Feminist criticism

By Kieran Beville

Spiritual truth can only be fully comprehended when the Holy Spirit illuminates a person’s mind. Spiritual regeneration is necessary in order to understand properly and apply Scripture. The Bible is a sacred book and is discerned best by those who are spiritually regenerated ~ i.e. born again. The apostle Paul said:

The natural person does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are folly to him, and he is not able to understand them because they are spiritually discerned. The spiritual person judges all things but is himself to be judged by no one. “For who has understood the mind of the Lord so as to instruct him?” But we have the mind of Christ―1 Corinthians 2:14-16.

Robert H. Stein in, A Basic Guide to Interpreting the Bible, speaking of 2 Corinthians 2:14, writes, “This is interpreted as meaning that, apart from the Spirit, a person cannot “understand” the meaning of biblical texts. Without the Spirit, these texts are simply foolish riddles. Yet before we assume that Paul, and the English translators of Paul, are using the term “understand” in the exact sense in which we defined the term in chapter 2, we must look more closely at this verse.”

how-to-interpret-the-bible2Stein continues, “What does Paul mean when he says that apart from the Spirit these things are ‘foolishness’? Does he mean that a person without the Spirit will not be able to come to a correct mental grasp of what the biblical text means? Is Paul saying that apart from the Spirit the biblical teachings are incomprehensible?”

Stein goes on to say that the “meaning of the term ‘foolishness’ is best understood by observing how Paul uses it elsewhere. In 1 Corinthians 3:19 the term is used as follows: ‘For the wisdom of this world is foolishness in God’s sight.’ Here, it should be noted, something is foolish to God! Clearly, Paul does not mean that God cannot arrive at a correct mental grasp of what this world calls wisdom! God is omniscient; he understands everything. God, of course, understands what this world calls wisdom. He rejects it, however, as foolishness. The term ‘foolishness’ in 1 Corinthians 3:19 refers not to what we have called ‘understanding’ but rather to ‘significance.’ God understands perfectly well what this world calls wisdom, but he critiques it. He evaluates it. He condemns it as foolishness. In 1 Corinthians 1:20 the verbal form of this word is used, and Paul states similarly, ‘Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world?’ Here (1:20), in the chapter before 1 Corinthians 2:14, as well as in the chapter following (3:19), Paul uses the expression ‘foolish’ to refer to the significance God attributes to something (this world’s wisdom).”

Stein then asks, “Should this same meaning be attributed to the term in 1 Corinthians 2:14? It would appear so, for what Paul is saying is not that unbelievers cannot arrive at a correct mental grasp of the things of the Spirit. They can and do, but they attribute to this understanding of the author’s meaning a negative significance. They reject it as ‘foolishness.’ Thus, in the first three chapters of 1 Corinthians, we have the following parallel. The unbelieving world can understand the things of the Spirit, what the biblical text means, but it rejects what it understands as foolishness. Similarly, God understands the wisdom of this world but rejects it as foolishness. In both instances, there is a correct mental grasp of what is meant (understanding) followed by a rejection of its value (significance).”

Finally, Stein concludes, “In a similar way it would appear that the terms for ‘understand’ in 1 Corinthians 2:12 and 14 are best understood as meaning something different than acquiring a correct mental grasp of meaning. It refers rather to embracing as true these biblical truths. It is probably best to see the terms ‘does not accept,’ ‘foolishness,’ and “cannot understand” as referring to various ways in which the unbeliever critiques the divine revelation. This critique (significance) is based on an understanding of that message. The understanding of the text is rejected in several different ways: (1) it is not accepted, not received eagerly or welcomed, because it is opposed to human wisdom (cf. 1 Cor. 1:18–25); (2) it is judged as foolishness because it conflicts with their sense of truth; and (3) it is not believed as being true because only the Spirit can convince us of the truth of the gospel message. It would appear that whereas 1 Corinthians 2:14 refers to the work of the Spirit in ‘conviction’ or ‘significance,’ it does not deny but rather assumes that an unbeliever can ‘understand’ the gospel message.”― (Stein 1994, 66-7)

Unbelieving scholars might be able to contribute to a better understanding of contextual (historical and cultural) issues but the unregenerate mind is at enmity with God, “For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God, for it does not submit to God’s law; indeed, it cannot. Those who are in the flesh cannot please God.” (Rom. 8:7-8). So Scripture itself teaches that the unregenerate mind cannot understand the true significance of divine revelation. Such an interpreter cannot be trusted to decipher the spiritual meaning. Such interpreters can have an intellectual comprehension but will not have a spiritual apprehension of truth. In other words, they simply do not have the power or ability to grasp the importance, significance, or meaning of something in its fullest spiritual sense.

