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Which ἦνwas ἀπ’from ἀρχῆς,beginning, which ἀκηκόαμεν,we have heard, which ἑωράκαμενwe have seen τοῖςto the ὀφθαλμοῖςeyes ἡμῶν,of us, which ἐθεασάμεθαwe viewed καὶand αἱthe χεῖρεςhands ἡμῶνof us ἐψηλάφησαν,felt, περὶabout τοῦthe λόγουword τῆςof the ζωῆς,—life,— 2 καὶand the ζωὴlife ἐφανερώθη,was manifested, καὶand ἑωράκαμενwe have seen καὶand μαρτυροῦμενwe are bearing witness καὶand ἀπαγγέλλομενwe are reporting back ὑμῖνto you τὴνthe ζωὴνlife τὴνthe αἰώνιονeverlasting ἥτιςwhich ἦνwas πρὸςtoward τὸνthe πατέραFather καὶand ἐφανερώθηit was manifested ἡμῖν,—to us,— 3 which ἑωράκαμενwe have seen καὶand ἀκηκόαμενwe have heard ἀπαγγέλλομενwe are reporting back καὶalso ὑμῖν,to you, ἵναin order that καὶalso ὑμεῖςyou κοινωνίανsharing ἔχητεyou may be having μεθ’with ἡμῶν·us; καὶand the κοινωνίαsharing δὲbut the ἡμετέραour μετὰwith τοῦthe πατρὸςFather καὶand μετὰwith τοῦthe υἱοῦSon αὐτοῦof him Ἰησοῦof Jesus Χριστοῦ·Christ; 4 καὶand ταῦταthese (things) γράφομενwe are writing ἡμεῖςwe ἵναin order that the χαρὰjoy ἡμῶνof us may be πεπληρωμένη.having been fulfilled.

5 ΚαὶAnd ἔστινis αὕτηthis the ἀγγελίαmessage ἣνwhich ἀκηκόαμενwe have heard ἀπ’from αὐτοῦhim καὶand ἀναγγέλλομενwe are announcing ὑμῖν,to you, ὅτιthat the θεὸςGod φῶςlight ἐστὶνis καὶand σκοτίαdarkness οὐκnot ἔστινis ἐνin αὐτῷhim οὐδεμία.none. 6 ᾿ΕὰνIf ever εἴπωμενwe should say ὅτιthat κοινωνίανsharing ἔχομενwe are having μετ’with αὐτοῦhim καὶand ἐνin τῷthe σκότειdarkness περιπατῶμεν,we may be walking about, ψευδόμεθαwe are lying καὶand οὐnot ποιοῦμενwe are doing τὴνthe ἀλήθειαν·truth; 7 ἐὰνif ever δὲbut ἐνin τῷthe φωτὶlight περιπατῶμενwe may be walking about ὡςas αὐτὸςhe ἔστινis ἐνin τῷthe φωτί,light, κοινωνίανsharing ἔχομενwe are having μετ’with ἀλλήλωνone another καὶand τὸthe αἷμαblood Ἰησοῦof Jesus τοῦthe υἱοῦSon αὐτοῦof him καθαρίζειit is cleansing ἡμᾶςus ἀπὸfrom πάσηςall ἁμαρτίας.sin.

8 ᾿ΕὰνIf ever εἴπωμενwe should say ὅτιthat ἁμαρτίανsin οὐκnot ἔχομεν,we are having, ἑαυτοὺςselves πλανῶμενwe are making to err καὶand the ἀλήθειαtruth οὐκnot ἔστινis ἐνin ἡμῖν.us. 9 ἐὰνIf ever ὁμολογῶμενwe may be confessing τὰςthe ἁμαρτίαςsins ἡμῶν,of us, πιστόςfaithful ἐστινhe is καὶand δίκαιοςrighteous ἵναin order that ἀφῇhe might let go off ἡμῖνto us τὰςthe ἁμαρτίαςsins καὶand καθαρίσῃhe might cleanse ἡμᾶςus ἀπὸfrom πάσηςall ἀδικίας.unrighteousness. 10 ᾿ΕὰνIf ever εἴπωμενwe should say ὅτιthat οὐχnot ἡμαρτήκαμεν,we have sinned, ψεύστηνliar ποιοῦμενwe are making αὐτὸνhim καὶand the λόγοςword αὐτοῦof him οὐκnot ἔστινis ἐνin ἡμῖν.us.


1 ΤεκνίαLittle children μου,of me, ταῦταthese (things) γράφωI am writing ὑμῖνto you ἵναin order that μὴnot ἁμάρτητε.you might commit sin. καὶAnd ἐάνif ever τιςanyone ἁμάρτῃ,  should commit sin, παράκλητονparaclete ἔχομενwe are having πρὸςtoward τὸνthe πατέραFather ἸησοῦνJesus ΧριστὸνChrist δίκαιον,righteous (one), 2 καὶand αὐτὸςhe ἱλασμόςpropitiation ἐστινis περὶabout τῶνthe ἁμαρτιῶνsins ἡμῶν,of us, οὐnot περὶabout τῶνthe ἡμετέρωνour (ones) δὲbut μόνονonly ἀλλὰbut καὶalso περὶabout ὅλουwhole τοῦthe κόσμου.world. 3 ΚαὶAnd ἐνin τούτῳthis γινώσκομενwe are knowing ὅτιthat ἐγνώκαμενwe have knownαὐτόν,him, ἐὰνif ever τὰςthe ἐντολὰςcommandments αὐτοῦof him τηρῶμεν.we may observe. 4 The (one) λέγωνsaying ὅτιthat ἜγνωκαI have known αὐτόν, him, καὶand τὰςthe ἐντολὰςcommandments αὐτοῦof him μὴnot τηρῶνobserving ψεύστηςliar ἐστίν,is, καὶand ἐνin τούτῳthis (one) the ἀλήθειαtruth οὐκnot ἔστιν·is; 5 ὃςwho δ’but ἂνlikely τηρῇmay be observing αὐτοῦof him τὸνthe λόγον,word, ἀληθῶςtruthfully ἐνin τούτῳthis (one) the ἀγάπηlove τοῦof the θεοῦGod τετελείωται.has been perfected. ᾿ΕνIn τούτῳthis γινώσκομενwe are knowing ὅτιthat ἐνin αὐτῷhim ἐσμέν·we are; 6 the (one) λέγωνsaying ἐνin αὐτῷhim μένεινto be remaining ὀφείλειhe is owing καθὼςaccording as ἐκεῖνοςthat (one) περιεπάτησενwalked about καὶalso αὐτὸςhe περιπατεῖν.to be walking about.

7 ᾿Αγαπητοί,Loved (ones), οὐκnot ἐντολὴνcommandment καινὴνnew γράφωI am writing ὑμῖν,to you, ἀλλ’but ἐντολὴνcommandment παλαιὰνold ἣνwhich     εἴχετεyou were having ἀπ’from ἀρχῆς·beginning; the ἐντολὴcommandment the παλαιάold ἐστινis the λόγοςword ὃνwhich ἠκούσατε.you heard. 8 πάλινAgain ἐντολὴνcommandment καινὴνnew γράφωI am writing ὑμῖν,to you, which ἐστινis ἀληθὲςtrue ἐνin αὐτῷhim καὶand ἐνin ὑμῖν,you, ὅτιbecause the σκοτίαdarknessπαράγεταιis going beside καὶand τὸthe φῶςlight τὸthe ἀληθινὸνtrue ἤδηalready φαίνει.is shining.

