1 John 4:10, 19; 5:3 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
10 Herein is love, not that we have loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the propitiation [covering] for our sins. 19 We love because he first loved us. 3 For this is the love of God, that we keep his commandments. And his commandments are not burdensome.
Jesus gave us the greatest command that Christianity has ever received, which was “go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them” and “teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you.” (Matt. 28:19-20) A Christian can make the claim that he has faith in the Good News within God’s Word. However, if that person never shares that Good News with others, it would hardly be considered a genuine faith. If one failed to be obedient to the Greatest Commission ever given, it could hardly be a real faith.
1 John 4:20 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
If anyone says, “I love God,” and hates his brother, he is a liar; for he who does not love his brother whom he has seen cannot love God whom he has not seen.
When it comes to expressing love, there is no better example than Jesus. He has always worked on behalf of the Father’s best interests. When he was here on earth, he always did the will of the Father it was his highest concern. After he left us a perfect example to follow, he then offered his human life as a ransom sacrifice so that all trusting in him might live. He was modest, caring and sympathetic, and understanding, helping those weighed down and troubled. His words offered those who listened and obeyed eternal life. (John 6:68) Love of God and neighbor, in fact, are inseparably tied to one another. Jesus is the very embodiment of love. Everything he does is a result of his love. Being made in the image and likeness of God humans have a measure of that love, which can be cultivated to an even greater degree. (Gen. 1:27) By demonstrating love to our neighbor, we show love for God.
When we consider the sacrifice made by the Father and the Son, we should be moved to demonstrate our profound gratefulness in return. It was Jesus, who set the example, when he said, “But so that the world may know that I love the Father, and just as the Father has commanded me, thus I am doing.” (John 14:31) What are some of the different ways we can evidence our love for neighbor, faith in Jesus, and obedience to the will of the Father? At the end of this handbook will be appendices for each of these forms of evangelism mentioned below, offering practical suggestions on how effectively to carry out that particular form.
Below we will discuss several different forms of evangelizing friends, family, and our local community. The goal of every witnessing opportunity is to start a one-on-one Bible study with the person, preferably in their home, once a week for an hour. All congregation members, who are active in the evangelism of their community, should be able to carry on a Bible study program with a new one. There should be a basic theology book, like THE EVANGELISM STUDY TOOL Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith by Edward D. Andrews (Jan. 2016), which could be used as a study tool. You do not want people becoming a member of your congregation based on emotionalism. Rather, you want them joining because they are able to make an informed decision based on knowledge of the Scriptures.
These studies can be carried out in their home, or in your home, even in the congregation if it is open and available. It is a one-on-one study with you and him or her. Your objective is to go through two books. The first book would be on doctrinal beliefs. The second book would be on the basics of how to interpret Scripture. This book highly recommends Basic Bible Interpretation by Roy B. Zuck (Jan 1991). Of course, you want to invite them to church, offering them transportation, if needed. Throughout this study process of several months, the objective is more involved than taking in knowledge (while this is important) but also includes helping them as they transition from the world to the Christian faith, putting on that new Christ-like person. (Eph. 4:23-24; Col. 3:8-10) They should be treated as if they are your spiritual child. (1 Cor. 4:17)
If a congregation chooses to use Edward Andrews’ book, THE EVANGELISM STUDY TOOL Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith, it should be noted that this book does have any study questions at the end of its chapters. Therefore, the person in charge of the Evangelism program must study through the book himself first, covering the questions as he goes. This study process would be used thereafter as people in the church study this book as well. Then, the study process would be given to the Bible student of the congregation member, along with his or her copy of the book. It would be explained to the Bible student, that he or she is to prepare for the study beforehand, by going through the section the teacher assigns, reading, looking up the Scriptures, and underlining or highlighting the answers to the questions. When the study is conducted, the student should save any question they may have written down, until they have covered the assignment first.
Two groups are known the world over for this form of evangelism, Jehovah’s Witnesses and Mormons. However, I have had a few Baptist pastors come to my door, which was a surprise. This form of evangelism should not be shied away from because one does not want to be affiliated with Witnesses and Mormons. The early Christians carried out a house-to-house evangelistic work (Luke 9:1-6; 10:1-7; Acts 5:42; 20:20), and there has never proven to be a more foundational way of reaching your neighbor.