Competent to Comment

I was listening to a radio interview in Ireland with Vincent Browne, a TV and radio chat show host admired by the public and feared by politicians. Vincent Browne is an Irish print and broadcast journalist and a non-practicing barrister. The Guardian has described him as an “acerbic host…Ireland’s Jeremy Paxman.”[1]

 On this occasion, he was the interviewee rather than the interviewer. He is an intelligent man without a doubt and in many ways, I admire him. However, in the course of the interview, he said, “If you ever doubt your atheism, read the Bible,” ~ meaning it will affirm your atheism. He then alluded to Judges, chapter 19. This is a disturbing passage of Scripture about a Levite and his concubine that led to the battle of Gibeah episode as recorded in the book of Judges.

The battle was triggered by an incident in which the concubine of a man from the Tribe of Levi was raped, by members of the Tribe of Benjamin, and later died. The Levite had offered his concubine to the mob in his place. In the morning, he found the concubine unresponsive on the doorstep ~ probably dead. He later cut her dead body into twelve pieces and sent the pieces throughout all the territories of the Israelite tribes.

The outraged tribes of Israel sought justice and demanded that the perpetrators be delivered for judgment. The Benjamites refused, so the tribes then sought vengeance, and in the subsequent war, the members of the Tribe of Benjamin were systematically killed, including women and children; when the tribe of Benjamin was almost exterminated it was decided that the tribe should be allowed to survive, and all the men from another town, Jabesh Gilead, who had refused to take part in the punishment of the Tribe of Benjamin, were killed, so that their daughters could be wed to the surviving men of Benjamin. The first king of Israel, Saul, descended from these men. Due to this war, the Tribe of Benjamin was subsequently referred to as the smallest of all the tribes.

How are we to understand this shocking and disturbing passage of Scripture? For Vincent Browne, it is an affirmation of atheism. But his comments bring to mind the saying, “fools rush in where angels fear to tread.” How can such an intellectual be so devoid of understanding?

This story parallels one of Lot’s experiences with the two angels in Sodom and bears witness to the Lord’s abhorrence of illicit and violent (particularly non-consensual) sexual behavior whether homosexual or heterosexual. It also underscores what soon happens in a society that abandons God. This incident took place within one generation after the Israelites had conquered the land, and since the fathers didn’t teach their children what the Lord had done for them, the nation quickly sank into one of the most morally and spiritually corrupt times in its history.

Relative Morality

A recurring theme in Judges is that “In those days Israel had no King, and everyone did what was right in his own sight.” The real lesson of Judges is the moral disaster that ensues when people abandon God, and everyone decides for himself what is right. It is an appalling picture of lawlessness and moral depravity. The incident is recorded (not affirmed) rather than airbrushed out of the history of Israel so that people might understand the depravity of man.

Therefore, Vincent Browne’s interpretation of that biblical incident is blissfully unaware of the principles of biblical interpretation, proving that even the wisest of men are not competent to interpret Scripture without the aid of the Holy Spirit. His opinions about the Bible are not just silly; they are absurd and dangerous. It is yet another example of aggressive atheism in the media. Even a basic course in hermeneutics would help him see the passage in context and understand the intended meaning of the original author.

Spiritual Leaders

Even spiritual leaders can be ignorant of the significance of Scripture. For example, in the Gospel of Matthew it is recorded that King Herod inquired of the chief priests and scribes as to where the Messiah was to be born (Mt. 2:3-4). They were able to point him correctly to the prediction of Micah 5:2, which foretold that the King of Israel would be born in Bethlehem. Yet they were blinded and apathetic to the possibility that the Messiah might have now appeared. This attitude contrasts with the Magi who had claimed to see the guiding star in the east (v.2) and were obviously interested.

Jesus accused the Sadducees of ignorance, “You are wrong, because you know neither the Scriptures nor the power of God.” (Mt. 22:23-29) Throughout the gospels, we find Jesus accusing very learned men (who were experts in Judaic Law) of ignorance concerning the Scriptures. Sadly, there are many religious leaders today of whom it may be said, “You are wrong, because you know neither the Scriptures nor the power of God.”

Later, the Pharisees were also silenced when they were unable to answer Jesus’ question about the Christological meaning of Psalm 110:1 in a passage about the identity of Jesus:

And as Jesus taught in the temple, he said, “How can the scribes say that the Christ is the son of David? David himself, in the Holy Spirit, declared, “‘The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand, until I put your enemies under your feet.’ David himself calls him Lord. So how is he his son?” And the great throng heard him gladly.―Mark 12:35-37.