9 The (one) λέγωνsaying ἐνin τῷthe φωτὶlight εἶναιto be καὶand τὸνthe ἀδελφὸνbrother αὐτοῦof him μισῶνhating ἐνin τῇtheσκοτίᾳdarkness ἐστὶνhe is ἕωςuntil ἄρτι.right now. 10 The (one) ἀγαπῶνloving τὸνthe ἀδελφὸνbrother αὐτοῦof him ἐνin τῷthe φωτὶlight μένει,he is remaining, καὶand σκάνδαλονfall-causer ἐνin αὐτῷhim οὐκnot ἔστιν·is; 11 the (one) δὲbut μισῶνhating τὸνthe ἀδελφὸνbrother αὐτοῦof him ἐνin τῇthe σκοτίᾳdarkness ἐστὶνhe is καὶand ἐνin τῇthe σκοτίᾳdarkness περιπατεῖ,he is walking about, καὶand οὐκnot οἶδενhe has known ποῦwhere ὑπάγει,he is going under, ὅτιbecause the σκοτίαdarkness ἐτύφλωσενblinded τοὺςthe ὀφθαλμοὺςeyes αὐτοῦ.of him.

12 ΓράφωI am writing ὑμῖν,to you, τεκνία,little children, ὅτιbecause ἀφέωνταιhave been let go off ὑμῖνto you αἱthe ἁμαρτίαιsinsδιὰthrough τὸthe ὄνομαname αὐτοῦ·of him; 13 γράφωI am writing ὑμῖν,to you, πατέρες,fathers, ὅτιbecause ἐγνώκατεyou have known τὸνthe (one) ἀπ’from ἀρχῆς·beginning; γράφωI am writing ὑμῖν,to you, νεανίσκοι,young [men], ὅτιbecause νενικήκατεyou have conquered τὸνthe πονηρόν.wicked (one). ἔγραψαI wrote ὑμῖν,to you, παιδία,little boys, ὅτιbecause ἐγνώκατεyou have known τὸνthe πατέρα·Father;14 ἔγραψαI wrote ὑμῖν,to you, πατέρες,fathers, ὅτιbecause ἐγνώκατεyou have known τὸνthe (one) ἀπ’from ἀρχῆς·beginning; ἔγραψαI wrote ὑμῖν,to you, νεανίσκοι,young [men], ὅτιbecause ἰσχυροίstrong ἐστεyou are καὶand the λόγοςword τοῦof the θεοῦGod ἐνin ὑμῖνyou μένειis remaining καὶand νενικήκατεyou have conquered τὸνthe πονηρόν.wicked (one).

15 ΜὴNot ἀγαπᾶτεbe you loving τὸνthe κόσμονworld μηδὲnot-but τὰthe (things) ἐνin τῷthe κόσμῳ.world. ἐάνIf ever τιςanyone ἀγαπᾷmay be loving τὸνthe κόσμον,world, οὐκnot ἔστινis the ἀγάπηlove τοῦof the πατρὸςFather ἐνin αὐτῷ·him; 16 ὅτιbecause πᾶνall τὸthe (thing) ἐνin τῷthe κόσμῳ,world, the ἐπιθυμίαdesire τῆςof the σαρκὸςflesh καὶand the ἐπιθυμίαdesire τῶνof the ὀφθαλμῶνeyes καὶand the ἀλαζονίαself-assumption τοῦof the βίου,life (means), οὐκnot ἔστινit is ἐκout of τοῦthe πατρός,Father, ἀλλὰbut ἐκout of τοῦthe κόσμουworld ἐστίν·it is; 17 καὶand the κόσμοςworld παράγεταιis going beside καὶalso the ἐπιθυμίαdesire αὐτοῦ,of it, the (one) δὲbut ποιῶνdoing τὸthe θέλημαwill τοῦof the θεοῦGod μένειis remaining εἰςinto τὸνthe αἰῶνα.age.

18 Παιδία,Little boys, ἐσχάτηlast ὥραhour ἐστίν,it is, καὶand καθὼςaccording as ἠκούσατεyou heard ὅτιthat ἀντίχριστοςantichrist ἔρχεται,is coming, καὶand νῦνnow ἀντίχριστοιantichrists πολλοὶmany γεγόνασιν·have come to be; ὅθενfrom whichγινώσκομενwe are knowing ὅτιthat ἐσχάτηlast ὥραhour ἐστίν.it is. 19 ἐξOut of ἡμῶνus ἐξῆλθαν,they came out, ἀλλ’but οὐκnot ἦσανthey were ἐξout of ἡμῶν·us; εἰif γὰρfor ἐξout of ἡμῶνus ἦσαν,they were, μεμενήκεισανthey had remained ἂνlikely μεθ’with ἡμῶν·us; ἀλλ’but ἵναin order that φανερωθῶσινthey might be manifested ὅτιthat οὐκnot εἰσὶνthey are πάντεςall ἐξout of ἡμῶν.us. 20 καὶAnd ὑμεῖςyou χρίσμαanointing ἔχετεyou are having ἀπὸfrom τοῦthe ἁγίου·holy (one); οἴδατεyou have known πάντες—all (ones)— 21 οὐκNot ἔγραψαI wrote ὑμῖνto you ὅτιbecause οὐκnot οἴδατεyou have known τὴνthe ἀλήθειαν,truth, ἀλλ’but ὅτιbecause οἴδατε  you have known αὐτήν,it, καὶand ὅτιthat πᾶνevery ψεῦδοςlie ἐκout of τῆςthe ἀληθείαςtruth οὐκnot ἔστιν.is.

22 ΤίςWho ἐστινis the ψεύστηςliar εἰif μὴnot the (one) ἀρνούμενοςdenying ὅτιthat ἸησοῦςJesus οὐκnot ἔστινis the χριστός;Christ? οὗτόςThis (one) ἐστινis the ἀντίχριστος,antichrist, the (one) ἀρνούμενοςdenying τὸνthe πατέραFather καὶand τὸνthe υἱόν.Son. 23 πᾶςEveryone the ἀρνούμενοςdenying τὸνthe υἱὸνSon οὐδὲnot-but τὸνthe πατέραFather ἔχει·he is having; the (one) ὁμολογῶνconfessing τὸνthe υἱὸνSon καὶalso τὸνthe πατέραFather ἔχει.he is having.24 Ὑμεῖςyou which ἠκούσατεyou heard ἀπ’from ἀρχῆς,beginning, ἐνin ὑμῖνyou μενέτω·let it be remaining; ἐὰνif ever ἐνin ὑμῖνyou μείνῃshould remain which ἀπ’from ἀρχῆςbeginning ἠκούσατε,you heard, καὶalso ὑμεῖςyou ἐνin τῷthe υἱῷSon καὶand ἐνin τῷthe πατρὶFather μενεῖτε.you will remain. 25 καὶAnd αὕτηthis ἐστὶνis the ἐπαγγελίαpromise ἣνwhich αὐτὸςhe ἐπηγγείλατοpromised ἡμῖν,to us, τὴνthe ζωὴνlife τὴνthe αἰώνιον.everlasting.