This is a difficult work, as most people are not receptive to God’s Word, seeing it as a book by man, foolish and outdated. Therefore, it takes a true love of God and neighbor to be out in our community repeatedly, year after year, engaged in a world that is uninterested, and in opposition to the work, which Jesus assigned.
2 Corinthians 2:14-17 Updated American Standard Version
14 But thanks be to God, who always leads us in triumph in Christ, and manifests through us the sweet aroma of the knowledge of Him in every place. 15 For we are the aroma of Christ to God among those who are being saved and among those who are perishing; 16 to the one an aroma from death to death, to the other an aroma from life to life. And who is adequate for these things? 17 For we are not, like so many, peddlers of God’s word, but as men of sincerity, as commissioned by God, in the sight of God we speak in Christ.
|Holman New Testament Commentary
2:14a. Paul had been disappointed in Troas and Macedonia, but through it all God had been good to him. He began this acknowledgment of divine goodness with thanksgiving: But thanks be to God.
2:14b–16a. Paul delighted in God’s care for him. He expressed this joy with the metaphor of a victory parade. Paul was convinced that God always leads believers in triumphal procession in Christ. Paul drew upon the triumphal parades that were known throughout the Roman world. Prisoners of war were marched through the streets as fragrant perfumes filled the air. At the end of each parade, many prisoners were executed. For this reason, the smells of the parade were sweet to the victors, but they were the smell of death to the defeated.
Paul saw several similarities between these victory parades and his own ministry. (1) He and those with him were members of the victorious army led by Christ, as were the rest of the apostles. (2) Their gospel preaching spread everywhere … the knowledge or acknowledgment of God as the victor. Similarly, Roman victory parades spread knowledge about victories and caused people to acknowledge the victors. (3) Paul said that he and the apostles were like the perfumes of the victory parades. They became to (the honor of) God like the aroma of Christ, or more specifically, like the aroma accompanying Christ’s victory. Both the victors of this spiritual gospel war (those who are being saved) and the defeated (those who are perishing) smelled their aroma. (4) This aroma of Christ, however, affected each group differently. To Christ’s enemies, Paul and those with him were the smell of death, but to those following Christ they were the fragrance of life.
This metaphor contrasted Christian and non-Christian reactions to evangelists. To Christians, Paul and his company presented reminders of the wonders of salvation. For non-Christians, they raised the terror of divine judgment. No one could ignore them because their fragrance was spreading throughout the world.
2:16b. As Paul contemplated his analogy between Roman victory parades and his gospel ministry, he was overwhelmed. He exclaimed, Who is equal to such a task? The answer he implied was that no one was worthy of playing such an important role in human history and in the kingdom of God. It was astounding that God appointed humans to this role.
2:17. Paul wanted the Corinthians to know that he did not view his ministry as an ordinary job. He did not peddle the word of God for profit. He distinguished himself and those who worked with him from so many others who had reduced their ministries to mere occupations. Unlike the gospel peddlers, Paul and his company spoke before God with sincerity. Paul still lingered on the accusation of insincerity and duplicity he had addressed in the preceding section. He could not have been insincere because he looked upon his ministry so highly. Instead, he served as one sent from God, considering his task a sacred privilege. The fact that he did not accept payment for his preaching further demonstrated his sincerity.
Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary
And through us spreads everywhere the fragrance of the knowledge of him (2:14). One of the standard features of religious or civic rituals in antiquity was the use of incense and other fragrant materials. Religious processions, the arrival of an important dignitary, the triumphal return of a Roman general, and so on, were all occasions on which such aromatics might be used. In describing the triumphal procession of Aemelius Paulus, Plutarch tells us that “every temple was open and filled with garlands and incense.” Continuing the image of the Roman triumph, Paul portrays his crushed and vanquished apostolic existence as the means through which the aroma of the crucified Christ is mediated to those around him. Paradoxically, God’s strength is most potently displayed through Paul’s weakness. Already the apostle is preparing the ground for his startling declaration in 12:10, “For when I am weak, then I am strong.”
