Thomas Marshall

Hebrews 1:1-2a Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

1 Long ago God spoke to the fathers by the prophets at different times and in many ways, in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son …

Introduction

As our coverage of the various forms of Biblical Criticism in this book has been showing, scholars seek to view the biblical texts as having human rather than supernatural origins. This grew out of the rationalism of the 17th and 18th centuries. The use of this so-called scholarly research asks when and where a particular text originated; how, why, by whom, for whom, and in what circumstances it was produced; what influences were at work in its production; what sources were used in its composition; and what message it was intended to convey.

In the 19th century, Biblical Criticism became divided between Higher Criticism – the study of the composition and history of biblical texts, and Lower Criticism – the close examination of the text to establish their original or “correct” readings. These terms, for a large part, are no longer used, and contemporary criticism has seen the rise of new methods of study which draw on literary and multidisciplinary sociological approaches to address the meaning(s) of texts and the wider world in which they were conceived. The various forms of study of the Scriptures (Textual, Form, Source, Traditional-Historical, Redaction, Canonical, Narrative, etc.) all claim to be ways to validate (or invalidate) the truth of the written words that we have today.

Historical criticism was the dominant form of criticism until the late 20th century when biblical critics became interested in questions aimed more at the meaning of the text than its origins and sought out methods used in mainstream literary criticism of the day. The reader may come upon the terms diachronic and synchronic forms of criticism. The diachronic form of criticism is concerned about the development of the scriptural texts over time. The other form (synchronic) focuses upon the text, as it exists at a particular moment – meaning the text we have today.[1]

This concept of focusing on the text’s form and content is called New Criticism, or Formal Criticism.[2] While this direction of formal criticism became prominent in the 1920’s, it flourished in the United States during the 1940’s – 60’s, becoming the dominant form in many scholastic circles in the 1970’s.

Rhetorical criticism became a separate, distinct approach to Scripture in 1968, when James Muilenburg described the need for it and named the discipline in his Society of Biblical Literature’s presidential address delivered at the University of California, Berkley. His address (and subsequent article in the Journal of Biblical Literature), was entitled Form Criticism and Beyond.[3] Although various rhetorical-critical techniques were already in use regarding Scripture, Muilenburg’s speech helped provide definition, direction and impetus for this critical approach to the study of the Scriptures. His students then provided a nucleus of practitioners for this sub-discipline, and others, in turn, joined in the research.

This chapter will attempt to provide the reader with a definition of what is Rhetorical Criticism, the historical background, the presuppositions that are involved, the fundamental components and contradictions of this form of Higher Criticism.

Definition and Description

Rhetoric (more explanation can be found in the section on Presuppositions) is the use of available means of persuasion on the part of an author (speaker) wishing to influence the response of one or more readers (hearers) to their point of view.[4] Concerning rhetorical criticism, this form of analysis asks how the text functions for its audience, including especially its original audience. It is an analysis of how the author utilizes certain means of persuasion to advance their agenda for the people involved in a particular situation.

Whereas we find historical criticism seeking to discover the impact of text in its historical setting, the rhetorical criticism advocate seeks to insert himself into the situation. Therefore, by using a contemporary/historical interpretation, the scholar works to discover the author’s (speaker’s) presentation of the text to affect the hearer’s (reader’s) identification of the challenges presented and then to respond to these challenges in the way that the author (speaker) so determines.

Originally called stylistic criticism the followers of Muilenburg have sought bold, sophisticated attempts of bringing out the meaning of the texts in consideration.[5] Since form criticism appeared to become scholastic in its approach of assigning passages to traditional genres thus stereotyping them and forcing them into referring to nothing outside of the sanctuary, it was important to bring some semblance of usefulness to real life usage. The objective of this type of analysis was to delineate the individual units and their structure.[6] More can be said in the next section dealing with the Historical and Presuppositional Background of this critical method.

Historical and Presuppositional Background

To begin this section of study on this critical method, let us begin by defining what is meant by the term Rhetoric. Rhetoric is the study of effective speaking and writing. Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. In its extensive history, rhetoric has enjoyed many definitions, accommodated many different purposes, and varied widely in what it included. Still, for most of its history, it has maintained its fundamental character as a discipline for training students to perceive how language is at work orally and in writing, in addition to becoming proficient in applying the resources of language in their own speaking and writing.

Because rhetoric examines so attentively the how of language, the methods, and means of communication, it has sometimes been written off as something only concerned with style or appearances, and not with the quality or content of the communication. Rhetoric is an art that is just as much concerned with what one could say as how one might say it. Indeed, a basic premise for rhetoric is the indivisibility of means from meaning; how one says something conveys meaning as much as what one says. Rhetoric studies the effectiveness of language comprehensively, including its emotional impact, as much as its propositional content.

