We have learned that within the last two decades, more Muslims have come to Christ than within the last 1400 years. That’s something to think about! Why are they coming to Christ now? What is happening?
The walls are being broken down. God is moving! In a way, we need to be thankful for the immigrant situation because God is bringing Muslims to our doorstep, and we have many opportunities that we would not have had otherwise.
God makes it clear through his Word that he is very concerned about Muslims. He wants them to come to Him, and He’s giving them, as well as us, many opportunities to engage with this movement of the Spirit. We need to keep that in mind. However, there’s also another side. As we have seen through 1400 years of history, one of the ways that Islam first gains a foothold and then comes to dominate an area is through migration. The first great migration, called the Hijrah, was the migration into Palestine and Syria. Although Muslims started off as a minority in those areas, they eventually became the dominant force. Today there are over 50 countries (25% of all countries) with a Muslim majority, and Muslims want to retain forever any country that they have once ruled. This is the reason that the region of Palestine and Jerusalem, in particular, are such important issues today — Jerusalem once belonged to Islam and Muslims want it back. To lose these lands indicates defeat in their eyes, which is unacceptable. In order to win the world for Allah, Muslims need to hold on to every piece of land they conquer. Even the country of Spain, which was once in Muslim hands, is considered a lost possession, and some Muslims want it back.
Thus, there are two sides to the issue of immigration. On the one hand, there are many new opportunities. On the other hand, we face new dangers. Sweden is a case in point. It seems at present that Sweden will never again be the same. The percentage of Muslim immigrants has reached 8%, and this minority has already changed Sweden in significant and negative ways, especially in regard to an increase in the number of bombings and sexual crimes. Sweden has been changed through the influence of Islam, perhaps permanently. It seems that much of Europe is also following in the footsteps of Sweden and other countries that have growing numbers of Muslim immigrants.
We also need to keep in mind the population/percentage chart from an earlier chapter. As the percentage of the number of Muslims rises in a country, there are predictable increases in the number of terrorist activities, sexual crimes, and demands for the rights of Muslims over the rights of the native citizens. We cannot afford to turn a blind eye to these statistics because they present very real dangers to the American way of life.
England has provided us with an example of the difficult situations that have developed due to the recent immigration and concentration of Muslims, especially in the London area. In reports of recent bomb attacks, the government has revealed that there are 3,000 Muslims who are being closely monitored and over 20,000 on their “watch list.” However, the British don’t have a sufficient police force to keep up with this. A number of other countries in Europe, such as France, Germany, and Sweden, face similar scenarios.
We cannot allow the United States to follow the example of Europe. We need to break the mold. We need to bring Christianity to Islam, and break down that ancient wall that has existed for these past 1400 years. We must open our eyes to see the greatness of God’s hand in what He is doing in the world today, and how we can be part of this wonderful opportunity. This is why it is imperative that we learn how to reach out to Muslims with the gospel. It is one of the best ways that we can be used by God to help breach the spiritual walls that keep Muslims out of the Kingdom of God. In this chapter, we will be looking at some ways that we can use to reach Muslims with the gospel. This must, of course, be done with both love and truth. Love alone leads to the results we see in Europe today—the trampling and overrunning of the rights and freedoms of the host nation. Clearly love is not enough; we must have a love that is rooted in truth. We must also have boldness that is rooted in love for the individual Muslim. In order to do that, we need to face our fears, question Islam, build relationships, and preach the truth of the Gospel.
Facing Our Fears
Let us first examine some of our fears. One of the greatest fears we face is that our own lack of knowledge will be exposed. How many Americans have a solid knowledge of the Qur’an, Muhammed, or the Hadith? We feel that we don’t know enough, so we say nothing. Yes, it is important to be informed, and by reading this book you have made a good beginning. You will have found by now that the core beliefs of Islam, the five pillars, are in many ways simple to comprehend. This is something that many converts to Islam have found appealing. However, you have also come to understand that in many ways Islam is much more complex than the five pillars, and therefore demands that we search out the deeper issues more diligently. Remember that Muslims welcome questions about what they themselves believe. This is a wonderful way to break down barriers, and a great opportunity to in turn share what we ourselves believe. Often, in fact, Muslims will follow a discussion of their own beliefs with a question about what we as Christians believe. We need to, therefore, be prepared to explain our own beliefs.