For we are to God the aroma of Christ among those who are being saved and those who are perishing (2:15). Embedded within the imagery of the triumphal procession is an allusion to the Levitical sacrifices of the Old Testament, where the terms euōdia (niv “fragrance”) and osmē (niv “aroma”) combine to refer to a sacrificial “aroma pleasing to the Lord” (Lev. 2:2, 12; 6:14, etc.). As elsewhere (e.g., Col. 1:24), Paul portrays his apostolic suffering as an extension of the suffering of Christ, and he will make this point more explicitly in 4:10: “We always carry around in our body the death of Jesus.”
To the one we are the smell of death; to the other, the fragrance of life (2:16). Although the transitions between metaphors is abrupt, Paul returns to the spectacle of the triumph and notes the differing effects the aroma-filled parade route would have on those involved. For the cheering crowds, the victorious soldiers, and the gloating general, this was the sweet fragrance of victory. But to the unfortunate captives destined for the auctioneer’s block or execution in the forum, this was the scent of death itself.
Unlike so many, we do not peddle the word of God for profit (2:17). Preaching the gospel for mere financial gain has been a problem from the earliest days of the Christian movement. Already by the time of the Didache (ca. a.d. 80–150) Christian communities were exhorted to judge itinerant Christian teachers with reference to their desire for monetary gain: “And when the apostle leaves, he is to take nothing except bread until he finds his next night’s lodging. But if he asks for money he is a false prophet.” …
Paul’s point is that unlike so many who proclaim their “religion” for a price, he and his companions preach Christ for altruistic reasons.
While it is true that this sort of evangelism, house to house, can be very trying, it also brings the greatest joys at the same time as well. Imagine that you are in a desert, walking, staggering alone, dehydrated, parched, gasping for air, and you come up a source of water over the next dune that you cross. The relief, the joy, the gratitude, the thoughts that you had for miles of walking, where you had considered, “I will just lie down, and never wake again,” are all gone, as you fall to the ground in tears, grateful that you never gave up! One may be out in this evangelistic work for months, growing ever tired of coming across the ungrateful, the critics, the sarcastic, the short tempered, the uninterested, and the opposer, when they finally come upon the smiling face that invites them in their home. They get you something cold to drink, and they then sit and listen to the message that you have brought, and you can see the light in their eyes, the hunger and thirst to know more.
The same difficult time as is found in the above plays out, but this time, it is the Bible critic, who lets you in and offers you a drink. They let you share the Good News that you have brought, patiently waiting their turn to communicate. Unknown to you, they have been reading one Bible critic book after another. You pause after leaving them with a question, and then they pounce on you like a lion after his prey, with one question after another. You can be one of two people: either (1) the prepared or (2) the unprepared.
As the unprepared, you are struck by the fact that you have been carrying a Bible for many years, and are unable to defend the very book you call the Word of God. You are hurt by the fact that you have learned how to share your faith, but have never considered how you might defend your faith. As the prepared, you hold up your hand, the young mind in front of you comes to a halt, and you say, “I see that you have been doing much reading. I am very pleased that you have some interest in the Bible.” You go on, saying, “We can address every one of your concerns, one at a time, and this approach will work best as we resolve one, and then move onto the next.” He agrees that this is the best approach.
He leans in, eyes as bright from the start, and argues that “if there was an Adam and Eve, and an Abel who was now dead, so, where did Cain get his wife?”
You respond with, “If one were to read a little further along, they would come to the realization that Adam had a son named Seth; it further adds that Adam “became father to sons and daughters.” (Genesis 5:4) Adam lived for a total of 800 years after fathering Seth, giving him ample opportunity to father many more sons and daughters. Therefore, it could be that Cain married one of his sisters. If he waited until one of his brothers and sisters had a daughter, he could have married one of his nieces once she was old enough.”
You continue, saying that “In the beginning, humans were closer to perfection; this explains why they lived longer and why at that time there was little health risk of genetic defects in the case of children born to closely related parents, in contrast to how it is today. As time passed, genetic defects increased and lifespans decreased. Adam lived to see 930 years. Yet Shem, who lived after the Flood, died at 600 years, while Shem’s son Arpachshad only lived 438 years, dying before his father died. Abraham saw an even greater decrease in that he only lived 175 years, while his grandson Jacob was 147 years when he died. Thus, due to increasing imperfection, God prohibited the marriage of closely related people under the Mosaic Law because of the likelihood of genetic defects. (Lev. 18:9.)”
Undaunted by your response, he realizes you have offered him a reasonable answer, but he moves on. He asks, “If we read at Exodus 4:21 that God is here hardening Pharaoh’s heart, what exactly makes Pharaoh responsible for the decisions he makes?”