Jesus is in the temple teaching the Word of God. The Pharisees, Sadducees, and Scribes are still looking for a way to discredit Jesus in the eyes of the people and the Roman authorities. These groups questioned Jesus. Their questions were designed to trap him and undermine his authority. However, Jesus answered well and outsmarted these deceitful and dangerous people. He gave his enemies no legitimate cause to bring a charge against him.

Going on the Offensive

All along Jesus had been on the defensive as he responded to their questions. Now Jesus goes on the offensive. He takes the initiative. The question he asked the scribes and Pharisees goes to the heart of what they believe about the identity of Christ. This is a relevant and important question today. Jesus countered every attack his enemies used against him. He answered their question about paying tribute money to Caesar (Mk. 12:13-17); the resurrection and the nature of life in heaven (Mk. 12:18-27) and which commandment in the Law was the greatest (Mk. 12:28-34). Each time Jesus was asked questions that were designed to make him look foolish in the eyes of the people. Every question they asked was an attempt to prove his ignorance of the Old Testament Scriptures. They tried their best to unmask Jesus and prove that he was an imposter.

Now Jesus asks in what sense the Messiah was the Son of David. He did not receive an answer. It is not clear if Jesus waited for an answer but it is likely that there was some silent pause. Whether that silence was the result of ignorance, fear, inability or unwillingness to answer is not certain. The fact remains that Jesus did not receive an answer. So the Lord answered his own question and in doing so confirms the messianic usage of this psalm.

David called the Messiah “My Lord.” How could he be both David’s son and David’s Lord? The Messiah, though David’s descendant is also the Son of God and therefore, senior in rank and authority. I can imagine the crowds enjoying Jesus outsmarting the Scribes. Not all Scribes were frauds, but many abused their position and influence. They liked being addressed by honorific titles (rabbi and master). In the synagogue, they sat in a prominent position on a bench in front of the Ark of the Covenant that contained the sacred scrolls. Jesus condemned them for seeking honor for themselves instead of glorifying God, whom they professed to serve. He also criticized them for their long prayers and hypocrisy.

Jesus had answered all their questions. (Mk. 12:34) Now he has a question for them. That question was meant to focus their attention on the person of the Messiah. Jesus asked them, “How can the scribes say that the Christ is the son of David?” Every Jew believed that the Messiah would be a physical descendant of King David. They believed that the Christ would be a great political and military leader who would deliver Israel from those who oppressed them. They believed that the Christ would be a great king in this temporal world. The Jews were looking for a human being. Jesus is about to show them that the Messiah will be human, but he will also be divine. He confronts them about their beliefs concerning the nature and identity of the Messiah.

Grasping the Truth

Many people in the Western world are like the scribes and the Pharisees. They know the Bible stories about Jesus. Some even love the image of that baby in his manger. They have heard about Jesus feeding multitudes, healing the sick, preaching sermons, raising the dead and walking on water. They know the story of the cross and the resurrection. But many people today cannot grasp the truth that Jesus Christ is more than a baby in a manger or a man who was crucified. They cannot seem to grasp the truth that he is God in human flesh.

People will go so far, but they often will not go far enough. Some people are “not far from the kingdom of God.” They are on the threshold of belief. However, being “not far” means you are lost. It is like being nearly saved. I would prefer to be nearly drowned than nearly saved, wouldn’t you? “Not far” is not where a person needs to remain. A person should not remain undecided about the identity of Jesus. A person should not remain on the threshold of faith. We need to come to Jesus Christ and call on him for salvation. He is the door that leads to eternal life (Jn. 10:9). With him, you are saved; without him you are lost (1 Jn. 5:12). This is an unpalatable truth. Many are willing to believe Jesus was a great teacher, a prophet, a good man, but stop short of believing in his divine identity. They will not accept his unique and universal claims. This has serious consequences.

Confounding the Wise

As Jesus confronts these men, he asks them about Psalm 110:1. That verse was acknowledged by all Jews to be a reference to the coming Messiah. Jesus points out that a careful reading of that verse reveals the truth that the Messiah will be more than a man. The first “Lord,” in Psalm 110:1, is the Hebrew word, Yahweh. The second “Lord” in that verse is the Hebrew word Adonai. The idea in this verse is that “the Lord (Yahweh) said to my (David’s) Lord (Adonai)…” In other words, David addresses the Messiah as his Lord. The implication is clear. The Messiah is to be a man, but he will be more than a man. He is to be God as well. Jesus is declaring the deity of the Messiah.