Another aspect of the lack of knowledge that restrains our desire to talk about our faith is our inability to discuss difficult issues such as the Trinity and the inerrancy of the Bible. These certainly are intimidating issues, but there are good resources available to help us address them, including some of the earlier chapters in this book, which provide practical advice for Christians who do not have extensive theological training. Remember our guiding verse: “Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have, but do this with gentleness and respect” (I Peter 3:15). Also, remember that first-century converts to Christianity underwent extensive, in-depth theological training before they were baptized. Let this be an example to us of the importance of our own diligent study.
A second fear of confrontation for many Christians stems from the fact that most Muslims we know are so different from us. We don’t know how to engage them, and so we fear that we will appear silly or ignorant. Certainly, Muslims are culturally different from us, whether they are from the Middle East or Indonesia or Europe, but we know other people from different cultures, and they have successfully contributed to the unique “melting pot” that has become America. People from other countries are fascinating to talk to and build relationships with, and it is generally true that when we show interest in them, they in turn will show interest in us as well. Let us use this natural curiosity to build relationships that will bridge the gap and provide opportunities to present the gospel.
Another fear that we naturally feel is the fear of terrorism. Since many terrorists are Muslims, how can we be assured that the one Muslim we happen to have coffee with or even invite into our home is a peaceful person? Admittedly, it is true that there are some Muslims who wish to bring harm to America and are part of a movement to gain more control in our government, our education, and our social fabric. We must, therefore, always be prudent in our outreach. It is also true that there have been plenty of Islam-inspired terrorist attacks in America, and our law enforcement agencies have been diligently working to prevent other attacks. However, Muslim terrorists – like the Somalis of Minneapolis that joined ISIS – and others involved in jihadist terrorism are still in a small minority. As of March 2018, there have been 409 Muslims charged with terrorist activities on American soil. A large proportion have been converts to Islam (31%), and most were U.S. born citizens (220), naturalized citizens (93) or permanent residents (55).
Fortunately, most Muslims here in America are peaceful. America is a land of great opportunity, and most Muslims who come to our shores are simply seeking a chance at a better life or a better education. They simply want what we ourselves want – peace, economic success, and a good environment in which to raise their families. Readers who have gotten to know Muslims here in America will have experienced this. Therefore, we should not fear reaching out to our Muslim friends with the truth of the gospel, for this is the only thing that will give Muslims the chance to experience the true peace that only comes from knowing Jesus Christ.
The Great Debate
In the debate on the best way to reach Muslims with the gospel, there are basically two camps. There are those who seek relationships with Muslims by promoting peace, and there are those who seek to win over Muslims by emphasizing the theological differences. The first group would be on the irenic, or peaceful, side, and the second group would tend toward the polemical, or confrontational side. Think of this as a way of reaching out with either love or truth.
On the “peace” side, people want to focus on the similarities between Christianity and Islam. They would tend to say that the God of Islam and the God of Christianity are the same. This irenic side deals with topics such as our shared “desire for ‘god,” or “giving financially to the poor,” downplaying differences in beliefs even to the point where it borders on accepting heretical views for the sake of keeping the peace. Those on this “peaceful” side would thus prefer to err on the side of non-confrontation so that conversational opportunities remain open and Muslims not be offended and respond violently. Appeasement is usually advocated. The “polemic” side, however, focuses on the differences between Christianity and Islam, claiming a superiority of Christianity over Islam and ultimately arguing that Christianity is true while Islam is not. This confrontational side essentially seeks to critique Islam and refute error. It focuses on pursuing the truth rather than compromising doctrine and sees debate between Christians and Muslims as ideally removing obstacles in the Muslim’s thinking toward Christianity. As we have learned, Apologetics is one approach that can successfully remove these barriers.
