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After a commentary on the book of Haggai, the Day of the Lord and the Day of Jehovah with be discussed at length by Stephen Miller and Edward D. Andrews.
Jehovah God caused this prophecy of reconstruction in Judah to be declared to the Jewish exiles in Babylon:
Ezekiel 36:22-24, 35-36 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
22 “Therefore say to the house of Israel, ‘Thus says the Sovereign Lord Jehovah, “It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for my holy name, which you have profaned among the nations where you went. 23 And I will sanctify my great name, which has been profaned among the nations, and which you have profaned among them. And the nations will know that I am Jehovah, declares the Sovereign Lord Jehovah, when I shall be sanctified among you before their eyes. 24 For I will take you from among the nations, and gather you out of all the lands, and will bring you into your own land. 35 And they shall say, ‘This land that was desolate has become like the garden of Eden, and the waste and desolate and ruined cities are now fortified and inhabited.’ 36 Then the nations that are left all around you shall know that I am Jehovah; I have built the ruined places and planted that which was desolate. I am Jehovah; I have spoken, and I will do it.
Jehovah intended to gather his people once more to their land so that they might reconstruct the temple and restore pure worship. God did this, so the nations left around Judah shall know he is Jehovah. His objective was to vindicate his good name to those pagan nations surrounding Judah.
Therefore, not long after Darius and Cyrus overthrew Babylon, the Jewish exiles were granted permission to return to Jerusalem, prepared with a charge from King Cyrus himself to rebuild the temple there. (Ezra 1:1-4) And so it was that in 539 B.C.E. that they were given permission, and Zerubbabel and nearly 50,000 Jews traveled from Babylon to Jerusalem, wherein they arrived in 537 B.C.E. to rebuild the temple. Opposition from nearby adversaries, the “Samaritans,” soon rose up and successfully stopped the building work. They manipulated and schemed the garnering of an official Persian ban on the God-ordained reconstruction work. This ban on temple construction held for nearly sixteen years, with everything remaining at a standstill. At this important time and in dire circumstances, Jehovah raised his prophet Haggai in the second year of Darius II, in 520 B.C.—Ezra 4:1 to 5:1.
Little is known about Haggai personally. His name means “festive.” “The tenth in order of the twelve minor prophets and the first of the three who, after the return of the Jews from the Babylonian Exile, prophesied in Palestine. Of the place and year of his birth and of his descent, nothing is known. He commenced to prophesy in the second year of Darius Hystaspes (Hag. 1:1). Together with Zechariah he urged the renewal of the building of the Temple, which had been suspended after the reign of Cyrus, and obtained the permission and assistance of the king (Ezra 5:1; 6:14). Animated by the high courage of these devoted men, the people went about their work with vigor, and the Temple was completed and dedicated in the sixth year of Darius, 516 B.C.”
Reprimand for Not Rebuilding the Temple
Haggai 1:1-11 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
1 In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, on the first day of the month, the word of Jehovah came by the hand of Haggai the prophet to Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest: 2 “Thus says Jehovah of armies: These people say the time has not yet come to rebuild the house of Jehovah.” 3 Then the word of Jehovah came by the hand of Haggai the prophet, 4 “Is it the time for you to dwell in your paneled houses, while this house lies in ruins? 5 Now therefore, thus says Jehovah of armies, ‘Set your heart on your ways. 6 You have sown much and harvested little. You have sown much seed, but you harvest little. You eat, but it is not to satisfaction. You drink, but you do not drink your fill. You put on clothing, but no one gets warm. The one who hires himself out puts his wages in a bag full of holes.’”
7 “This is what Jehovah of armies says: Set your heart on your ways. 8 Go up to the mountain and bring wood and build the house, that I may take pleasure in it and that I may be glorified, says Jehovah. 9 You looked for much, and behold, it came to little. And when you brought it home, I blew it away. Why? declares Jehovah of armies. Because of my house that remains desolate, while each man is busy with his own house. 10 Therefore the heavens above you have withheld the dew, and the earth withheld its produce. 11 And I have called for a drought on the land and the mountains, on the grain, the new wine, the oil, on what the ground brings forth, on man and beast, and on all the labor of the hands.”