26 ΤαῦταThese (things) ἔγραψαI wrote ὑμῖνto you περὶabout τῶνthe (ones) πλανώντωνmaking to err ὑμᾶς.you. 27 καὶAnd ὑμεῖςyou τὸthe χρίσμαanointing which ἐλάβετεyou received ἀπ’from αὐτοῦhim μένειit is remaining ἐνin ὑμῖν,you, καὶand οὐnot χρείανneed ἔχετεyou are having ἵναin order that τιςanyone διδάσκῃmay be teaching ὑμᾶς·you; ἀλλ’but ὡςas τὸthe αὐτοῦof him χρίσμαanointing διδάσκειis teaching ὑμᾶςyou περὶabout πάντων,all (things), καὶand ἀληθέςtrue ἐστινit is καὶand οὐκnot ἔστινit is ψεῦδος,lie, καὶand καθὼςaccording as ἐδίδαξενit taught ὑμᾶς,you, μένετεbe you remaining ἐνin αὐτῷ.him. 28 ΚαὶAnd νῦν,now, τεκνία,little children, μένετεbe you remaining ἐνin αὐτῷ,him, ἵναin order that ἐὰνif ever φανερωθῇhe should be manifested σχῶμενwe might have παρρησίανoutspokenness καὶand μὴnot αἰσχυνθῶμενwe might be put to shame ἀπ’from αὐτοῦhim ἐνin τῇthe παρουσίᾳpresence αὐτοῦ.of him. 29 ἐὰνIf ever εἰδῆτεyou should know ὅτιthat δίκαιόςrighteous ἐστιν,he is, γινώσκετεyou are knowing ὅτιthat πᾶςeveryone the ποιῶνdoing τὴνthe δικαιοσύνηνrighteousness ἐξout of αὐτοῦhim γεγέννηται.he has been born.


1 ἼδετεSee you ποταπὴνwhat sort of ἀγάπηνlove δέδωκενhas given ἡμῖνto us the πατὴρFather ἵναin order that τέκναchildren θεοῦof God κληθῶμεν,we should be called, καίand ἐσμεν.we are. διὰThrough τοῦτοthis (thing) the κόσμοςworld οὐnot γινώσκειis knowingἡμᾶςus ὅτιbecause οὐκnot ἔγνωit knew αὐτόν.him. 2 ᾿Αγαπητοί,Loved (ones), νῦνnow τέκναchildren θεοῦof God ἐσμέν,we are, καὶand οὔπωnot as yet ἐφανερώθηwas it manifested τίwhat ἐσόμεθα.we shall be. οἴδαμενWe have known ὅτιthat ἐὰνif ever φανερωθῇhe should be manifested ὅμοιοι(ones) like αὐτῷto him ἐσόμεθα,we will be, ὅτιbecause ὀψόμεθαwe shall see αὐτὸνhim καθώςaccording as ἐστιν.he is. 3 καὶAnd πᾶςevery the (one) ἔχωνhaving τὴνthe ἐλπίδαhope ταύτηνthis ἐπ’upon αὐτῷhim ἁγνίζειhe is purifying ἑαυτὸνhimself καθὼςaccording as ἐκεῖνοςthat (one) ἁγνόςpure ἐστιν.he is.

4 ΠᾶςEvery the (one) ποιῶνdoing τὴνthe ἁμαρτίανsin καὶalso τὴνthe ἀνομίανlawlessness ποιεῖ,he is doing, καὶand the ἁμαρτίαsin ἐστὶνis the ἀνομία.lawlessness. 5 καὶAnd οἴδατεyou have known ὅτιthat ἐκεῖνοςthat (one) ἐφανερώθηwas manifested ἵναin order that τὰςthe ἁμαρτίαςsins ἄρῃ,he might lift up, καὶand ἁμαρτίαsin ἐνin αὐτῷhim οὐκnot ἔστιν.is. 6 πᾶςEvery the (one) ἐνin αὐτῷhim μένωνremaining οὐχnot ἁμαρτάνει·is sinning; πᾶςevery the (one) ἁμαρτάνωνsinning οὐχnot ἑώρακενhas seen αὐτὸνhim οὐδὲnot-but ἔγνωκενhe has known αὐτόν.him. 7 Τεκνία,Little children, μηδεὶςno one πλανάτωlet make to err ὑμᾶς·you; the (one) ποιῶνdoing τὴνthe δικαιοσύνηνrighteousness δίκαιόςrighteous ἐστιν,he is, καθὼςaccording as ἐκεῖνοςthat (one) δίκαιόςrighteous ἐστιν·is; 8 The (one) ποιῶνdoing τὴνthe ἁμαρτίανsin ἐκout of τοῦtheδιαβόλουDevil ἐστίν,he is, ὅτιbecause ἀπ’from ἀρχῆςbeginning the διάβολοςDevil ἁμαρτάνει.is sinning. εἰςInto τοῦτοthis ἐφανερώθηwas manifested the υἱὸςSon τοῦof the θεοῦGod ἵναin order that λύσῃhe might loose τὰthe ἔργαworks τοῦof the διαβόλου.Devil.

9 ΠᾶςEvery the (one) γεγεννημένοςhaving been born ἐκout of τοῦthe θεοῦGod ἁμαρτίανsin οὐnot ποιεῖ,he is doing,ὅτιbecause σπέρμαseed αὐτοῦof him ἐνin αὐτῷhim μένει,is remaining, καὶand οὐnot δύναταιhe is able ἁμαρτάνειν,to be sinning, ὅτιbecause ἐκout of τοῦthe θεοῦGod γεγέννηται.he has been born. 10 ἐνIn τούτῳthis (thing) φανεράmanifest ἐστινis τὰtheτέκναchildren τοῦof the θεοῦGod καὶand τὰthe τέκναchildren τοῦof the διαβόλου·Devil; πᾶςevery the (one) μὴnot ποιῶνdoing δικαιοσύνηνrighteousness οὐκnot ἔστινhe is ἐκout of τοῦthe θεοῦ,God, καὶand the (one) μὴnot ἀγαπῶνloving τὸνthe ἀδελφὸνbrother αὐτοῦ.of him. 11 ὅτιBecause αὕτηthis ἐστὶνis the ἀγγελίαmessage ἣνwhich ἠκούσατεyou heard ἀπ’from ἀρχῆς,beginning, ἵναin order that ἀγαπῶμενwe may be loving ἀλλήλους·one another; 12 οὐnot καθὼςaccording as ΚαὶνCain ἐκout of τοῦthe πονηροῦwicked (one) ἦνhe was καὶand ἔσφαξενhe slaughtered τὸνthe ἀδελφὸνbrother αὐτοῦ·of him; καὶand χάρινthanks τίνοςof what ἔσφαξενslaughtered he αὐτόν;him? ὅτιBecause τὰthe ἔργαworks αὐτοῦof him πονηρὰwicked ἦν,was, τὰthe (ones) δὲbut τοῦof the ἀδελφοῦbrother αὐτοῦof him δίκαια.righteous (ones).