This was true in the life of Nabeel Qureshi, a man whose experience is a great testimony to the power of Apologetics. Apologetics helped him to work through and overcome many of the obstacles that held him back from making a decision for Christ, and this helped him to be more open to the gospel message later on. In the end, it is best to use both methods: open-hearted friendship seeks to encourage as well as critique. We need to seek peace as well as confrontation in love – to find a balance between Truth and Love. Following are some ways that this balance can be achieved, and a loving relationship can be established.
What Can Be Done?
There are three things that we can all do: question Islam, love Muslims, and preach the Gospel. Let us first look at the reason why we should question Islam, or, more specifically, help Muslims to question Islam. In Peter Townsend’s book, Nothing to Do With Islam? he begins his response by admitting that “we have a problem with Islam.” In fact, he says the greatest problem is Islam itself because the main beliefs of Islam are diametrically opposed to the fundamental beliefs of Christianity (Trinity, deity of Christ, Crucifixion, and atonement by Christ alone). Therefore, Townsend says the first thing that must be done is to undermine belief in Islam because “… the core beliefs of Islam are part of the problem and … belief in it should, therefore, be questioned and undermined.” This is what we should do with any religion or philosophy that makes claims about what is true. We want to know whether it is true or not, so we question it. We certainly invite this practice in Christianity. When we teach students about theological issues, we should invite them to question the sources and the views that are presented. There are good ways to question beliefs, and researching answers help to solidify what we believe. We do not need to fear the truth, especially if it is on our side. This can give us greater confidence in what we believe.
Since jihad and terrorism are often linked to Islam, Townsend uses this association to explore the possibility of a new interpretation of Islam. He says, “It is possible to argue on the basis of this [Qur’an and Hadith] that physical jihad for the sake of Allah is not a fringe concern in terms of the core beliefs of Islam, but that it is, in many ways, central to it.” In his book, Townsend gives many examples of how physical jihad for the sake of Allah is indeed a core tenant of Islam and has been consistently taught by Muslim scholars over the last 1400 years. Earlier chapters in this book have also presented plenty of material demonstrating that violent jihad has always been part of the core of Islamic belief and practice.
At the present time, Townsend wonders if moderate Muslims who are opposed to violent jihad and terrorism may be able to develop a form of “Islam Lite.” In other words, would it be possible to create a more tolerant Islam by rejecting the violent passages in the Qur’an and the Hadith and form a religion that would line up more with the values of peace, love, and mutual understanding? There are some moderate Muslims who actually advocate this kind of Islam, such as Zudhi Jasser and Raheel Raza, who are on the advisory board of the Clarion Project, an organization that promotes a more moderate Islam. They strive to bring about a type of reform within Islam that would promote peace and understanding by disregarding the verses in the Qur’an that support terrorism and jihad. This is an admirable goal. Townsend, however, believes that this will be impossible because it would mean rejecting three absolutely foundational ways of interpreting the Qur’an.
One of the ways of interpretation that would have to be abandoned would be the Law of Abrogation, which favors the later violent verses over the more peaceful earlier verses. This practice goes back all the way to Muhammad, and it is still supported by Muslim scholars as well as Muslim jihadists who interpret the meaning of the Qur’an through the lens of abrogation. Secondly, the normative interpretation of the Qur’an by the early commentators opposes a peaceful Islam. Throughout the history of Islam, the main commentators have consistently promoted violent jihad in the way of Allah as one of the main ways to carry out Allah’s mandate to dominate the world. In his book, The History of Jihad, Robert Spencer says,
… there is no period since the beginning of Islam that was characterized by large-scale peaceful coexistence between Muslims and non-Muslims. There was no time when mainstream and dominant Islamic authorities taught the equality of non-Muslims with Muslims, or the obsolescence of jihad warfare. There was no Era of Good Feeling, no Golden Age of Tolerance, no Paradise of Proto-Multiculturalism. There has always been, with virtually no interruption, jihad, everywhere Muslims and non-Muslims have lived in close proximity with one another.