Those words from the prophet Haggai deeply impacted the people of Judah, especially the leaders Zerubbabel and Joshua. It did not even take but about four weeks for those building the temple to get organized enough to resume the reconstruction work. And they did so even though the imperial ban was still in effect.
The People Listen to the Voice of Jehovah
Haggai 1:12-15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
12 Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, with all the remnant of the people, obeyed the voice of Jehovah their God, and the words of Haggai the prophet, as Jehovah their God had sent him. And the people feared Jehovah. 13 Then Haggai, the messenger of Jehovah, spoke to the people with Jehovah’s message, “I am with you, declares Jehovah.” 14 And Jehovah stirred up the spirit of Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, and the spirit of all the remnant of the people. And they came and worked on the house of Jehovah of armies, their God, 15 on the twenty-fourth day of the month, in the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king.
True to his word, Jehovah did not allow anything to happen to the builders, and he blessed their fearlessness, faith, and efforts by maneuvering events so that it caused Darius II to renew the decree of Cyrus, which had commanded the work of restoring the temple be done. The spiteful efforts by the Samaritan antagonists were squashed. The second discourse of Haggai was less than one month after they had resumed the construction work.
The Second Temple Shall Be Filled with Glory
Haggai 2:1-9 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
2 In the seventh month, on the twenty-first day of the month, the word of Jehovah came by the hand of Haggai the prophet, 2 “Speak now to Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, and to all the remnant of the people, saying, 3 ‘Who is left among you who saw this house in its former glory? And how do you see it now? Is it not as nothing in your eyes? 4 Yet now be strong, O Zerubbabel, declares Jehovah. Be strong, O Joshua, son of Jehozadak, the high priest. Be strong, all you people of the land, declares Jehovah. Work, for I am with you, declares Jehovah of armies, 5 according to the promise which I made with you when you came out of Egypt. My Spirit remains in your midst. Fear not. 6 For thus says Jehovah of armies: Yet once more, in a little while, I will shake the heavens and the earth and the sea and the dry land. 7 And I will shake all nations, so that the treasures of all nations shall come in, and I will fill this house with glory, says Jehovah of armies. 8 The silver is mine, and the gold is mine, declares Jehovah of armies. 9 The latter glory of this house shall be greater than the former, says Jehovah of armies. And in this place, I will give peace, declares Jehovah of armies.’”
Haggai now had to deal with the older men complaining that the restored temple was not living up to the beauty and grandeur of Solomon’s temple. These older ones were weakening the morale by complaining that this new temple under construction was nothing when compared to Solomon’s temple in Jerusalem, which Nebuchadnezzar had decimated. Nevertheless, in his discourse Haggai assured Zerubbabel and Joshua and those that had returned from captivity that “the latter glory of this house shall be greater than the former,” for Jehovah said, “I will shake the heavens and the earth and the sea and the dry land. And I will shake all nations so that the treasures of all nations shall come in, and I will fill this house with glory, says Jehovah of armies.”
Two months and three days later, Haggai gives the people his third discourse. He questions the priests regarding the past uncleanness of the people of Judah. He tells them to remember the scourge of crop failures that overwhelmed the land while the temple was at a standstill. He then goes on to assure them of the blessing that will come from Jehovah because of the reconstruction work.
Blessings for a Defiled People for Rebuilding the Temple
Haggai 2:10-19 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
10 On the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius, the word of Jehovah came by Haggai the prophet, 11 “Thus says Jehovah of armies: Ask the priests about the law: 12 ‘If someone carries holy meat in the fold of his garment and touches with his fold bread or stew or wine or oil or any kind of food, does it become holy?’ ” The priests answered and said, “No.” 13 Then Haggai said, “If one who is unclean by contact with a dead soul touches any of these, does it become unclean?” The priests answered and said, “It does become unclean.” 14 Then Haggai said, “ ‘So is this people. And so is this nation before me,’ declares Jehovah, ‘and so is every work of their hands; and what they offer there is unclean. 15 But now, please, set your heart on this from this day forward: Before a stone was placed on a stone in the temple of Jehovah, 16 how did you fare? When one came to a heap of twenty measures, there were but ten. When one came to the wine vat to draw fifty measures, there were but twenty. 17 I struck you and all the works of your hands with scorching blight, mildew, and hail; yet you did not come back to me,’ declares Jehovah. 18 Consider from this day onward, from the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month. Since the day that the foundation of Jehovah’s temple was laid, consider: 19 Is the seed yet in the storehouse? Indeed, the vine, the fig tree, the pomegranate, and the olive tree have brought forth nothing. But from this day on I will bless you.”