13 ΜὴNot θαυμάζετε,be you wondering, ἀδελφοί,brothers, εἰif μισεῖis hating ὑμᾶςyou the κόσμος.world. 14 ἡμεῖςWe οἴδαμενhave known ὅτιthat μεταβεβήκαμενwe have stepped across ἐκout of τοῦthe θανάτουdeath εἰςinto τὴνthe ζωήν,life, ὅτιbecause ἀγαπῶμενwe are loving τοὺςthe ἀδελφούς·brothers; the (one) μὴnot ἀγαπῶνloving μένειis remaining ἐνin τῷthe θανάτῳ.death. 15 πᾶςEvery the (one) μισῶνhating τὸνthe ἀδελφὸνbrother αὐτοῦof him ἀνθρωποκτόνοςman-killer ἐστίν,he is, καὶand οἴδατεyou have known ὅτιthat πᾶςevery ἀνθρωποκτόνοςman-killer οὐκnot ἔχειis having ζωὴνlife αἰώνιονeverlasting ἐνin αὐτῷhim μένουσαν.remaining. 16 ᾿ΕνIn τούτῳthis ἐγνώκαμενwe have known τὴνthe ἀγάπην,love, ὅτιbecause ἐκεῖνοςthat (one) ὑπὲρover ἡμῶνus τὴνthe ψυχὴνsoul αὐτοῦof him ἔθηκεν·he put; καὶand ἡμεῖςwe ὀφείλομενare owingὑπὲρover τῶνthe ἀδελφῶνbrothers τὰςthe ψυχὰςsouls θεῖναι.to put. 17 ὃςWho δ’but ἂνlikely ἔχῃmay be having τὸνthe βίονlife (means) τοῦof the κόσμουworld καὶand θεωρῇhe may be beholding τὸνthe ἀδελφὸνbrother αὐτοῦof him χρείανneed ἔχονταhaving καὶand κλείσῃhe might shut up τὰthe σπλάγχναbowels αὐτοῦof him ἀπ’from αὐτοῦ,him, πῶςhow the ἀγάπηlove τοῦof the θεοῦGod μένειis remaining ἐνin αὐτῷ;him? 18 Τεκνία,Little children, μὴnot ἀγαπῶμενmay we be loving λόγῳto word μηδὲneither τῇto the γλώσσῃtongue ἀλλὰbut ἐνin ἔργῳwork καὶand ἀληθείᾳ.truth.

19 ᾿ΕνIn τούτῳthis γνωσόμεθαwe shall know ὅτιthat ἐκout of τῆςthe ἀληθείαςtruth ἐσμέν,we are, καὶand ἔμπροσθενin front αὐτοῦof him πείσομενwe shall persuade τὴνthe καρδίανheart ἡμῶνof us 20 ὅτιbecause ἐὰνif ever καταγινώσκῃmay be knowing down on ἡμῶνof us the καρδία,heart, ὅτιbecause μείζωνgreater ἐστὶνis the θεὸςGod τῆςof the καρδίαςheart ἡμῶνof us καὶand γινώσκειhe is knowing πάντα.all (things). 21 ᾿Αγαπητοί,Loved (ones), ἐὰνif ever the καρδίαheart μὴnot καταγινώσκῃ,may be knowing down on, παρρησίανoutspokenness ἔχομενwe are having πρὸςtoward τὸνthe θεόν,God, 22 καὶand which ἂνlikely αἰτῶμενwe may be asking λαμβάνομενwe are receiving ἀπ’from αὐτοῦ,him, ὅτιbecause τὰςthe ἐντολὰςcommandments αὐτοῦof him τηροῦμενwe are observing καὶand τὰthe (things) ἀρεστὰpleasing ἐνώπιονin sight αὐτοῦof him ποιοῦμεν.we are doing. 23 καὶAnd αὕτηthis ἐστὶνis the ἐντολὴcommandment αὐτοῦ,of him, ἵναin order that πιστεύσωμενwe should believe τῷto the ὀνόματιname τοῦof the υἱοῦSon αὐτοῦof him Ἰησοῦof Jesus ΧριστοῦChrist καὶand ἀγαπῶμενwe may be loving ἀλλήλους,one another, καθὼςaccording as ἔδωκενhe gave ἐντολὴνcommandment ἡμῖν.to us. 24 καὶAnd the (one) τηρῶνobserving τὰςthe ἐντολὰςcommandments αὐτοῦof him ἐνin αὐτῷhim μένειhe is remaining καὶand αὐτὸςhe ἐνin αὐτῷ·him; καὶand ἐνin τούτῳthis γινώσκομενwe are knowing ὅτιthat μένειhe is remaining ἐνin ἡμῖν,us, ἐκout of τοῦthe πνεύματοςspirit οὗof which ἡμῖνto us ἔδωκεν.he gave.





1 The πρεσβύτεροςolder man ἐκλεκτῇto chosen κυρίᾳlady καὶand τοῖςto the τέκνοιςchildren αὐτῆς,of her, οὓςwhom ἐγὼI ἀγαπῶam loving ἐνin ἀληθείᾳ,truth, καὶand οὐκnot ἐγὼI μόνοςalone ἀλλὰbut καὶalso πάντεςall οἱthe (ones) ἐγνωκότεςhaving known τὴνthe ἀλήθειαν,truth, 2 διὰthrough τὴνthe ἀλήθειανtruth τὴνthe (one) μένουσανremaining ἐνin ἡμῖν,us, καὶand μεθ’with ἡμῶνus ἔσταιit will be εἰςinto τὸνthe αἰῶνα·age; 3 ἔσταιwill be μεθ’with ἡμῶνus χάριςundeserved kindness ἔλεοςmercy εἰρήνηpeace παρὰbeside θεοῦof God πατρός,Father, καὶand παρὰbeside Ἰησοῦof Jesus ΧριστοῦChrist τοῦthe υἱοῦSon τοῦof the πατρός,Father, ἐνin ἀληθείᾳtruth καὶand ἀγάπῃ.love.