In fact, a number of Muslim writers admit that without a strict interpretation of the Qur’an, especially in regard to the jihad verses, it is likely that Islam would not have been able to survive. Even today, popular imams such as Qaradawi argue that without the apostasy laws calling for death for those who turn away from Islam, it is possible that Islam would not have survived this long. In other words, he is saying that there has to be a strict interpretation of the Qur’an as well as an active promotion of jihad in order for Islam to move forward. In addition, this authoritarian view of Islam all but closes the gates of ijtihad, which is the type of interpretation that the moderate Muslims promote. This is why hardline jihadists often consider moderates to be heretics and unbelievers and therefore seek to kill them.
Thirdly, they would have to repudiate the example of Muhammad, since he was a warrior. He believed in and personally performed violent jihad. Even the accepted traditions record that he sent his men on over 70 raids and personally guided at least 28 of them. Thus, Muhammad was very much involved in jihad while conquering Mecca and parts of Arabia, all through violent means.
These are the reasons that Townsend says that “in the eyes of true believers, an Islam that does not seek to dominate will no longer be Islam at all.” In light of this, then, Townsend says it is of the utmost importance that Islam must be “critiqued, questioned, and undermined.” Ultimately, as we reach out to Muslims to bring them to the Lord, we need to demonstrate to them that Islam is not factual, and we need to present evidence to them that Christianity is. In this way, we may understand that undermining Islam is actually a loving thing to do.
We can see all this borne out in the life of Nabeel Qureshi. Why did he leave Islam? Among other reasons, his faith was undermined when he realized that Islam does not coincide with actual history, nor does its worldview provide a foundation for a successful culture. Qureshi wanted the truth, and through the loving witness of his Christian friends, he discovered the Truth in Jesus Christ. This is why we need to recognize that Townsend is putting forth an idea that is very important in reaching Muslims. Of course, we need to do this with “respect and gentleness,” as the verse in 1 Peter 3:15 says, but we also need to help Muslims question their own beliefs in order to throw off the shackles of Islam and embrace the truth of Christianity.
Undermine Islam in Order to Help Muslims Leave Islam
It may sound harsh, but Townsend firmly believes that “the best way to counter jihad ideology is to help Muslims leave Islam.” He says this is because we need to deal with the “root cause” of the violence promoted by Islamic terrorism (which is Islam itself). Attempts to thwart the attacks of radical Islamic jihadists are only dealing with the symptoms. So, what is the remedy? Let us look at this logically. If Islamic terrorism is based on Islamic beliefs, then if someone ceases to believe in Islam, they should no longer have a reason for carrying out terrorist attacks against non-Muslims. Therefore, the best way to deal with radical Islam is to help Muslims leave Islam.
Think back to 9/11, when nineteen Saudis hijacked planes plowed into buildings and killed thousands of innocent people. Why did they do this? Because of their Islamic beliefs. If they had not held such beliefs, would they have done these things? Probably not. There have been more than 33,000 Islamic terrorist attacks around the world since 9/11. Would any of these atrocities been carried out if these Muslim men and women did not have Muslim beliefs that promoted jihad as a way to please Allah and carry out his will? No, probably a few or none of them would have been perpetrated. So, what does this mean for us? The core of their reasoning is that they are Muslim, and they follow Islamic beliefs and have specifically pledged allegiance to Allah and jihad. If they were Christians, they presumably would not have done those things because they would not have had those motives. If they were Buddhists, they also would not have done those things. But, being Muslims, they did it because their Qur’an, their beliefs, and their leaders told them to do it, in order to dominate the world and subjugate Christians, Jews and others who do not call on the name of Allah. Thus, Islamic terrorism is clearly based on Islamic beliefs, as has been demonstrated earlier in this book.