David was speaking under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit: “The LORD says to my Lord: ‘Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies your footstool.’” He placed the Messiah in a position of authority that was co-equal with Almighty God. The word “sit” in that verse speaks of a continuous sitting. The Messiah has a place of equal exaltation with God (Phil. 2:9-11). The Messiah must be God because he will be in a position of absolute equality with God in honor, power, and glory. The implication of this can be seen in what Jesus said next, “David himself calls him Lord. So how is he his son?” In that society, a father would never call his son “Lord.” A father never rendered that kind of honor to a child. Children were considered to be subordinate and never superior to their fathers. Yet, David looks at this one who is to be his son and David calls him Lord. This is a declaration that the Messiah is to be more than a man. He is to be God and man.

When the Jewish religious leaders heard this, they were dumbfounded. They had no answer. This allegedly unlearned carpenter had put them to shame in the very area where they were supposed to be the experts. Jesus had interpreted the Scriptures in an accurate, clear way that they could not refute.

The Real Jesus

They did not believe Jesus was the Messiah. But Jesus had proven his identity time and again. His place of birth fulfilled prophecy. His triumphal entry into Jerusalem fulfilled prophecy (in detail) concerning the Messiah. He arrived in the precise way that the prophet Zechariah said the Messiah would come (Zech. 9:9). His words, works, and wisdom proved his identity. He fulfilled every Old Testament prophecy that predicted what the Messiah would do when he came (Isa. 29:18-19; 35:3-6; 61:1-2). He healed the sick, raised the dead, forgave sins, walked on water, calmed a storm and cast out demons. The Messiah was to be the Son of David.―2 Samuel 7:8-16; Isaiah 9:7; Jeremiah 23:5.

According to the genealogies (Matthew and Luke), Jesus was a direct descendant of David. On many occasions, Jesus was called “Son of David.” Jesus was a man. He had a human mother (Lk. 1:31; Gal. 4:4). He had a human body, soul, and spirit (Mt. 26:12; 38; Lk. 23:46). The soul is the essence of the human being; it is who we are. The spirit is that aspect of the human being that connects with God. He had flesh and blood (Heb. 2:14). He grew (Lk. 2:52). He asked questions (Lk. 2:46) and increased in wisdom (Lk. 2:52). He prayed (Mk. 1:35; Lk. 11:1). He was tempted (Mt. 4:1; Heb. 2:18; 4:15). He learned obedience (Heb. 5:8). He hungered (Mt. 4:2; 21:18) and thirsted (Jn. 4:7; 19:28). He was weary (Jn. 4:6) and slept (Mt. 8:24; Mk. 10:21). He had compassion (Mt. 9:36). He was angered and grieved (Mk. 3:5). He wept (Jn. 11:35; Lk. 19:41). He was troubled (Jn. 11:33; 12:27; 13:21; Mk. 14:33-34). He suffered (1 Pet. 4:1) and bled (Jn. 19:34). He died (Mt. 27:50; 1 Cor. 15:3) and was buried.―Matthew 27:59-60.

Jesus was also God. When Jesus came into this world he was God born as a male child. That is the teaching of the Word of God (Jn. 1:1; 14; Phil. 2:5-8). The evidence from his life proves this too. He is omnipresent (Mt. 18:20; 28:20). He is omnipotent (Mt. 28:18; Heb. 1:3). He has authority over disease (Mt. 4:23). He has authority over Satan (Mt. 4:10; Jn. 12:31; Heb. 2:14). He has authority over demons (Mt. 8:16). He has authority over men (Jn. 17:2). He has authority over nature (Mt. 8:26-27). He has authority over sin (1 Jn. 3:5). He has authority over the Sabbath (Mt. 12:8). He has authority over death itself: physical death (Jn. 5:28-29) and spiritual death.―John 5:24; Hebrews 2:15.

He knew the history of the Samaritan woman (Jn. 4:29). He knew what the scribes and Pharisees were thinking (Mt. 9:3-4; 12:25). He knew the true nature of Judas (Jn. 6:70; 13:11). Jesus receives worship: from the angels (Heb. 1:6); from the magi (Mt. 2:11); from the apostle Thomas (Jn. 20:28). He forgives sin (Mk. 2:5; Jn. 8:24). He possesses all authority (Mt. 7:29). This was reflected in his teaching, which was more than a confident style. He is the source of life itself (Jn. 1:4; Jn. 5:26). He is the creator of all things (Jn. 1:3; Col. 1:16; Heb. 1:2). He is the preserver of all things (Col. 1:17; Heb. 1:3). He receives our prayers (Acts 7:59). He is the final judge (Mt. 25:31-32; Jn. 5:22, 27; Acts 17:31). He is both the Lord of Glory and King of kings.―Revelation 19:16.