4 ᾿ΕχάρηνI rejoiced λίανexcessively ὅτιbecause εὕρηκαI have found ἐκout of τῶνthe τέκνωνchildren σουof you περιπατοῦντας(ones) walking ἐνin ἀληθείᾳ,truth, καθὼςaccording as ἐντολὴνcommandment ἐλάβομενwe received παρὰbeside τοῦof the πατρός.Father. 5 καὶAnd νῦνnow ἐρωτῶI am requesting of σε,you, κυρία,lady, οὐχnot ὡςas ἐντολὴνcommandment γράφωνwriting σοιto you καινὴνnew (one) ἀλλὰbut ἣνwhich εἴχαμενwe were having ἀπ’from ἀρχῆς,beginning, ἵναin order that ἀγαπῶμενwe may be loving ἀλλήλους.one another. 6 καὶAnd αὕτηthis ἐστὶνis the ἀγάπη,love, ἵναin order that περιπατῶμενwe may be walking κατὰaccording to τὰςthe ἐντολὰςcommandments αὐτοῦ·of him; αὕτηthis the ἐντολήcommandment ἐστιν,is, καθὼςaccording as ἠκούσατεyou heard ἀπ’from ἀρχῆς,beginning, ἵναin order that ἐνin αὐτῇit περιπατῆτε.you may be walking. 7 ὅτιBecause πολλοὶmany πλάνοιerrant (ones) ἐξῆλθανwent out εἰςinto τὸνthe κόσμον,world, οἱthe (ones) μὴnot ὁμολογοῦντεςconfessing ἸησοῦνJesus ΧριστὸνChrist ἐρχόμενονcoming ἐνin σαρκί·flesh; οὗτόςthis ἐστινis the πλάνοςerrant (one) καὶand the ἀντίχριστος.antichrist.

8 βλέπετεBe you looking at ἑαυτούς,selves, ἵναin order that μὴnot ἀπολέσητεyou might destroy what (things) ἠργασάμεθα,we worked, ἀλλὰbut μισθὸνreward πλήρηfull ἀπολάβητε.you might receive off. 9 πᾶςEvery the (one) προάγωνgoing before καὶand μὴnot μένωνremaining ἐνin τῇthe διδαχῇteaching τοῦof the χριστοῦChrist θεὸνGod οὐκnot ἔχει·he is having; the (one) μένωνremaining ἐνin τῇthe διδαχῇ,teaching, οὗτοςthis (one) καὶand τὸνthe πατέραFather καὶand τὸνthe υἱὸνSon ἔχει.he is having. 10 εἴIf τιςanyone ἔρχεταιis coming πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶςyou καὶand ταύτηνthis τὴνthe διδαχὴνteaching οὐnot φέρει,he is bearing, μὴnot λαμβάνετεbe you receiving αὐτὸνhim εἰςinto οἰκίανhouse καὶand χαίρεινto be rejoicing αὐτῷto him μὴnot λέγετε·be you saying; 11 the (one) λέγωνsaying γὰρfor αὐτῷto him χαίρεινto be rejoicing κοινωνεῖhe is sharing τοῖςto the ἔργοιςworks αὐτοῦof him τοῖςto the πονηροῖς.wicked (ones).

12 ΠολλὰMany (things) ἔχωνhaving ὑμῖνto you γράφεινto be writing οὐκnot ἐβουλήθηνI wished διὰthrough χάρτουpaper καὶand μέλανος,black [ink], ἀλλὰbut ἐλπίζωI am hoping γενέσθαιto come to be πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶςyou καὶand στόμαmouth πρὸςtoward στόμαmouth λαλῆσαι,to speak, ἵναin order that the χαρὰjoy ὑμῶνof you πεπληρωμένηhaving been fulfilled ᾖ.may be.

13 ᾿ΑσπάζεταίIs greeting σεyou τὰthe τέκναchildren τῆςof the ἀδελφῆςsister σουof you τῆςof the ἐκλεκτῆς.chosen (one).



1 The πρεσβύτεροςolder man Γαίῳto Gaius τῷthe ἀγαπητῷ,loved (one), ὃνwhom ἐγὼI ἀγαπῶam loving ἐνin ἀληθείᾳ.truth.

2 ᾿Αγαπητέ,Loved (one), περὶabout πάντωνall (things) εὔχομαίI am praying σεyou εὐοδοῦσθαιto make one’s way well καὶand ὑγιαίνειν,to be in health, καθὼςaccording as εὐοδοῦταίis making its way well σουof you the ψυχή.soul. 3 ἐχάρηνI rejoiced γὰρfor λίανexcessively ἐρχομένωνof (ones) coming ἀδελφῶνof brothers καὶand μαρτυρούντωνof (ones) bearing witness σουof you τῇto the ἀληθείᾳ,truth, καθὼςaccording as σὺyou ἐνin ἀληθείᾳtruth περιπατεῖς.you are walking about. 4 μειζοτέρανMore greater τούτωνof these (things) οὐκnot ἔχωI am having χάριν,thankfulness, ἵναin order that ἀκούωI may be hearing τὰthe ἐμὰmy τέκναchildren ἐνin τῇthe ἀληθείᾳtruth περιπατοῦντα.walking about.

5 ᾿Αγαπητέ,Loved (one), πιστὸνfaithful (thing) ποιεῖςyou are doing which (thing) ἐὰνif ever ἐργάσῃyou should work εἰςinto τοὺςthe ἀδελφοὺςbrothers καὶand τοῦτοthis ξένους,strangers, 6 οἳwho ἐμαρτύρησάνbore witness σουof you τῇto the ἀγάπῃloveἐνώπιονin sight ἐκκλησίας,of ecclesia, οὓςwhich (ones) καλῶςfinely ποιήσειςyou will do προπέμψαςhaving sent forward ἀξίωςworthily τοῦof the θεοῦ·God; 7 ὑπὲρover γὰρfor τοῦthe ὀνόματοςname ἐξῆλθανthey went out μηδὲνnothing λαμβάνοντεςreceiving ἀπὸfrom τῶνthe ἐθνικῶν.nationals. 8 ἡμεῖςWe οὖνtherefore ὀφείλομενwe are owing ὑπολαμβάνεινto be receiving under τοὺςthe τοιούτους,such ones, ἵναin order that συνεργοὶfellow workers γινώμεθαwe may become τῇto the ἀληθείᾳ.truth.

9 ἜγραψάI wrote τιsomething τῇto the ἐκκλησίᾳ·ecclesia; ἀλλ’but the (one) φιλοπρωτεύωνliking to be first αὐτῶνof them ΔιοτρέφηςDiotrephes οὐκnot ἐπιδέχεταιis receiving upon ἡμᾶς.us. 10 διὰThrough τοῦτο,this, ἐὰνif ever ἔλθω,I should come, ὑπομνήσωI shall bring under remembrance αὐτοῦof him τὰthe ἔργαworks which ποιεῖ,he is doing, λόγοιςto words πονηροῖςwicked φλυαρῶνchattering about ἡμᾶς,us, καὶand μὴnot ἀρκούμενοςbeing satisfied ἐπὶupon τούτοιςthese (things) οὔτεneither αὐτὸςhe ἐπιδέχεταιis receiving upon τοὺςthe ἀδελφοὺςbrothers καὶand τοὺςthe (ones) βουλομένουςwishing κωλύειhe is hindering καὶand ἐκout of τῆςthe ἐκκλησίαςecclesia ἐκβάλλει.he is throwing out.