A Message to Zerubbabel
Haggai gave his fourth and final discourse that same day, but it was delivered solely for Governor Zerubbabel.
Haggai 2:20-23 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
20 The word of Jehovah came a second time to Haggai on the twenty-fourth day of the month, 21 “Speak to Zerubbabel governor of Judah, saying, ‘I am going to shake the heavens and the earth. 22 and to overthrow the throne of kingdoms. I am about to destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the nations and overthrow the chariots and their riders, and the horses and their riders shall go down, every one by the sword of his brother. 23 On that day, declares Jehovah of armies, I will take you, O Zerubbabel my servant, the son of Shealtiel, declares Jehovah, and make you like a signet ring, for I have chosen you, declares Jehovah of armies.”
In closing his prophecy, Haggai tells of a time when Jehovah of armies would shake the wicked ones in the heavens and the earth under Satan’s domain. God was going to overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and he was going to set up one greater than Zerubbabel, Jesus Christ.
Zerubbabel was assured that he was God’s chosen servant whose rule (signet ring, the symbol of ruling authority) had divine blessing. However, the ultimate fulfillment of this verse goes far beyond anything that could be said of Zerubbabel. The destruction of the world powers in the previous verse is eschatological and prepares the way for a new kingdom. On that day refers to the future day of the Lord. (For a discussion of the day of the Lord, see [below]) My servant or “my righteous servant” is a phrase elsewhere applied to the Messiah (e.g., Isa. 42:1; 52:13; 53:11), and Zerubbabel, a descendant of David, here represents the messianic line. Thus the verse means that the final Son of David, Jesus the Messiah, will rule the world in his glorious future kingdom. The power of the wicked will be broken, and peace will pervade the earth (vv. 21-22). God’s promise of this new world would have encouraged Zerubbabel. It has been a source of hope for believers in all times.
The Day of the Lord
The day of the Lord is a major theological theme in the Old Testament and the focal point of Zephaniah’s prophecy. The exact phrase, “day of the LORD,” appears sixteen times in the Old Testament (Isa. 13:6,9; Ezek. 13:5; 30:3; Joel 1:15; 2:1,11,31; 3:14; Amos 5:18,20; Obad. 15; Zeph. 1:7,14; Zech. 14:1; Mal. 4:5), but references to the day of the Lord are much more extensive. Often the day of the Lord is simply spoken of as “the day,” “that day,” or “in that day.” Zephaniah wrote the full phrase three times (1:7,14[twice]), but referred to the “day of the LORD” another seventeen times by using the following expressions: “on the day” (1:8; 2:3), “on that day” (1:9,10; 3:11,16), “that day” (1:15; 2:2), “a day” (1:15[five times],16), and “the day” (1:18; 2:2; 3:8).
Examination of the Book of Zephaniah reveals the following truths about the day of the Lord: (1) At that time Gentile nations will be judged (1:2–3,18; 3:8). (2) The wicked in Israel will be judged (1:4–18). (3) This judgment will be carried out by the Lord, portrayed as a mighty and just warrior-judge (1:2–9,12,17-18; 3:8). (4) Ultimately, the day will be eschatological (1:2–3,18; 3:8). However, historical judgments were often associated with the day of the Lord, apparently as acts that prefigure the future, universal judgment. For example, Zephaniah 1:4–18 probably has relevance both to the Babylonian destruction and the end times. (5) People may escape this judgment by repentance (2:2–3). (6) Universal judgment will be followed by a glorious age in which the Lord will dwell with the righteous (3:9–20). All the earth’s people will then worship the true God (2:11; 3:9–10). (7) Since it encompasses both the final judgment and the messianic age, the day of the Lord is obviously not a twenty-four-hour day but a period of time.