Jesus proved his identity. Yet many Jews refused to accept him. They refused to acknowledge him as their Messiah. (Jn. 1:11, Lk. 19:14; Jn. 19:15) Israel had all the evidence they needed to believe in Jesus. They had all the Old Testament prophecies that he had fulfilled to the letter. They had the proof in the temple records that Jesus was a descendant of King David. They had the evidence of changed lives all around them. There were people who had been sick that were now well. Blind people could see. Deaf people could hear. There were demoniacs who had been delivered. In addition, most amazing of all, there were a few people walking around that used to be dead! Many Jews ignored that evidence.

We have far more evidence than they had. We have a completed Bible (Old and New Testaments). We can see where prophecies were made and fulfilled. We too can look around us and we can see lives changed by the amazing grace of God. We have every reason to believe that he is who he claims to be. Believe it and be bold about it in bearing true testimony to him. Luke speaks of; “the church of God, which he obtained with his own blood.” (Acts 20:28)[2] This verse nails his deity to the cross.

What does all of this mean? It simply means that even intelligent people and religious leaders may not necessarily be competent to interpret Scripture in an appropriate manner. However, those who are in right relationship with God (not the same as being religious) will know the aid of the Holy Spirit in interpreting Scripture.

What is Necessary for Proper Interpretation?

How can we understand God’s message and avoid misunderstandings about the Bible? As already noted, we must have a proper understanding of the genre. A good translation is important. Asking the right questions is important. There are factors that depend on the individual. Is there a genuine desire to understand the text? There must be faith. Only those who believe and trust in God can truly understand what God is saying in Scripture. Does the reader have a heart that is willing to obey the text?

Prayer and dependence on the Holy Spirit are vital in the process of hermeneutics. Prayer places us in the position where we can hear the Spirit and understand the text. The same Holy Spirit, who provided the inspiration to the writers of Scripture, also provides illumination to the interpreters of Scripture. Interpretation requires the illumination of the Spirit. Neither methodology nor the Spirit operates in isolation from the other. The Spirit’s work of illumination does not grant new revelation.

Spiritual Commitment

There must be a spiritual commitment on the part of the interpreter. (1 Cor.2:6-14; Eph.4:17-24; Rom.8) To merely understand what the text says can be done by anyone who has been trained. Anyone can lay out the various options of interpretation. However, those who are committed can only exercise obedience to the text.

Common Sense

Much of the Bible is understandable even without extensive knowledge of the literature and context in which it was written. We interpret with other Christians. Theology should not be done on one’s own. There should be an understanding of the story line of the Bible, not just dipping in here and there. Thus, systematic, regular reading should be a central part of our lives (devotional and scholarly). Pastors and preachers should not just use the Word as a resource. They should not just trawl for sermons. They must also feed their souls and find a word in season. We must understand that the Bible points to salvation through the person of Jesus.

Everyone is an exegete, but not everyone is a good one! The proper interpretation of a text begins with the exegesis of a text. There are a couple of lines from a hymn that goes, “Wonderful things in the Bible I see, this is the dearest, that Jesus loves me.” But some people could sing, “Wonderful things in the Bible I see, most of them put there by you and me.”

[1] Michael White, “An Irish election in a time of staggering debt and quiet rage,” The Guardian. 14 February 2011. Jeremy Paxman is an English broadcaster, journalist and author. He has worked for the BBC since 1972 and is known for his forthright and abrasive interviewing style, particularly when interrogating politicians.

[2] As to this particular rendering in Acts 20:28, the Revised Standard Version, and the Lexham English Bible, is the preferred translation for Christian Publishing House, “the church of God which he obtained with the blood of his own Son.” See the article, Acts 20:28—A Worthy Translation is Faithful: http://www.uasvbible.org/translation-acts-20-28

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This book is primarily for WIVES, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. WIVES will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: WIVES BE SUBJECT TO …

HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?

This book is primarily for HUSBANDS, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. HUSBANDS will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: HUSBANDS LOVE …

Christian Apologetics

DEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and TrueDEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and True

How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …

UNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of ViewUNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of View

Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the BasicsBIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the Basics

Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's "Misquoting Jesus" [Third Edition]MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …

DEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in RevelationDEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in Revelation

church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …

JOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK: Experience the Ministry of Jesus in a Spiritually Captivating WayJOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK

Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe out humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.