11 ᾿Αγαπητέ,Loved (one), μὴnot μιμοῦbe you imitating τὸthe κακὸνbad (thing) ἀλλὰbut τὸthe ἀγαθόν.good (thing). The (one)ἀγαθοποιῶνdoing good ἐκout of τοῦthe θεοῦGod ἐστίν·is; the (one) κακοποιῶνdoing bad οὐχnot ἑώρακενhas seen τὸνthe θεόν.God. 12 ΔημητρίῳTo Demetrius μεμαρτύρηταιwitness has been borne ὑπὸby πάντωνall (ones) καὶand ὑπὸby αὐτῆςvery τῆςthe ἀληθείας·truth; καὶand ἡμεῖςwe δὲbut μαρτυροῦμεν,are bearing witness, καὶand οἶδαςyou have known ὅτιthat the μαρτυρίαwitnessἡμῶνof us ἀληθήςtrue ἐστιν.is.

13 ΠολλὰMany (things) εἶχονI was having γράψαιto write σοι,to you, ἀλλ’but οὐnot θέλωI am willing διὰthrough μέλανοςblack [ink] καὶand καλάμουreed σοιto you γράφειν·to be writing; 14 ἐλπίζωI am hoping δὲbut εὐθέωςimmediately σεyou ἰδεῖν,to see,καὶand στόμαmouth πρὸςtoward στόμαmouth λαλήσομεν.we shall speak.

ΕἰρήνηPeace σοι.to you.

ἀσπάζονταίAre greeting σεyou οἱthe φίλοι.friends. ἀσπάζουBe greeting τοὺςthe φίλουςfriends κατ’according to ὄνομα.name.



1 ἸούδαςJudas Ἰησοῦof Jesus ΧριστοῦChrist δοῦλος,slave, ἀδελφὸςbrother δὲbut Ἰακώβου,of James, τοῖςto the (ones) ἐνin θεῷGod πατρὶFather ἠγαπημένοιςhaving been loved καὶand Ἰησοῦto Jesus ΧριστῷChrist τετηρημένοιςto (ones) having been kept κλητοῖς·called (ones);

2 ἔλεοςMercy ὑμῖνto you καὶand εἰρήνηpeace καὶand ἀγάπηlove πληθυνθείη.may it be multiplied.

3 ᾿Αγαπητοί,Loved (ones), πᾶσανevery σπουδὴνspeedup ποιούμενοςmaking γράφεινto be writing ὑμῖνto you περὶabout τῆςthe κοινῆςcommon ἡμῶνof us σωτηρίαςsalvation ἀνάγκηνnecessity ἔσχονI had γράψαιto write ὑμῖνto you παρακαλῶνencouraging ἐπαγωνίζεσθαιto be struggling upon τῇto the ἅπαξonce for all παραδοθείσῃhaving been given beside τοῖςto the ἁγίοιςholy (ones) πίστει.to faith. 4 παρεισεδύησανSlipped into beside γάρfor τινεςsome ἄνθρωποι,men, οἱthe (ones) πάλαιof old προγεγραμμένοιhaving been written before εἰςinto τοῦτοthis τὸthe κρίμα,judgment, ἀσεβεῖς,irreverential (ones), τὴνthe τοῦof the θεοῦGodἡμῶνof us χάριταundeserved kindness μετατιθέντεςputting across εἰςinto ἀσέλγειανloose conduct καὶand τὸνthe μόνονonly δεσπότηνmaster καὶand κύριονLord ἡμῶνof us Ἰησοῦνof Jesus ΧριστὸνChrist ἀρνούμενοι.(ones) denying.

5 ὙπομνῆσαιTo remind δὲbut ὑμᾶςyou βούλομαι,I am wishing, εἰδότας(ones) having known ἅπαξonce for all πάντα,all (things), ὅτιthat ΚύριοςLord λαὸνpeople ἐκout of γῆςearth Αἰγύπτουof Egypt σώσαςhaving saved τὸthe δεύτερονsecond [time] τοὺςthe (ones) μὴnotπιστεύσανταςhaving believed ἀπώλεσεν,he destroyed, 6 ἀγγέλουςangels τεand τοὺςthe (ones) μὴnot τηρήσανταςhaving kept τὴνtheἑαυτῶνof selves ἀρχὴνbeginning ἀλλὰbut ἀπολιπόνταςhaving left off τὸthe ἴδιονown οἰκητήριονdwelling place εἰςinto κρίσινjudgment μεγάληςof great ἡμέραςday δεσμοῖςto bonds ἀϊδίοιςever-being ὑπὸunder ζόφονgloom τετήρηκεν·he has kept; 7 ὡςas ΣόδομαSodomκαὶand ΓόμορραGomorrah καὶand αἱthe περὶabout αὐτὰςthem πόλεις,cities, τὸνthe ὅμοιονlike τρόπονmanner τούτοιςto these (ones) ἐκπορνεύσασαι[cities] having committed fornication out καὶand ἀπελθοῦσαιhaving gone off ὀπίσωbehind σαρκὸςflesh ἑτέρας,different, πρόκεινταιthey are lying before δεῖγμαsomething shown πυρὸςof fire αἰωνίουeverlasting δίκηνjustice ὑπέχουσαι.having under.

8 ὉμοίωςLikewise μέντοιindeed-to you καὶalso οὗτοιthese ἐνυπνιαζόμενοιdreaming (ones) σάρκαflesh μὲνindeed μιαίνουσιν,are defiling, κυριότηταlordship δὲbut ἀθετοῦσιν,they are putting aside, δόξαςglories δὲbut βλασφημοῦσιν.they are blaspheming. 9 The δὲbut ΜιχαὴλMichael the ἀρχάγγελος,archangel, ὅτεwhen τῷto the διαβόλῳDevil διακρινόμενοςhaving judged for self dividedly διελέγετοhe was saying in disagreement περὶabout τοῦof the ΜωυσέωςMoses σώματος,of body, οὐκnot ἐτόλμησενhe dared κρίσινjudgment ἐπενεγκεῖνto bear upon βλασφημίας,of blasphemy, ἀλλὰbut εἶπενhe said ᾿ΕπιτιμήσαιMay he give rebuke σοιto you Κύριος.Lord. 10 ΟὗτοιThese (ones) δὲbut ὅσαas many (things) as μὲνindeed οὐκnot οἴδασινthey have known βλασφημοῦσιν,they are blaspheming, ὅσαas many (things) as δὲbut φυσικῶςnaturally ὡςas τὰthe ἄλογαunreasoning ζῷαliving things ἐπίστανται,they are well knowing, ἐνin τούτοιςthese (things) φθείρονται.they are corrupting themselves.