Furthermore, when a Muslim terrorist turns away from Islam or becomes a Christian, he no longer has a desire to bring harm to Christians and Jews. After becoming a Christian, he sees the world in a totally different light. Beliefs are important. Ideas do have consequences. Daniel Shayesteh for example was a typical revolutionary in Iran who was taught to hate the infidel. He also believed that the Ayatollah Khomeini would usher in an Islamic theocracy that would bring prosperity and peace to Iran. However, as he realized that Islamic sharia imposed by the new regime actually brought less freedom and more hardship, he rebelled and soon found himself facing a death sentence. He escaped and later, through some Christian friends, became a Christian. Now, like many former Muslims who have converted to Christianity, he has a new perspective:
My family’s life is changed now and our mind-set is different. We believe in Christ now. We have learned to not respond to the cruelty of Islamists in Iran as they responded to us and millions of other Iranians. We pray for Islamists every day that they might see the glory of loving Jesus and start respecting people regardless of race, nationality or belief.
It seems to be obvious that the root cause of a Muslim’s desire to kill Christians and Jews is Islam itself: Islamic beliefs, jihad verses in the Qur’an, and Muhammad’s commands in the Hadith. However, when Muslims turn their backs on these beliefs by leaving Islam, they have no further desire to bring harm to others. Once we see this direct connection, we should encourage Muslims to turn away from the root cause of their actions and instead turn toward beliefs that bring true peace and freedom to the soul. Therefore, one of the best ways to deal with radical Islam is to help Muslims leave Islam.
So, then, how can this be done? Townsend says that in questioning Islam we need to look at four main ways that will help us do this effectively. The first thing is to educate ourselves. We need to understand why the arguments made for the truth claims of Islam are incorrect, and we need to be able to counter the reasons that Muslims give for their beliefs. Secondly, we need to be able to discuss these arguments with Muslims. In other words, we need to be able to defend the truth and refute error. Studying these areas will give us confidence in what we believe and confidence in challenging our Muslim friends to think through the reasons for their own beliefs. This is where Apologetics comes in. Thirdly, we need to support the efforts of ex-Muslims as they help other Muslims leave Islam. Many times these former Muslims are the best ones to challenge the beliefs of Muslims because they have lived according to these beliefs all their lives. Finally, we need to remain vigilant and fight the censorship that tries to silence opponents of Islam. As we look across the pond to our Christian partners in England and Europe, we can see how censorship against Christians reaching out to Muslims has been devastating to the work of the gospel and destructive of the common freedoms that were so valiantly fought for in past wars. The obfuscation by political leaders, who have caved into the demands of Muslim activists, must be addressed and the truth must be heard, if for no other reason than good men need to stand up for what is right.
What else can be done? After questioning Islam, we need to love Muslims. These are people who are made in the image of God, and we need to help them come to know this God who loves them and wants them to be in his kingdom. Islam is the barrier that keeps them from knowing this God, and we have the opportunity to help them leave Islam and embrace the gospel of the One who can save them.
The key to reaching Muslims with the gospel is simple: relationships, relationships, relationships! Millions of Muslims are turning to Christ around the world today. Many come to Jesus Christ because he reveals himself to them in a dream or a vision. Others come because they hear the Word of God preached through the internet or by satellite broadcasts. Through all these powerful witnesses of the Holy Spirit working in the lives of Muslims, Christians are needed to come alongside Muslims and lead them home. Relationships are essential to this movement of the Holy Spirit in the world today. Even in helping Muslims leave Islam, relationships are necessary to guide people through the various obstacles and answer questions that arise.
Let us look at several helpful books and ideas about building relationships with Muslims. One book is Muslims, Christians, and Jesus, by Carl Madieras. He has some very helpful suggestions for building relationships. One suggestion is to visit mosques. Most are very welcoming to visitors who simply sit in the back and observe. This is a great way to meet Muslims. It is also a great place to ask questions about Islam in a way that will help you gain respect from the Muslims as well as build trust. Another way to reach out is to invite Muslim colleagues to meals. You may also be invited to attend one of their important feasts. It is not unusual when Muslims get to know you for them to invite you to join in on a celebration such as Eid al Fitr, at the close of Ramadan.
