter. (Rev. 22:19) But had this happened? Do you know why these verses are omitted from modern translations? You might wonder, ‘Is my modern Bible translation lacking something that the King James Version has?’ The reader of the King James Version may feel that they have something that the modern Bibles do not. Andrews will help the reader find the answers to whether verses are being omitted and far more when it comes to the differences between the King James Bible and the Modern Bible translations.


THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT (TTNT) is an introduction, intermediate and advanced level coverage of the text of the New Testament. Andrews introduces the new and relatively new reader to this subject in the first few chapters of the TTNT. Andrews deepens his handling of the material, while still making it easy to understand in the next few chapters of the TTNT, all the while being very informative in both sections. All of this prepares the reader for Wilkins’ advanced chapters. THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews offer the reader an account of the copying by hand and transmission of the Greek New Testament. They present a comprehensive survey of the manuscript history from the penning of the 27 New Testament books to the current critical texts. What did the ancient books look like and how were documents written? How were the New Testament books published? Who would use secretaries? Why was it so hard to be a secretary in the first century? How was such work done? What do we know about the early Christian copyists? What were the scribal habits and tendencies? Is it possible to establish the original text of the NewTestament? …

Introduction to New Testament Textual CriticismINTRODUCTION TO THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: From The Authors and Scribe to the Modern Critical Text

INTRODUCTION TO THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT is a shortened 321 pages of Andrews and Wilkins 602 page TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT without losing the value of content. The foremost thing the reader is going to learn is that the Greek New Testament that our modern translations are based on is a mirror-like reflection of the original and can be fully trusted. The reader will learn how the New Testament authors made and published their books, the secretaries in antiquity and their materials like Teritus who helped Paul pen the epistle to the Romans, and the book writing process of the New Testament authors and early copyists. The reader will also discover the reading culture of early Christianity and their view of the integrity of the Greek New Testament. The reader will also learn how textual scholars known as paleography determine the age of the manuscripts.

The reader will learn all about the different sources that go into our restoring the Greek New Testament to its original form. Then, Andrews will cover the ancient version, the era of the printed text, and the arrival of the critical text. After that, the reader will be given a lengthy chapter on examples of how the textual scholar determines the correct reading by his looking at the internal and external evidence. Finally, and most importantly, the reader will find out the truth about the supposed 400,000 textual errors within the Greek New Testament manuscripts. The last chapter will be faith-building and enable you to defend the Word of God as inerrant.

The Reading Culture of Early ChristianityTHE READING CULTURE OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY: The Production, Publication, Circulation, and Use of Books in the Early Christian Church

THE READING CULTURE OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY provides the reader with the production process of the New Testament books, the publication process, how they were circulated, and to what extent they were used in the early Christian church. It examines the making of the New Testament books, the New Testament secretaries and the material they used, how the early Christians viewed the New Testament books, and the literacy level of the Christians in the first three centuries. It also explores how the gospels went from an oral message to a written record, the accusation that the apostles were uneducated, the inspiration and inerrancy in the writing process of the New Testament books, the trustworthiness of the early Christian copyists, and the claim that the early scribes were predominantly amateurs. Andrews also looks into the early Christian’s use of the codex [book form], how did the spread of early Christianity affect the text of the New Testament, and how was the text impacted by the Roman Empire’s persecution of the early Christians?

400,000 Textual Variants 02400,000+ SCRIBAL ERRORS IN THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT MANUSCRIPTS: What Assurance Do We Have that We Can Trust the Bible?

The Bible has been under attack since Moses penned the first five books. However, the New Testament has faced criticism like no other time over the 50-70-years. Both friend and foe have challenged the reliability of our New Testament. Self-proclaimed Agnostic textual scholar Dr. Bart D. Ehrman has claimed that there are 400,000+ scribal errors in our Greek New Testament manuscripts. A leading textual scholar, Greek grammarian, and Christian apologist Dr. Daniel B. Wallace has stipulated that this is true. This is of particular interest among all Christians, who have been charged with defending the Word of God. – 1 Peter 3:15.

In this volume, textual scholar Edward D. Andrews offers the churchgoer and textual student a defense against this specific attack on the New Testament. Andrews offers the reader a careful analysis of the relevant evidence, giving his readers logical, reasonable, rational assurances that the New Testament can be trusted more than ever before. He will explain the differences between the older Bible translations and the newer ones. Andrews will explain why we do not need the original manuscripts to have the original Word of God. He will reveal how reliable our manuscripts are, how they survived the elements and the persecution of early Christianity, as well as withstanding careless and even deceitful scribes. Finally, Andrews will deal with the 400,000+ scribal errors in the Greek New Testament manuscripts extensively. The author takes a complicated subject and offers his readers an easy to understand argument for why they can have confidence in the Bible despite various challenges to the trustworthiness of Scripture, offering an insightful, informed, defense of God’s Word.

4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUSMISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Fourth Edition]

This fourth edition will be dealing with the Greek text of our New Testament, through the Eyes of Dr. Bart D. Ehrman, in his New York Times bestseller: Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why (2005). First, in the introduction, we will look into Bart D. Ehrman’s early life and spiritual decline as he moved from being an evangelical conservative Christian to becoming an agnostic skeptic. Second, we will open with chapter one covering the book writing process of the New Testament authors and early Christian scribes. Then, we will spend three lengthy chapters covering the reading culture of early Christianity because of Ehrman’s claim of just how low the literacy rates were in early Christianity. After that, we will take one chapter to investigate the early Christian copyists because of Ehrman’s claim that most of the scribal errors come from the first three centuries. Following this will be one of the most critical chapters examining Ehrman’s claim of 400,000 textual variants [errors] and what impact they have on the integrity of the Greek New Testament. We will then investigate Bible Difficulties and what they mean for the trustworthiness of God’s Word. After that, we will give the reader the fundamentals of some of Ehrman’s complaints, debunking them as we investigate each one throughout seven chapters.

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