11 οὐαὶWoe αὐτοῖς,to them, ὅτιbecause τῇto the ὁδῷway τοῦof the ΚαὶνCain ἐπορεύθησαν,they went, καὶand τῇto the πλάνῃerror τοῦof the ΒαλαὰμBalaam μισθοῦof reward ἐξεχύθησαν,they were poured out, καὶand τῇto the ἀντιλογίᾳcontrary saying τοῦof the ΚορὲKorah ἀπώλοντο.they destroyed themselves. 12 οὗτοίThese εἰσινare οἱthe (ones) ἐνin ταῖςthe ἀγάπαιςlove [feasts] ὑμῶνof you σπιλάδεςhidden rocks συνευωχούμενοι,feeding selves well together, ἀφόβωςfearlessly ἑαυτοὺςselves ποιμαίνοντες,shepherding, νεφέλαιclouds ἄνυδροιwaterless ὑπὸby ἀνέμωνwinds παραφερόμεναι,being borne beside, δένδραtrees φθινοπωρινὰautumnal ἄκαρπαfruitless δὶςtwice ἀποθανόνταhaving died ἐκριζωθέντα,having been rooted out, 13 κύματαwaves ἄγριαwild θαλάσσηςof sea ἐπαφρίζονταfoaming upon τὰςthe ἑαυτῶνof selves αἰσχύνας,shameful things, ἀστέρεςstars πλανῆταιwandering οἷςto whom the ζόφοςgloom τοῦof the σκότουςdarkness εἰςinto αἰῶναage τετήρηται.has been kept.

14 ᾿ΕπροφήτευσενProphesied δὲbut καὶalso τούτοιςto these (ones) ἕβδομοςseventh (one) ἀπὸfrom ᾿ΑδὰμAdam ἙνὼχEnoch λέγωνsaying ἸδοὺLook! ἦλθενCame ΚύριοςLord ἐνin ἁγίαιςholy μυριάσινmyriads αὐτοῦ,of him, 15 ποιῆσαιto do κρίσινjudgment κατὰdown on πάντωνall (ones) καὶand ἐλέγξαιto reprove πάνταςall τοὺςthe ἀσεβεῖςirreverential (ones) περὶabout πάντωνall τῶνthe ἔργωνworks ἀσεβείαςof irreverentialness αὐτῶνof them ὧνof which ἠσέβησανthey did irreverentially καὶand περὶabout πάντωνall τῶνthe σκληρῶνhard (things) ὧνof which ἐλάλησανthey spoke κατ’down on αὐτοῦhim ἁμαρτωλοὶsinners ἀσεβεῖς.irreverential. 16 ΟὗτοίThese εἰσινare γογγυσταί,murmurers, μεμψίμοιροι,complainers at fate, κατὰaccording to τὰςthe ἐπιθυμίαςdesires αὐτῶνof them πορευόμενοι,going their way, καὶand τὸthe στόμαmouth αὐτῶνof them λαλεῖis speaking ὑπέρογκα,over-swelling (things), θαυμάζοντεςwondering at πρόσωπαfaces ὠφελίαςof benefit χάριν.thanks.

17 ὙμεῖςYou δέ,but, ἀγαπητοί,loved (ones), μνήσθητεbe you reminded τῶνof the ῥημάτωνsayings τῶνthe (ones) προειρημένωνhaving been spoken before ὑπὸby τῶνthe ἀποστόλωνapostles τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us Ἰησοῦof Jesus Χριστοῦ·Christ; 18 ὅτιthat ἔλεγονthey were saying ὑμῖνto you ᾿Επ’Upon ἐσχάτουlast χρόνουtime ἔσονταιwill be ἐμπαῖκταιplayers in sport κατὰaccording to τὰςthe ἑαυτῶνof selves ἐπιθυμίαςdesires πορευόμενοιgoing their way τῶνof the ἀσεβειῶν.irreverential things. 19 ΟὗτοίThese εἰσινare οἱthe (ones) ἀποδιορίζοντες,making separations, ψυχικοί,soulical, πνεῦμαspirit μὴnot ἔχοντες.having. 20 Ὑμεῖςyou δέ,but, ἀγαπητοί,loved (ones), ἐποικοδομοῦντεςbuilding upon ἑαυτοὺςselvesτῇto the ἁγιωτάτῃholiest ὑμῶνof you πίστει,to faith, ἐνin πνεύματιspirit ἁγίῳholy προσευχόμενοι,praying, 21 ἑαυτοὺςselves ἐνin ἀγάπῃlove θεοῦof God τηρήσατεkeep you προσδεχόμενοιreceiving toward τὸthe ἔλεοςmercy τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us Ἰησοῦof Jesus ΧριστοῦChrist εἰςinto ζωὴνlife αἰώνιον.everlasting. 22 ΚαὶAnd οὓςwhich (ones) μὲνindeed ἐλεᾶτεbe you showing mercy to διακρινομένους(ones) judging for selves dividedly 23 σώζετεbe you saving ἐκout of πυρὸςfire ἁρπάζοντες,snatching, οὓςwhich ones δὲbut ἐλεᾶτεbe you showing mercy to ἐνin φόβῳ,fear, μισοῦντεςhating καὶalso τὸνthe ἀπὸfrom τῆςthe σαρκὸςflesh ἐσπιλωμένονhaving been spotted χιτῶνα.inner garment.

24 ΤῷTo the (one) δὲbut δυναμένῳbeing able φυλάξαιto guard ὑμᾶςyou ἀπταίστουςnot tripping καὶand στῆσαιto set κατενώπιονdown in sight τῆςof the δόξηςglory αὐτοῦof him ἀμώμουςunblemished ἐνin ἀγαλλιάσειexultation 25 μόνῳto only θεῷGod σωτῆριSavior ἡμῶνof us διὰthrough ἸησοῦJesus ΧριστοῦChrist τοῦthe κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us δόξαglory μεγαλωσύνηgreatnessκράτοςmight καὶand ἐξουσίαauthority πρὸbefore παντὸςall τοῦthe αἰῶνοςage καὶand νῦνnow καὶand εἰςinto πάνταςall τοὺςthe αἰῶνας·ages; ἀμήν.amen.


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Translation and Textual Criticism

King James BibleTHE KING JAMES BIBLE: Do You Know the King James Version?

The King James Bible was originally published in 1611. Some have estimated that the number of copies of the King James Version that have been produced in print worldwide is over one billion! There is little doubt that the King James Version is a literary masterpiece, which this author has and will appreciate and value for its unparalleled beauty of expression. This book is in no way trying to take away from what the King James Version has accomplished. The King James Version is a book to be commended for all that it has accomplished. For four centuries, when English-speaking people spoke of “the Bible,” they meant the King James Version. The question that begs to be asked of those who favor the King James Bible is, Do You Know the King James Version? What do most users of the King James Bible not know about their translation? Whether you are one who favors the King James Version or one who prefers a modern translation, Andrews will answer the questions that have long been asked for centuries about the King James Bible and far more.

The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use. The translation of God’s Word from the original languages of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek is a task unlike any other and should never be taken lightly because it carries with it the heaviest responsibility: the translator renders God’s thoughts into a modern language. It is CGBT’s desire to take challenging and complex subjects and make them easy to understand. CGBT will communicate as clearly and powerfully as possible to all of its readers while also accurately communicating information about the Bible. …

DO WE STILL NEEDA LITERAL BIBLE_DO WE STILL NEED A LITERAL BIBLE?: Discover the Truth about Literal Translations

We have come a long, long way from the time that the KJV was The Bible in English and the many translations available today. Finding the right Bible for the right person can be daunting, with almost too many choices available. However, it is still possible to divide the options into two broad categories: literal translations and dynamic equivalents. What is the difference, and why should you care? Bible publishers used to say that literal translations are good for study purposes, and dynamic equivalents are better for reading. So literal translations were advertised with terms like “accurate,” “reliable,” and, of course, “literal.” For dynamic equivalent translations, terms like “contemporary,” “easy to read,” and “written in today’s English” were used. Naturally, publishers do not advertise the negatives, so they did not point out that the literal translations might be a little harder to read, or that the dynamic equivalents might not be entirely faithful to the original languages of the Bible. However, more recently, some scholars have been taking this analysis in a new direction, assessing literal translations as less desirable than dynamic equivalents even for accuracy and reliability.