To continue our insight into rhetoric, we need to understand the three major parts of persuasion that this system incorporates. The three major parts are Ethos, Pathos, and Logos. Ethos means the good character and credibility of the speaker. You may want to think of ethos as related to “ethics,” or the moral principles of the writer: ethos is the author’s way of establishing trust with his or her reader, establishing his credibility. Questions we could ask in line with this could include: Why should I (the reader or listener) pay attention to what the person has communicated? How does the communicator provide examples or support that she has something valid and important for me to listen or read? Does the communicator provide evidence of their education or professional experience to convince me that he or she is a valid, educated, and experienced source? The arguments[7] presented in this form of rhetoric are designed to appeal to the credibility of the presenter.

Ethos concerns the appeal to the emotions of the listener/reader. You may want to think of pathos as empathy (the psychological identification with or vicarious experiencing the feelings, thoughts, or attitudes of another),  which pertains to the experience of or sensitivity toward emotion. It is the quality or power in literature or speech, of arousing feelings of pity, sorrow, etc. Some questions that we could ask in accordance with this mode of rhetoric could include: How is the communicator trying to make one feel, or what has been communicated that makes me want to do something? What specific parts of the writer or speaker’s message make me feel happy, sad, inspired, dejected, and so on? In other words, what emotions are triggered by the message being considered?

Finally, Logos appeals to the intellect as it seeks to furnish clear and persuasive proof for the argument being presented. You may want to think of logos as “logic,” because something that is logical “makes sense”—it is reasonable. It comes from the Greek, which can be translated word, reason, or discourse; from the Greek root legein “to speak.” In philosophy, logos can be understood as reason or the rational principle expressed in words and things, arguments, or justifications; it is personified as the source of order in the universe. In Christian Theology, it is the divine word or reason incarnate in Jesus Christ (John 1:1–14).  Some questions that may arise in connection with this mode of rhetoric could include: What evidence does the person communicating provide that convinces one that his or her argument is logical—that it makes sense? What proof is the speaker/writer offering the listener/reader? How does this mode of rhetoric of the communicator appeal to the intellectual side of the receiver?

Rhetoric also takes on three forms according to Aristotle. These three forms are forensic, deliberate, and epideictic.[8] The first, forensic (or judicial) rhetoric is speech or writing that considers the justice or injustice of a certain charge or accusation. Today lawyers in trials decided by a judge or jury primarily employ forensic rhetoric. The next, deliberate rhetoric is speech or writing that attempts to persuade an audience to take (or not take) some action. Whereas judicial rhetoric is primarily concerned with past events, deliberative discourse, according to Aristotle, always advises about things to come. Political speeches and debates fall under the category of deliberative rhetoric. The final form or epideictic rhetoric is speech or writing that praises or blames. Also known as ceremonial discourse, epideictic rhetoric includes funeral orations, obituaries, graduation and retirement speeches, letters of recommendation, and nominating speeches at political conventions. Interpreted more broadly, epideictic rhetoric may also include works of literature.[9]

Rhetoric has a long history and has been codified in detail in many Greek writings. The Mesopotamians and Ancient Egyptians both valued the ability to speak with eloquence and wisdom. However, it wasn’t until the rise of Greek democracy that rhetoric became a high art that was studied and developed systematically. Many historians credit the ancient city-state of Athens as the birthplace of classical rhetoric. Because Athenian democracy assembled free men into politics, these Athenian men had to be ready to speak in the Assembly and seek to persuade his countrymen to vote for or against a particular piece of legislation. A man’s influence in ancient Athens depended on upon his rhetorical ability. Thus, small schools dedicated to teaching rhetoric began to form. The first of these schools began in the 5th century B.C. among an itinerant group of teachers called the Sophists. Sophists prided themselves on their ability to win any debate on any subject even if they had no prior knowledge of the topic through the use of confusing analogies, flowery metaphors, and clever wordplay. In short, the Sophists focused on style and presentation even at the expense of truth.[10]

This manipulation of the truth brought about a negative connotation for the name Sophist, and in fact, we find that the Athenians executed Socrates for being a Sophist. Both Plato and Aristotle condemned the Sophists for relying solely on emotion to persuade an audience and for their disregard for truth. In his treatise, The Art of Rhetoric, Aristotle established a system for understanding and teaching rhetoric.

In The Art of Rhetoric, Aristotle defined rhetoric as “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.” While Aristotle preferred persuasion through the use of reason alone, he recognized that at times an audience would not be capable of following arguments based solely on scientific and logical principles. If this was the case, the use of persuasive language and techniques were necessary for truth to be taught. According to Aristotle, sometimes you had to fight fire with fire.