You respond with saying, “This is actually a prophecy. God knew that what he was about to do would contribute to a stubborn and obstinate Pharaoh, who was going to be unwilling to change or give up the Israelites so they could go off to worship their God. Therefore, this is not stating what God is going to do; it is prophesying that Pharaoh’s heart will harden because of the actions of God. The fact is, Pharaoh allowed his own heart to harden because he was determined not to agree with Moses’ wishes or accept Jehovah’s request to let the people go. Moses tells us in Exodus 7:13 (UASV) that ‘Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he would not listen to them, as Jehovah had said.’ Again, at 8:15 we read, ‘When Pharaoh saw that there was a respite, he hardened his heart and would not listen to them, as Jehovah had said.’ ”
This goes on for some time, one question after the other. Over time though, you could feel that he was losing steam, and he was slowing with less and less eagerness. Soon, he was leaning in, because he wanted to hear what you had to say, and was no longer dismissive of your reasonable, logical responses. Before you left, he was now asking you, “Can you come back, as I want to hear more about your message?” Yes, you were used by God, as you defended the Word; you defended the faith, and you were used by God to open the eyes of the blind because you listened to the inspired Word of God. (Prov. 2:1-6; Josh. 1:8; Ps. 1:1-3; 1 Pet. 3:15; Jude 1:3, 22-23) You may feel that it takes too much time to be this prepared as opposed to the shameful embarrassment of being unprepared. This could not be further from the truth, as it only takes one hour a day of personal Bible study, six days a week, Monday through Saturday.
Now, what other ways can we share our faith with our community?
The primary method of sharing the Good News in the community is by going house-to-house. However, maybe you are unable to find certain ones at home because they work a shift at the time you are able to go out. Then, some people live in gated communities, which you cannot get access to because there is a restriction against the house-to-house work. In addition, some high-rise apartment buildings do not allow entry but to those that live, or if you are invited, meaning that you are cut off from sharing the message with these as well. This is why witnessing on the street can be quite effective, as we must reach everyone. The most important thing to keep in mind is that this should be carried out in the most respectful way possible, never being aggressive, or have any showy display, such as loud talk, or especially yelling and screaming.
This is sharing the Good News with people as you come across them in the community: the store, doctor’s office, public transportation, and so on. We are actively to seek out these ones in our everyday activities, such as a fellow employee, a fellow student at school, being served by a waitress at a restaurant, visiting a friend, and so on. All of these are acts of what is known as an informal evangelism. (John 4:7-15) These are unplanned but not unprepared occasions where we have an opportunity to share some form of Christian teaching with another person.
This is an effective tool in your evangelism toolbox, in helping them to hear the Good News of God’s kingdom. As this facet of witnessing is usually quite brief, one must be prepared with what they might say, and have a Bible tract with them, getting something into their hands before parting ways. On that tract should be a way for them to get back with you if they so desire. If you feel things went well enough in this short exchange, you may ask them for some contact information. It takes a lot of courage to approach complete strangers, but it is our love for them, which moves us to buy out the time in this sort of evangelism. It is God, who gives “us a spirit not of fear but of power and love and self-control. Therefore, do not be ashamed of the testimony about our Lord.” –2 Timothy 1:7-8.
Small groups of congregation members put to use a reverse phone directory (lists phone numbers by addresses) and go to a small call center that has been set up in the congregation. This is great for getting to people that live in gated communities, or in high-rise apartments that you do not have access to otherwise. Just because we are not face-to-face, does not mean that it is any less effective. In fact, it may be easier on both of you, because there seems to be less stress. The Christian making the call can have notes in front of him, as well as any kind of research tool, enabling him to field questions. It could be set up so that it works off a desktop computer, with a headset that also has a microphone, leaving the hands free. This is certainly an effective tool.
Remember, this is not the primary way to reach people but is only a tool for those that you cannot find at home in your community (i.e., the reverse phone directory). The headset should be set up on the computer so that you can have a splitter plugged in, and multiple people can listen. This way you can train ones, who have done this form of witnessing. However, it would be best if two people at a time take a call (Luke 10:1). One is the person, who is trying to reach the person, they could not find at home, and the other is the helper, who looks up information or takes notes based on the conversation.