KING JAMES BIBLE IITHE KING JAMES BIBLE Why Have Modern Bible Translations Removed Many Verses That Are In the King James Version?

Many have asked Edward D. Andrews as a Chief Translator, “In studying the modern Bible translations, I have come across some verses that are left out but that are in my King James Version or even my New King James Version, such as Matthew 18:11; 23:14; Luke 17:36. I have gotten conflicting opinions on social media. Can you please clear this up for me?”

Have you experienced this? The book of Revelation warns: “if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his share in the tree of life and in the holy city, which are described in this book.” Yes, removing a true part of the Bible would be a serious matter. (Rev. 22:19) But had this happened? Do you know why these verses are omitted from modern translations? You might wonder, ‘Is my modern Bible translation lacking something that the King James Version has?’ The reader of the King James Version may feel that they have something that the modern Bibles do not. Andrews will help the reader find the answers to whether verses are being omitted and far more when it comes to the differences between the King James Bible and the Modern Bible translations.


THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT (TTNT) is an introduction, intermediate and advanced level coverage of the text of the New Testament. Andrews introduces the new and relatively new reader to this subject in the first few chapters of the TTNT. Andrews deepens his handling of the material, while still making it easy to understand in the next few chapters of the TTNT, all the while being very informative in both sections. All of this prepares the reader for Wilkins’ advanced chapters. THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews offer the reader an account of the copying by hand and transmission of the Greek New Testament. They present a comprehensive survey of the manuscript history from the penning of the 27 New Testament books to the current critical texts. What did the ancient books look like and how were documents written? How were the New Testament books published? Who would use secretaries? Why was it so hard to be a secretary in the first century? How was such work done? What do we know about the early Christian copyists? What were the scribal habits and tendencies? Is it possible to establish the original text of the NewTestament? …

Introduction to New Testament Textual CriticismINTRODUCTION TO THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: From The Authors and Scribe to the Modern Critical Text

INTRODUCTION TO THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT is a shortened 321 pages of Andrews and Wilkins 602 page TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT without losing the value of content. The foremost thing the reader is going to learn is that the Greek New Testament that our modern translations are based on is a mirror-like reflection of the original and can be fully trusted. The reader will learn how the New Testament authors made and published their books, the secretaries in antiquity and their materials like Teritus who helped Paul pen the epistle to the Romans, and the book writing process of the New Testament authors and early copyists. The reader will also discover the reading culture of early Christianity and their view of the integrity of the Greek New Testament. The reader will also learn how textual scholars known as paleography determine the age of the manuscripts.

The reader will learn all about the different sources that go into our restoring the Greek New Testament to its original form. Then, Andrews will cover the ancient version, the era of the printed text, and the arrival of the critical text. After that, the reader will be given a lengthy chapter on examples of how the textual scholar determines the correct reading by his looking at the internal and external evidence. Finally, and most importantly, the reader will find out the truth about the supposed 400,000 textual errors within the Greek New Testament manuscripts. The last chapter will be faith-building and enable you to defend the Word of God as inerrant.

The Reading Culture of Early ChristianityTHE READING CULTURE OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY: The Production, Publication, Circulation, and Use of Books in the Early Christian Church

THE READING CULTURE OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY provides the reader with the production process of the New Testament books, the publication process, how they were circulated, and to what extent they were used in the early Christian church. It examines the making of the New Testament books, the New Testament secretaries and the material they used, how the early Christians viewed the New Testament books, and the literacy level of the Christians in the first three centuries. It also explores how the gospels went from an oral message to a written record, the accusation that the apostles were uneducated, the inspiration and inerrancy in the writing process of the New Testament books, the trustworthiness of the early Christian copyists, and the claim that the early scribes were predominantly amateurs. Andrews also looks into the early Christian’s use of the codex [book form], how did the spread of early Christianity affect the text of the New Testament, and how was the text impacted by the Roman Empire’s persecution of the early Christians?

400,000 Textual Variants 02400,000+ SCRIBAL ERRORS IN THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT MANUSCRIPTS: What Assurance Do We Have that We Can Trust the Bible?

The Bible has been under attack since Moses penned the first five books. However, the New Testament has faced criticism like no other time over the 50-70-years. Both friend and foe have challenged the reliability of our New Testament. Self-proclaimed Agnostic textual scholar Dr. Bart D. Ehrman has claimed that there are 400,000+ scribal errors in our Greek New Testament manuscripts. A leading textual scholar, Greek grammarian, and Christian apologist Dr. Daniel B. Wallace has stipulated that this is true. This is of particular interest among all Christians, who have been charged with defending the Word of God. – 1 Peter 3:15.

In this volume, textual scholar Edward D. Andrews offers the churchgoer and textual student a defense against this specific attack on the New Testament. Andrews offers the reader a careful analysis of the relevant evidence, giving his readers logical, reasonable, rational assurances that the New Testament can be trusted more than ever before. He will explain the differences between the older Bible translations and the newer ones. Andrews will explain why we do not need the original manuscripts to have the original Word of God. He will reveal how reliable our manuscripts are, how they survived the elements and the persecution of early Christianity, as well as withstanding careless and even deceitful scribes. Finally, Andrews will deal with the 400,000+ scribal errors in the Greek New Testament manuscripts extensively. The author takes a complicated subject and offers his readers an easy to understand argument for why they can have confidence in the Bible despite various challenges to the trustworthiness of Scripture, offering an insightful, informed, defense of God’s Word.

4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUSMISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Fourth Edition]

This fourth edition will be dealing with the Greek text of our New Testament, through the Eyes of Dr. Bart D. Ehrman, in his New York Times bestseller: Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why (2005). First, in the introduction, we will look into Bart D. Ehrman’s early life and spiritual decline as he moved from being an evangelical conservative Christian to becoming an agnostic skeptic. Second, we will open with chapter one covering the book writing process of the New Testament authors and early Christian scribes. Then, we will spend three lengthy chapters covering the reading culture of early Christianity because of Ehrman’s claim of just how low the literacy rates were in early Christianity. After that, we will take one chapter to investigate the early Christian copyists because of Ehrman’s claim that most of the scribal errors come from the first three centuries. Following this will be one of the most critical chapters examining Ehrman’s claim of 400,000 textual variants [errors] and what impact they have on the integrity of the Greek New Testament. We will then investigate Bible Difficulties and what they mean for the trustworthiness of God’s Word. After that, we will give the reader the fundamentals of some of Ehrman’s complaints, debunking them as we investigate each one throughout seven chapters.

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