The Art of Rhetoric had a tremendous influence on the development of the study of rhetoric for the next 2,000 years. Roman rhetoricians Cicero and Quintilian frequently referred to Aristotle’s work, and universities required students to study The Art of Rhetoric during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Rhetorical criticism of the Bible can be dated back to at least St. Augustine.  Augustine, the Church’s foremost teacher in the classical art of Christian preaching, a master rhetorician, and former teacher of oratory, was convinced that the pagan rhetorical tradition, so important to the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome, had great insights to offer Christian preachers about the art of good preaching. From this, the church has utilized the concepts codified by the Greeks and Romans as a part of their hermeneutical methods. In the 4th century A.D., epistolary theory (an epistle is a narrative addressed to someone – as in the form of a letter) became part of rhetorical theory.

Thus, we have come to see that the modern application of techniques of rhetorical analysis to biblical texts begins with James Muilenburg in 1968 as a corrective to form criticism, which he saw as too generalized and insufficiently specific. For Muilenburg, rhetorical criticism emphasized the unique and unrepeatable message of the writer or speaker as addressed to his audience, including especially the techniques and devices which went into crafting the biblical narrative as it was heard (or read) by its audience.

“What Muilenburg called rhetorical criticism was not exactly the same as what secular literary critics called rhetorical criticism, and when biblical scholars became interested in “rhetorical criticism,” they did not limit themselves to Muilenburg’s definition…In some cases, it is difficult to distinguish between rhetorical criticism and literary criticism, or other disciplines”.[11] Rhetorical criticism (at least as defined by Muilenburg) takes a special interest in the relationship between the biblical text and its intended audience within the context of the communal life setting. Rhetorical criticism seeks to ascertain how the text functions for its audience, including its original audience: to teach, persuade, guide, exhort, reproach, or inspire. It concentrates on identifying and elucidating unique features of the situation, including both the techniques, manifest in the text itself and the relevant features of the cultural setting, through which this purpose is pursued.

So, we can ascertain that Muilenburg saw Rhetorical Criticism as an attempt to move beyond form criticism. It was not only looking at the form and genre of the piece but also the rhetorical devices employed to win over the reader/hearer. The Sitz in leben (German, roughly translated as “setting or situation in life”) is expanded to include the response intended by the author.[12]

Fundamental Components

This brings us to discuss the fundamental components of this critical view. In this section of our analysis, we will discuss the areas of the assumptions that this critical method is based upon, the three types of rhetorical criticism (as given by David Goodwin[13]), rhetorical criticism of the Hebrew Bible, rhetorical criticism of the New Testament, and steps to application of this method (as described by George Kennedy[14]).

Beginning with the basic assumptions of this methodology we see that there are two. The first of these assumptions is that language is adequate, even being imperfect, to communicate human intentions. The second assumption that is accepted in this view is that a communicative act includes an intentional use of language, a response, and a rhetorical situation.[15] Both of these assumptions seem highly plausible and acceptable. It is only through language that man is able to communicate thoughts, feelings, ideas, and concepts. Often (sometimes intentional, sometimes unintentional) the ability to communicate can deliver a flawed or incorrect message.

In the field and study of communication, in a very simplistic explanation, there is a sender and a receiver. Without both of these components, no communication is produced. The sender/author is the one who initiates the message, and the receiver/reader (hearer) is the one who interprets the message. In between these two main functionaries, there are various filters (both good and bad) that can distort the message. In a perfect situation, the receiver hears (reads) and accurately interprets the message that the sender says (writes). Therefore, the sender/author utilizes language to produce a message that he/she intends for the hearer/reader to respond in a prescribed and intended method. Given this understanding of a simplistic model of communication, the two assumptions that we view here show that the concept of rhetorical criticism is interested in the process, the product, and the effect of the communication (spoken or written).[16]

David Godwin proposes that there are three types of rhetorical criticism – traditional (Neo-Aristotelian), transitional, and contemporary.[17] The traditional method, also called the Neo-Aristotelian method is the first formal method of rhetorical criticism, and the most widely applied method. It deals with persuasive discourse, both in written and oral form. It looks through the lens of the three kinds of appeal (logos, ethos, and pathos) that we have previously discussed. The critic also will employ the two types of proof – artistic and inartistic. By artistic proofs, we mean those that may be discovered through rhetorical invention, arguments that the speaker must invent: definition, comparison, relationships, circumstances, testimony, notation, and conjugates. By inartistic proofs, we are speaking of the proofs which are not supplied by the writer’s efforts, but existed beforehand, such as witnesses, admissions under torture, written contracts, and the like. The latter type needs only to be used; the first type has to be invented. Finally, in Neo-Aristotelian rhetorical criticism, the critic works through the five major divisions of research, invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery. Invention is the location and creation of ideas and materials for the speech/writing, arrangement is the structure/organization of the speech/writing, style is the language of the speech/writing, memory is the mastery of the subject matter of the speech/writing, and finally, delivery is of the management of the voice, gestures or genre in the presentation of the speech/writing.