A particularly good way to get to know Muslims is to volunteer to teach English, which is always much appreciated. There are often programs in churches for teaching English to recent immigrants. This is an excellent way to meet Muslims who are hungry for friendships in a place that may seem hostile and lonely to them. There are also university programs that appreciate Americans getting together with international students in order to help them gain a better grasp of English. The relationships that often result from this type of outreach may have eternal rewards. Muslims love to talk about their religion, and they are often open to hearing you talk about your own beliefs. This can best be carried out around a meal or a cup of coffee. You can also help out with campus ministries if you live in a university town. Outreaches such as these often have lunches, dinners, and other opportunities in which to get involved. Many churches also have ministries to international students or prayer groups for Muslim outreach. If your church does not have an outreach ministry but does have international students in the area, encourage your church to get involved.
Bear in mind that relationships take a great deal of time, and you may not see results for years, only to have them suddenly appear. One well-known Christian writer and speaker became a believer after five years of Apologetics in the context of relationship. Indeed, results may come long after your relationship has ended.
Another book, Reaching Muslims, written by Nick Chatrath, is a helpful guide to building bridges. He emphasizes the importance of building a true friendship, and he has many examples and ideas for how to do this. He encourages all who would reach out to cultivate a posture of welcome and acceptance. Pray for open hearts! Be truly interested in others. Actually, get to know some Muslims. Show love in action. Get engaged in politics and issues of social need (but do be well informed!). As you build actual relational bridges, seek to develop a true friendship. They want to know that you truly care about them as a person and not just someone that you are trying to convert to Christianity. Therefore, build trust, ask good questions, and be a good listener.
You also need to be prepared to give good answers, especially regarding theological questions. Read the gospels together—perhaps read a chapter a week in the gospel of John, discussing the chapter when you next meet. One of the ways that I have often brought up theological discussions with my Muslim friends is to challenge them when they express a view about Christianity that is not accurate, asking, “Do you want to know what Christians really believe about that?” This often piques their interest and it opens the door in a non-threatening way for you to explain in more detail what you believe as a Christian. It also may be appropriate to give your friend a good quality Bible. (They do judge a book by its cover.) Be sure to pray for your Muslim friends. Without the work of the Holy Spirit in their lives, your words will not be effective. In the end, as you challenge their beliefs about Islam, and seek to build a relationship with them, be sure that you are prepared to give them answers about your own beliefs. Perhaps the greatest thing you can do is to be prepared to share with your Muslim friends the gospel of Jesus Christ.
What Can Be Done? Preach the Gospel
A third book that is a great resource is The Gospel for Muslims by Thabiti Anyabwile. Anyabwile, a former Muslim himself, notes, “As a Christian you already know everything you need to know to effectively share the good news of Jesus Christ with Muslim people. The same message that saves us—the gospel—is the message that will eternally change our Muslim neighbors and friends.”
So, we already have the answer. We already have the tools to reach out to Muslims. We know the gospel. We just need to share it with our Muslim friends. It is the same gospel that everyone needs to know, regardless of their faith or background.
Anyabwile is in line with many others who reach out to Muslims. They all agree that our direction in forming relationships needs to be toward the gospel—that is our goal and direction. Anyabwile goes on to say, “In my experience, Christians know the gospel. They simply lack confidence in its power.” The gospel is “the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek” (Romans 1:16)—and also to the Muslim! He distinguishes between Apologetics and evangelism, saying, “Apologetics is a helpful discipline, but it is not evangelism. The Gospel for Muslims is concerned not with defense but with a good offense, with getting the gospel out to others.” So we should have both a defense and an offense, but a purposeful offense — preaching the gospel. This again highlights how the best Apologetic approach is one that keeps a balance between the polemic and the peaceful in our conversations.