Telemarketing has caused people to shy away from taking calls from anyone they do not know. Therefore, it is best to show feelings of kindness, pleasantness, and tactfulness with your voice. Do not speak too loud, and do not speak too low. You may mention at the outset that you are not selling anything. Use your name, letting them know that you live in their community, and were sharing one Scripture with them and their neighbors. Rather than ask if you can read a Scripture, after stating that is why you have called, just jump to the Scripture, fully citing it and reading it. After reading it, ask a very short open-ended question about the Scripture. If he or she shares their thoughts, keep your word by offering a short comment and closing out the call. Before hanging up, ask if you may call back this time next week, so you can briefly share another Scripture. On the third or fourth week of doing this, you can begin to engage in more of a conversation. Remember, you will eventually want to visit them in their home, and start a Bible study with them.
Again, this would be perfect for getting to people that live in gated communities, or in high-rise apartments that you do not have access to otherwise. Moreover, this would be the approach for one who has a physical disability that keeps them from going out into their community. You can write letters to people within your community, sharing a short biblical thought with them, and enclosing a tract as well. This is an easier form of evangelism because to can take your time, to get your words just right, and there is no pressure.
You have made the initial contact with a new believer. In the initial conversation, you have planted a couple of biblical truths, so you need to return to water these, enabling them to grow. (1 Cor. 3:6-8) You now need to get some kind of contact information: phone number, email, or address. You can leave them with a biblical question to ponder, stating what would be the best way to get back with them. Keep in mind that while it may not seem like there is much interest; life is always influencing a person’s worldview. Moreover, it is your job to cultivate interest as well.
Remember, your end objective is to start a Bible study with ones who are interested. You are always in search of those, who will be receptive to a Bible study. (Matt. 10:11) If you do have one who gives you their contact information, make sure that you get back with them in about a week, because you do not want their interest to fade. In planning your phone call if it was a phone number, or your email, or a visit to their home, make sure you prepare well. Before leaving the first time, you may have left her or him with a thought-provoking question, which you will be addressing this second time. You should have written their name down, and some interesting information that you gleaned from your initial conversation. Use that to show interest in the return.
Your love of God and neighbor will keep this person in your mind until your next contact with them. Once you are on the line with them, or at their home, use their name; try to make the same connection you had the first time around, by spending some time, showing a genuine interest in them. Make them the center of attention by asking open-ended questions that they can answer at length, and be an active listener (more on active listening later). In other words, do not be thinking about your next comment or question when the person is talking. An active listener will look at the person while they are talking (not a constant stare, but periodic), and they will move their head in agreement or in word, to let the speaker know that you are listening. If possible, show that you are empathetic to what they are saying, by responding with something like, “I have felt that way before, too.” It is permissible to ask short clarifying questions as well, which is another way to help the speaker know you are interested.
Remember that your second contact is all about them, with your interjecting some Scripture in, so they remember, it is God’s Word that brought you to them. On the second visit, share at least one Scripture, getting their insights as to what they think, tactfully offering the correct interpretation if they are off the mark. With each visit, keep in mind that you are working toward starting a Bible study with them, and inviting them to a congregation meeting. On the visit where you bring up the possibility of a Bible study, pull out the book you intend to use and hand it to them. Explain to them that the study is free of charge, something that takes place once a week, in the convenience of their home if they like, for 30-60 minutes. Have them turn to the Table of Contents in the book and walk through some of the things you would be covering. Again, it is our job to cultivate interest in others. Conversation skills are not something that can be taken in by reading some rules and principles. No, they are learned by implementing those rules and principles repeatedly, until you become skillful. The first time you find an uninterested person, and you develop interest by way of your conversation skills, it will bring you a real joy that you have never felt in your life.
You should be alert to noticing any new faces at the meetings, going up to them and introducing yourself. You should get to know them as you express that you genuinely hope to see them again, befriending yourself to them. Keep in mind that, if everyone assumes that someone else will carry out this form of witnessing, no one will end up doing it, leaving a new believer feeling unwanted.
Either our conduct can help us to shine light on the truth of God’s Word, or we can bring reproach on it. (Titus 2:10) If others outside of your congregation have something good to say about your work in the community, this brings honor and glory to God. (1 Pet. 2:12) This can bring new ones to your congregation, because of what they have heard.