The next type of rhetorical criticism given by Goodwin is the transitional method. This methodology looks at and examines the transactions between the rhetorical situation, the rhetorical strategies, and the rhetorical effects. The rhetorical situation is the context of the rhetorical undertaking, made up (at a minimum) of the communicator, the issue at hand, and an audience. The rhetorical strategies are an analogy, argument, persuasion, cause-and-effect, description, narration, illustration, process, division/classification, comparison/contrast, and definition. Finally, rhetorical effects are how the receivers (readers/hearers) react to the intended purpose of the writer/speaker.

The final form of rhetorical criticism as outlined by Goodwin is the contemporary method. Mark Klyn and Wayne Booth speak of a single method of critical analysis. Others consider a pluralistic approach to rhetorical criticism. They work from post-modern assumptions and place the critic as central to the method of critical analysis. In the general consensus, the methodology used can and is very fluid. In simple words, there is no right or wrong method. Post-modernism roots itself in the postulate that there are no foundational truths, and as such all methods and considerations are equally acceptable. Thus, the historical-critical components hold no place in this branch of rhetorical criticism.

From Goodwin’s views and analysis let us move into a reflection upon the rhetorical criticism of the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament). The tasks, as defined by Muilenburg, would distinguish this approach from that of form criticism and source criticism. In the methodology of source criticism, the critic reads the text searching for indications of earlier texts and traditions. The goal seems to be to discover the history and culture of the community at the time of the earlier texts.  This differs from rhetorical criticism because in rhetorical criticism the critic reads the text as an intentional communication reflecting the needs, interests, and challenges that were facing the persons it was delivered to.[18] This creates a difference in the way that features such as, repetition, changes in the poetic design, etc. The rhetorical critic seeks to discover any signs of the internal composition in its communication purposes before researching the possibly of faulty editing or flaws in the existence of the communication.[19]

Form critics also study a text to discover what it can yield about the prehistory of traditions, the social settings, and the typical literary patterns and the circumstances that make the communication useful for that particular text. The rhetorical critic analyzes the particular text in its final distinctive form without paying any particular attention to the variations or changes from the typical use of that form.[20]

Considering the rhetorical analysis of the Hebrew Bible, the critic generally starts by identifying the start and finish of each rhetorical unit – i.e. the identification of the various literary devices employed.[21] The determination of the cohesion of these units helps establish the “boundaries”[22] of the unit. When these “boundaries” are established provisionally, the critic then seeks to identify the internal structures[23], rhetorical devices[24], and any indication of “movement” inside of the text.[25] Often a painstaking process of re-writing and schematically organizing the unit being examined accomplishes this.[26] Sometimes the critic’s focus on the text remains at the level of style and composition; some go beyond this to questioning how and in what direction does the communication move the audience – how is the dynamics of persuasion utilized.

The use of rhetorical criticism is not refined to the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) alone. The use of this methodology is not a new form of interpretation of the New Testament teachings. In his work On Christian Doctrine, Augustine in the fourth century directly addresses this topic. Others who have used this methodology of research and teaching include Philip Melanchthon and Erasmus.[27]  While many of the modern applicants of this method utilize the new methods of rhetorical critical study, the criticism of the New Testament generally utilize the classical Greco-Roman handbooks on rhetoric as their heuristic tools. This assists them in discovering the ethos, pathos, and logos of traditional rhetoric to explain the approach and appeals made in the communications. We will consider the problems incorporated in today’s approach to rhetorical criticism of the New Testament in the following section of our topic.

One practical approach to utilizing the rhetorical method of critical study has been developed by George Kennedy,[28] although this is not the only method used today.[29] Kennedy’s methodology (presented in the following from his work, New Testament Interpretation Through Rhetorical Criticism) generally is a five-step process to research and develop the critical analysis of the book (or passage). The first step is that one needs to determine the boundaries of the rhetorical unit for analysis. This might be a complete book or multiple units within that book. The units might be found by transitional words, distinctive words or phrases, a change of mode or genre, or any other markers discovered in the text.

Once the units have been discerned, the critic must describe the rhetorical situation and the issue, problem, or situation that causes or prompts this unit of communication that calls forth the response discovered in the rhetorical unit. Sometimes this is easy to see, other times it makes the critic delve too deeply into the passage. Even in these early stages, the critic must be attentive to discern the author’s agenda that is at work in this situation.

The next stage (step) is that the critic needs to determine the rhetorical problem or the point of the issue, and determine the rhetorical genre of the unit (which form is used for the agenda – forensic, deliberative, or epideictic). Determining what is the main point in the discourse is often involved because of other rhetorical situations that intersect with the main communicative discourse. The determination of the rhetorical problem is closely akin to determining the rhetorical genre being used in the text. The genre is closely affiliated with the kind of goal the presenter is seeking to elicit. The form of rhetoric used will utilize certain strategies common to that form.