The ultimate goal, then, is to put all of these things together. One of the best books on Islam demonstrates how these approaches work together. The late Nabeel Qureshi, in his book Seeking Allah, Finding Jesus, reminds us to always be prepared to give an answer. He himself was an example of this, always being ready to engage. As a great apologist who spoke in many settings, Nabeel was enamored with apologetics because that was what led him to the Lord, through the patient and loving ministry of faithful friends over a five-year period. After becoming a Christian, he was very concerned with reaching Muslims with the gospel that transformed his life. He realized that the best way to do this was through both Apologetics and Evangelism.
A major role of Apologetics is to show how something is false, while the gospel shows what is true. This is the ultimate way that we can show both Truth and Love. (Truth and Love in the Defense of the Gospel.) There will be true peace for everyone who believes in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. And this is what Nabeel found. Muslims want that true peace just as we do. We have the answer; now we need to find ways to get the answer to them.
In conclusion, there are three things that we need to always be prepared to do. First, we need to be prepared to question Islam in order to get Muslims to leave Islam. This opens the door. Then, we need to love Muslims and build relationships with them because they need to see the gospel lived out. This invites them into your world. It is also much easier to help your Muslim friend question Islam when they trust you and can observe Christ working in your life. Finally, you need to share with them the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Muslims need to know the good news! This is the bridge that leads them to Jesus Christ. Ultimately, this is the only thing that is going to truly set Muslims free.
These three things, as well as the message of this book, can be summed up in the verse that has guided us through this book:
1 Peter 3:15 English Standard Version (ESV)
15 but in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you; yet do it with gentleness and respect,
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 Hackett, Conrad. “5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe.” Pew Research/Fact Tank. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 12 December 2017. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/11/29/5-facts-about-the-muslim-population-in-europe/
 The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-20150. Pew Research Center, April 2, 215. http://www.pewforum.org/files/2015/03/PF_15.04.02_ProjectionsFullReport.pdf, 50.
 Percentage chart on Muslim growth by Peter Hammond, “What Islam Isn’t,” FrontPageMagazine.com, Monday, April 21, 2008.
 BBC, 2017: http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/article/40158730/does-a-terror-watch-list-exist-in-the-uk-and-how-is-it-used-by-police (accessed 6/10/2018).
 Newamerica.org — https://www.newamerica.org/in-depth/terrorism-in-america/part-i-overview-terrorism-cases-2001-today/ (accessed 6/18/2018).
 CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: What Will You Say to a Muslim?
 Townsend, Nothing to Do with Islam?, 141.
 Ibid., 142.
 Ibid., 142.
 See Spencer, The History of Jihad: From Muhammad to ISIS.
 See Spencer, The History of Jihad. Also see William Wagner, How Islam Plans to Change the World (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 2004).
 Nonie Darwish, Gatestone Institute, February 5, 2013: https://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/3572/islam-apostasy-death
 see Reilley, The Closing of the Muslim Mind.
 Watt, Muhammad at Medina (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956), 339-343.
 Townsend, Nothing to Do with Islam?, 144.
 Ibid., 144.
 Ibid., 145.
 Daniel Shayesteh, The House I Left Behind: A journey from Islam to Christ ( Talesh Books, 2012).
 Townsend, Nothing to Do with Islam, 146-148.
 Trousdale, Miraculous Movements.
 Carl Madearis, Muslims, Christians, and Jesus: Gaining Understanding and Building Relationships (Minneapolis: Bethany House, 2008).
 Nick Chatrath, Reaching Muslims: A One-Step Guide for Christians (Oxford: Monarch Books, 2011).
 Thabiti Anyabwile, The Gospel for Muslims: An Encouragement to Share Christ with Confidence (Chicago: Moody, 2010).
 Ibid., 13.
 Ibid., 13.
 Ibid., 14.
 Qureshi, Seeking Allah, Finding Jesus, 18.