Effective Use of Bible Tracts
If you are to engage another in an effective conversation, you have to get the conversation started. Like a good book, or a great magazine article, the beginning will determine if you keep going. What you want to do is get the person’s attention immediately. You introduce yourself, and a very brief statement that you are talking to people in your community about the Bible, and then offer a tract visually. Most Bible tracts have two things in common: (1) the titles are designed to peak interest, and (2) the cover image is designed to leap off the page at you, making you want to read it.
Another facet of offering tracts is their size. In a world where it seems that no one has time for anyone else, these short Bible tools can have an impact. When you offer something with a title and image that will capture the interest of the listener, your success is bound to increase. The best way to offer the tracts is to pick out about 4-6 of your best ones, with eye-opening titles and images. Either spread them out as you would a hand of cards, and show them, or preferably place them in the hands of the person, and ask, “Which one would you like?” Now, they are in his hands, he is looking through them, settles on one, and says, “This one.”
Now, of course, you will have read every tract you offer yourself very studiously. Therefore, you will have a question lined up that highlights the substance of the tract he chose. After asking for it, open the tract, read that paragraph that answers the question, and the Scripture that is cited in it from your Bible. If the listener is very conversational, discuss more of the tract, giving him many opportunities to share in the conversation. Before closing the conversation, let him know that you would love to talk again, and write your contact information on the back of the tract, and ask him for his email or phone number.
Read 1 Peter 1:3-25. This assignment is to help improve our reading skills. When practicing before the meeting, read slowly to enunciate every word meticulously, as well as adequate volume, and moving along at the appropriate pace. We must read and speak words clearly, to not only be understood, but also leave an impression. In addition, read with precision, stopping or pausing for punctuations, as well as changing the tone of your voice, or adding the inflections that are required. It would be best if you had someone follow along, letting you know if you to make the appropriate pauses or inflections.
Read Galatians 6:1-10. This assignment is to help improve our reading skills. When practicing before the meeting, read slowly enunciating every word meticulously, as well as sufficient volume, and moving along at the appropriate pace. We must read and speak words clearly, to not only be understood but also leave an impression. In addition, read with precision, stopping or pausing for punctuations, as well as changing the tone of your voice, or adding the inflections that are required. It would be best if you had someone follow along, letting you know if you to make the appropriate pauses or inflections.
- What sacrifice was made for each person, which was based on what from the Father and the Son, and why should this motivate us in our evangelism of others?
- How is the Bible studyto be carried out with the Bible student?
- According to 2 Corinthians 2:14, how is God leading Christians today, and to what custom from ancient times does Paul’s words refer? What took place at ancient Roman victory parades, and what did the aroma suggest to different ones? What is the application of the metaphor at 2 Corinthians 2:14-16?
- What will someone likely face in house-to-house evangelism work, but why should believers be steadfast? What do you want to be, the prepared or the unprepared, and why?
- What is an effective way of finding people that you may not get in their home, and how should you carry out this form of evangelism?
- How can someone effectively carry out informal witnessing?
- How can someone effectively carry out telephone witnessing?
- Why should someone not overlook letter writing as a form of witnessing?
- Whose responsibility is it to generate interest, and what is the goal of witnessingto others no matter what method one uses? What is active listening, and why should we make the listener the center of attention? How might someone use a second visit with an unbeliever to demonstrate what a Bible study would be like?
- Why is it important to befriend new people at any of these meetings?
- Why is someone’s personal conduct outside of the congregationso important?
- Why are Bible tracts an important tool in our evangelism, and how can we effectively use them?
 ISBN-13: 978-0781438773
 R. C. H. Lenski, in his work The Interpretation of The Acts of the Apostles, Minneapolis (1961), made the following comment on Ac 5:42: “Never for a moment did the apostles cease their blessed work. ‘Every day’ they continued, and this openly ‘in the Temple’ where the Sanhedrin and the Temple police could see and hear them, and, of course, also kat oikon, which is distributive, ‘from house to house,’ and not merely adverbial, ‘at home.’ ”
 Richard L. Pratt, Jr, vol. 7, I & II Corinthians, Holman New Testament Commentary, 320-21 (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000).
 Aemelius Paulus 32.
 Did. 11:6.
 Clinton E. Arnold, Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary Volume 3: Romans to Philemon., 207-08 (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002).