The fourth step that Kennedy places before the reader is to analyze the invention[30], arrangement, and style. When studying the finished work, the critic must look at the appeals used, not all that were available to the communicator. The use of classical rhetorical criticism gives the researcher three kinds of appeals to look for. We have already discussed these – ethos, pathos, and logos. The researcher needs to consider the invention – the choice of appeals utilized in the finished piece of communication.

The rhetorical critic must also study the arrangement of the communication. How did the creator line up his arguments and appeals? How would these produce the optimal effects sought? They also need to consider the style that the communicators choose. The proper tone and level of argumentation used to attempt to achieve the communicator’s purpose. The classical rhetorical criticism methodology also included two more areas – memory and delivery. These are not readily applicable to the New Testament texts that are studied.

The fifth and final stage (step) that Kennedy chose was to evaluate the rhetorical effectiveness of the unit in its employment of invention, arrangement, and style in meeting the rhetorical issue, problem, or situation that causes or prompts this unit of communication that calls forth the response. In other words, is the rhetoric of the text up to the challenge of persuading the audience in the situation?[31] It is this step that challenges the critic to determine the answers to questions dealing with the original presentation and response of the audience. Did the communicator provide evidence of his credibility? Did she provide answers to what the audience needed to know to respond according to the projected outcome? Were the needs of the ethos, pathos, and logos appear to be able to produce the intended response from the hearer/reader?

Thus, in this short consideration of the fundamental components of this methodology, we started with the two basic assumptions, reviewed the three types of rhetorical criticism as given by David Goodwin, a brief overview of rhetorical criticism of the Hebrew Bible, followed by a study of the rhetorical criticism of the New Testament, and ended with the suggested steps to applying this method as was described by George Kennedy. Next, we will briefly touch upon some of the fundamental issues negatively impacting this Critical methodology of Biblical study.

Fundamental Contradictions

Kostenberger has stated, “Application of rhetorical criticism to the study of the Paul’s letters and those of other New Testament writers is of doubtful merit.”[32] And so, in this section, let us consider some of the negative aspects of this field of biblical research.

In some areas, questions have been broached on whether the use of rhetorical criticism applies to written communication. Particularly the question as to whether this form of study can be used with Paul’s letters. Should the ancient rhetorical handbooks be used, or would the also ancient handbooks on epistolary be better used? The epistolary handbooks catalog the various types of letters with statements on why a writer would choose one over another. They also provide examples of the various letters. The objection given against the epistolary handbooks is that much of the New Testament writings are of an oral nature.  Several books are not letters at all (i.e. First John and Hebrews as well as the Gospels). In addition, even the true letters have an oral/public aspect to them. They were designed to be read aloud at the gathering of the church. Some believe that they represent the sermon or speech that the author would have delivered if he could have been present to do it.

One aspect that seems to be the problem is that the rhetorical critics apply the Greco-Roman stylism of rhetoric to manuscripts older than the development of this form. David deSilva in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation uses the example of Yehoshua Gitay using this rhetorical method as a framework for the study of Isaiah 40-48[33]. Gitay (one who accepted the Deutero-Isaiah authorship) did so, not assuming that the author had access to this methodology, but that using this tool can help the researcher to uncover the strategies of persuasion and find the text’s deeper rational, emotional, and ethical appeals to the reader.

One danger that is possible with this form of biblical study is in allowing the text freely to overflow the bounds of the intended purpose – overflowing to the point of flooding – and is becoming very apparent in the followers of this discipline. The task is to discover what is in the text, not to seek to make the text conform to the tradition reflected in the Greco-Roman handbooks. The critic can easily slip into eisegesis instead of exegesis. In fact, probably the area that the most criticism is leveled against this form of biblical study is in the area of the scholars seeking to force the texts into the genres of rhetoric. Very few of the New Testament texts fit the basic patterns of rhetoric (an example is Galatians which comes very close to fitting the forensic form of rhetoric) most do not. The scholar and researcher must take care in the heuristic use of the ancient handbooks in the analysis of the biblical texts.

Conclusion

Therefore, having spent this time in this chapter considering the definition of what is Rhetorical Criticism, the historical background, the presuppositions that are involved, the fundamental components and contradictions of this form of Higher Criticism, we now provide a few concluding statements and considerations.

Rhetorical Criticism gives invitation to study and research the text of the Bible in its final form as a very well thought out and presented composition. It invites the critic to see the passages as vehicles for creating an influence upon the readers to be challenged and come to see how they apply to their situations and lead to a response to these situations.

Rhetorical Criticism has brought attention back to the text and its composition rather than focusing on the pre-history of the text as form and source criticism does. In a sense, this has accomplished the desire and goal of Muilenburg as put forth in his address to the Society of Biblical Literature in 1968.  Rhetorical Criticism has provided a new form of framing the way one observes the literary unit within the text. Whether it is a large unit (such as an entire book of the Bible) or a micro-unit (such as a verse of paragraph), one is called to determine the intentions of the originator, the intentional use of the chosen language and the response anticipated.

Rhetorical Criticism focuses the scholar on the sender/receiver connection. One seeks to discover the rhetorical situation, the process of the communication, and the effect that it has had and will have upon the reader/listener. While providing a method of understanding the biblical passages, it also is vulnerable to misuse by substituting eisegesis in place of exegesis. From the time of Augustine (perhaps even earlier), the study of the Scriptures through the use of rhetoric has been around. We ascertained that Muilenburg saw Rhetorical Criticism as an attempt to move beyond form criticism. It was not only looking at the form and genre of the piece but also the rhetorical devices employed to win over the reader/hearer. The Sitz in leben (German, roughly translated as “setting or situation in life”) is expanded to include the response intended by the author.[34]

While having a place in the study of the Holy Scriptures, rhetorical criticism is both helpful and possibly a harmful way of maintaining the valid understanding of the truth as Peter wrote, “for no prophecy was ever produced by the will of man, but men carried along by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.”[35]

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THE BOOK OF JAMES: CPH New Testament Commentary, Vol. 17 (An Apologetic and Background Exposition of the Holy Scriptures) CPH New Testament CommentaryTHE BOOK OF JAMES (CPH New Testament Commentary 17)

…about God and his personal revelation, allowing it to change our lives by drawing closer to God. The Book of James volume is written in a style that is easy to understand. The Bible can be difficult and complex at times. Our effort herein is to make it easier to read and understand, while …

THE OUTSIDER: Coming-of-Age In This MomentTHE OUTSIDER Coming-of-Age In This Moment

THE OUTSIDER is a Coming-of-Age book. SECTION 1 Surviving Sexual Desires and Love will cover such subjects as What Is Wrong with Flirting, The Pornography Deception, Peer Pressure to Have Sexual Relations, Coping With Constant Sexual Thoughts, Fully Understanding Sexting, Is Oral Sex …

THIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING: When Hope and Love VanishTHIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING: When Hope and Love Vanish

Who should read THIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING? Anyone who is struggling with their walk as a young person. Anyone who has a friend who is having difficulty handling or coping with their young life, so you can offer them the help they need. Any parent who has young ones. And …

WAGING WAR: A Christian's Cognitive Behavioral Therapy WorkbookWAGING WAR: A Christian’s Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Workbook

Waging War is a guide to start the youth with the most basic information and work pages to the culmination of all of the facts, scripture, and their newly gained insight to offer a more clear picture of where they are and how to change their lives for the better. Every chapter will have …

THE POWERFUL WEAPON OF PRAYER: A Healthy Prayer LifeTHE POWERFUL WEAPON OF PRAYER: A Healthy Prayer Life

DOZENS OF QUESTIONS WILL BE ANSWERED: Why is prayer necessary? What must we do to be heard by God? How does God answer our prayers? Does God listen to all prayers? Does God hear everyone’s prayers? What may we pray about? Does the Father truly grant everything we ask for? What kind …

HUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For UsHUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For Us

There are many reasons the Christian view of humanity is very important. The Christian view of humanity believes that humans were created in the image of God. We will look at the biblical view of humanity. We are going to look at the nature of man, the freedom of man, the personality of …

FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition]FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition] 

In FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART – SO I A M, Edward D. Andrews offers practical and biblical insights on a host of Christian spiritual growth struggles, from the challenge of forgiveness to eating disorders, anger, alcoholism, depression, anxiety, pornography, masturbation, same-sex …

APPLYING GOD'S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]APPLYING GOD’S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]

There is a genuine happiness, contentment, and joy, which come from reading, studying and applying God’s Word. This is true because the Scriptures offer us guidance and direction that aids us in living a life that coincides with our existence as a creation of Almighty God. For example, we …

PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]

THERE IS ONE MAJOR DIFFERENCE between Christian living books by Andrews and those by others. Generally speaking, his books are filled with Scripture and offer its readers what the Bible authors meant by what they penned. In this publication, it is really God’s Word offering the counsel, …

Walking With Your God_Second EditionWALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD: Putting God’s Purpose First in Your Life [Second Edition]

A clean conscience brings us inner peace, calmness, and a profound joy that is seldom found in this world under the imperfection of fallen flesh that is catered to by Satan, the god of the world. Many who were formerly living in sin and have now turned their life over to God, they now know this amazing relief and are able today to hold a good and clean conscience as they carry out the will of the Father. WALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD, has been written to help its readers to find that same joy, to have and maintain a good, clean conscience in their lives. Of course, it is incapable of covering every detail that one would need to consider and apply in their lives …

WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS: How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?

This book is primarily for WIVES, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. WIVES will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: WIVES BE SUBJECT TO …

HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?

This book is primarily for HUSBANDS, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. HUSBANDS will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: HUSBANDS LOVE …

TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL TRENDS: A Biblical Point of View

Technological and societal change is all around us. What does the future hold? Trying to predict the future is difficult, but we can get a clue from the social and technological trends in our society. The chapters in this book provide a framework as Christians explore the uncharted territory in our world of technology and social change.

CHRISTIANS AND GOVERNMENT: A Biblical Point of View

Government affects our daily lives, and Christians need to think about how to apply biblical principles to politics and government. This book provides an overview of the biblical principles relating to what the apostle Paul calls “governing authorities” (i.e., government) with specific chapters dealing with the founding principles of the American government. This includes an examination of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the Federalist Papers.

CHRISTIANS AND ECONOMICS A Biblical Point of View

Economics affects our daily lives, and Christians need to think about how to apply biblical principles to money, investment, borrowing, and spending. They also need to understand the free enterprise system and know how to defend capitalism. Chapters in this book not only look at broad economic principles, but a section of the book is devoted to the challenges we face in the 21st century from globalization and tough economic times. A section of the book also provides an in-depth look at other important social and economic issues (gambling, welfare) that we face every day

Christian Apologetics

REASONABLE FAITHREASONABLE FAITH: Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or the church, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” Ours is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the truthfulness of his Word, the Bible. A SUBSTANTIAL PORTION of REASONABLE FAITH is on healing for the elements of emotional doubt. However, much attention is given to more evidenced-based chapters in our pursuit of overcoming any fears or doubts that we may have or that may creep up on us in the future.

DEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and TrueDEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and True

How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …

Agabus CoverDEFENDING AGABUS AS A NEW TESTAMENT PROPHET: A Content-Based Study of His Predictions In Acts by Sung Cho

Agabus is a mysterious prophetic figure that appears only twice in the book of Acts. Though his role is minor, he is a significant figure in a great debate between cessationists and continualists. On one side are those who believe that the gift of prophecy is on par with the inspired Scriptures, infallible, and has ceased. On the other side are those who define it as fallible and non-revelatory speech that continues today in the life of the church. Proponents of both camps attempt to claim …

WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIEWHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIE?: Should You Be Afraid of Death or of People Who Have Died?

People grow old, get sick, and die. Even some children die. Should you be afraid of death or of anybody who has died? Do you know what happens if we die? Will you ever see your dead loved ones again? “If a man dies, shall he live again?” asked the man Job long ago. (Job 14:14) Did God originally intend for humans to die? Why do you grow old and die? What is the Bible’s viewpoint of death? What is the condition of the dead? Are the dead aware of what is happening around them? What hope is there for the dead?

UNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of ViewUNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of View

Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the BasicsBIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the Basics

Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses: Examining the History of the Watchtower Translation and the Latest Revision

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses is going to challenge your objectivity. Being objective means that personal feelings or opinions do not influence you in considering and representing facts. Being subjective means that your understanding is based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or ideas. If the reader finds these insights offense, it might be a little mind control at work from years of being told the same misinformation repeatedly, so ponder things objectively …

REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES: Sharing CHRIST as You Help Others to Learn about the Mighty works of God

Use of REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES should help you to cultivate the ability to reason from the Scriptures and to use them effectively in assisting others to learn about “the mighty works of God.” – Acts 2:11. If Christians are going to be capable, powerful, efficient teachers of God’s Word, we must not only pay attention to what we tell those who are interested but also how we tell them. Yes, we must focus our attention on…

REASONING WITH THE WORLD’S VARIOUS RELIGIONS: Examining and Evangelizing Other Faiths

God’s will is that “all sorts of men should be saved and come to an accurate knowledge of truth.” (1 Tim. 2:4) God has assigned all Christians the task of proclaiming the Word of God, teaching, to make disciples. (Matt. 24:15; 28:19-20: Ac 1;8 That includes men and women who profess a non-Christian religion, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam to mention just a few. If there are Hindus, Buddhist or Muslims are in your community, why not initiate a conversation with them? Christians who take the Great Commission seriously cannot afford to ignore these religions…

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's "Misquoting Jesus" [Third Edition]MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …

DEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in RevelationDEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in Revelation

church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …

JOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK: Experience the Ministry of Jesus in a Spiritually Captivating WayJOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK

Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT The Christian Worldview

An Encouraging Thought elucidates the ways in which Tolkien’s The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are informed by and communicate a biblical worldview. This book will help readers appreciate the ways in which a biblical worldview informs Tolkien’s work, to the end that their own faith may be confirmed in strength, focused in understanding, deepened in joy, and honed in its ability to communicate the Gospel.

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Daily Devotionals

DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS: Growing Up In Christ

Young ones and teens, you are exposed to complex problems that your parents may not understand. Young Christians, you are bombarded with multiple options for solving everyday problems through social media. Where do you turn to find answers? Where can you look to find guidance from Scripture? In order to provide a Christian perspective to problem-solving, the author of this devotional book decided to take a different approach.

DEVOTIONAL FOR TRAGEDYDEVOTIONAL FOR THOSE COPING WITH TRAGEDY: A Journey Back to God

This devotional book follows the author’s own faith journey back to God. Significant life events can shake our world and distort our faith. Following life’s tragedies, a common reaction is to become angry with God or to reject Him altogether. Examples of tragedies or traumas include life-changing events such as physical or sexual assault, destruction of one’s home, the tragic death of a loved one, diagnoses of terminal diseases, divorce, miscarriages, or being a victim of a crime. Tragedies or traumas can cause feelings of anxiety, depression, shame, and guilt.

DEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERSDEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERS: Finding Strength Through Faith 

Throughout the book, common themes emerge to support caregivers. The reader will find interesting Bible Scriptures, offering a Christian perspective, for handling issues that may arise. These inspiring passages will assist the caregiver in finding peace and faith as they travel their journey as a caregiver. Although caregivers may not know how long they will play this role, they take on the responsibility without any question. Taking care of others is often mentioned in the Bible and, as noted in this devotional, this self-sacrificing, highly valued, and often challenging service will ultimately be rewarded.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL Daily Musings From the Old Testament

Humans must breathe in the air of our atmosphere to survive. Many cities because of pollution face a dangerous level of contamination in their air. However, an even more deadly air affects both Christians and nonChristians. Ordinary methods or devices cannot detect this poisonous air.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musing From the New Testament

Paul counseled, “Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth.” (Col. 3:2) It is, for this reason, Marshall has penned the DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musings From the New Testament, which can help us be protected against Satan’s efforts at controlling our mind and heart.  For each day of the year, DAILY DEVOTIONAL provides a Daily Bible Reading and comments for consideration.

BREAD OF HEAVEN: Daily Meditations on Scripture

BREAD OF HEAVEN helps the reader to have a greater understanding of the timeless truths of Scripture and a deeper appreciation of the grandeur of God. It offers meditations on selected Scriptures which will draw the reader’s attention upwards to the Savior.

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE SECRET HIDEAWAYTHE SECRET HIDEAWAY ON BRIDGETON HILL

Rachael Garrison knows all the shrewd ways to successfully close multi-million-dollar real estate deals with her father’s famous New York real estate enterprise. But beyond her savvy to rake in huge deals is her premonition that an impending global takeover of the world’s financial wealth is on the horizon by evil leaders of The Great Ten Nations. From New York City to the Irish Hills of Michigan, and into the streets of Detroit her life takes on enormous purpose as

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] This is often referred to as the “final form” in many scholarly works.

[2] (Tate 2012)

[3] (Muilenburg 1969)

[4] (McKenzie 2013)

[5] (Patrick and Scult 1990)

[6] (Patrick and Scult 1990)

[7] “Argument” in these explanations are used in the sense of Logic – i.e. a statement, reason, or fact      for or against a point, an address or composition intended to convince or persuade; a persuasive discourse.

[8] (Kostenberger 2011)

[9] (Nordquist n.d.)

[10] (McKay and McKay n.d.)

[11] (Morrision n.d.)

[12] (Law 2012)

[13] (Goodwin 1991)

[14] (Kennedy 1984)

[15] (Tate 2012)

[16] (Tate 2012)

[17] (Goodwin 1991)

[18] (Watson and Hauser 1994)

[19] (Meynet 1998)

[20] (Trible 1994)

[21] These devices would include, but not be limited to acrostics, repetition, inclusio, etc.

[22] (Muilenburg 1969)

[23] The smaller units within the larger units.

[24] Such as, parallelism, alliteration, chiasm, and other such features.

[25] (Muilenburg 1969)

[26] (Trible 1994) (Meynet 1998)

[27] (Watson 1988) (Mack 1990)

[28] (Kennedy 1984)

[29] An alternative to Kennedy’s method can be seen in deSilva’s work. (deSilva 2009)

[30] Invention is the first step in constructing an oration. It is here that the orator gathers together the possible arguments available to address the various segments of the rhetorical situation.

[31] (McKenzie 2013)

[32] (Kostenberger 2011, page 468)

[33] (McKenzie 2013)

[34] (Law 2012)

[35] 2 Peter 1:21 UASV

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