In the New Testament the phrase, “day of the Lord,” appears in Acts 2:20; 1 Corinthians 5:5; 2 Corinthians 1:14; 1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 2 Peter 3:10. Other abbreviated references to the day of the Lord, such as “the Day” (e.g., 1 Cor. 3:13; Heb. 10:25), could be cited. Later New Testament revelation associates this day with Jesus Christ’s second coming (1 Cor. 1:8; 2 Cor. 1:14; Phil. 1:6,10; 1 Thess. 5:2; 2 Pet. 3:10).
THE DAY OF JEHOVAH—A DEEPER LOOK
The unique time, which does not refer to 24 hours, when Jehovah openly makes himself known against those in opposition to him and on behalf of his people. He executes divine judgment against the wicked. He makes it all too clear to his enemies on this “day” who is the sovereign ruler of all creation. This “day” is also a time of rejoicing for the righteous as they find salvation and deliverance. This is the day in which God is shown to be the Supreme One. Thus, in two ways, it is unambiguously and solely Jehovah’s great day.
The Scriptures show this to be a time of battle. The phrase Jehovah of armies is repeated many times in the Book of Haggai above, as is true of many other places in the Old Testament. Jehovah of armies: (יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֣וֹת Jehovah tsebaot) literally means an army of soldiers or military forces (Gen. 21:22; Deut. 20:9). The expression is found 285 times, with some deviations, in the Scriptures. The prophetic books, especially Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Zechariah, have the most occurrences. It is also used figuratively, “the sun and the moon and the stars, all the armies of heaven.” (Deut. 4:19) In the plural form, it is also used of the Israelites forces as well. (Ex. 6:26; 7:4; Num. 33:1; Psa. 44:9) However, the “armies” in the expression “Jehovah of armies” is a reference to the angelic forces primarily, if not exclusively. Paul and James, quoting from the Old Testament prophecies, used its equivalent (τὰ κυρίου σαβαὼθ ta kuriou sabaōth; “the Lord of armies”) in their writings. – Rom. 9:29; Jas 5:4; cf. Isa 1:9.
Thus, this day is a fearful day for the wicked, the enemies of God, a day of darkness and burning wrath, a day of rage, despair, hopelessness, bleakness, devastation, and terror. “Woe to you who desire the day of Jehovah! Why would you have the day of Jehovah?” God asked disobedient Israel through his prophet Amos.
Amos 5:18-20 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
18 Woe to you who desire the day of Jehovah!
Why would you have the day of Jehovah?
It is darkness, and not light,
19 as if a man fled from a lion,
and a bear met him,
or went into the house and leaned his hand against the wall,
and a serpent bit him.
20 Is not the day of Jehovah darkness, and not light,
will it not have gloom, and not brightness?
Isaiah was told (Isa 13:9)
9 Look, the day of Jehovah is coming,
cruel, with wrath and burning anger,
to make the land a desolation;
and he will destroy its sinners from it.
Zephaniah Tells us (Zeph 1:15)
15 That day will be a day of wrath,
a day of trouble and distress,
a day of ruin and desolation,
a day of darkness and gloom,
a day of clouds and thick darkness,
When the day of Jehovah comes, money will be worthless (Eze 7:19; Zeph. 1:18)
19 They cast their silver into the streets, and their gold is like an unclean thing. Their silver and gold are not able to deliver them in the day of the wrath of Jehovah. Their souls cannot be satisfied, nor can they fill their stomachs, for it was the stumbling block of their error.
18 Neither their silver nor their gold
shall be able to deliver them
on the day of the wrath of Jehovah.
In the fire of his jealousy,
the whole earth shall be consumed;
he will make a complete destruction, indeed a terrible one
of all the inhabitants of the earth.
Say Awake—Be Vigilant—Feel the Urgency (Zeph. 1:14; Joe 1:15; 2:1-2)
14 The great day of Jehovah is near,
near and approaching very quickly;
the sound of the day of Jehovah is bitter;
the mighty man cries aloud there.
15 Alas for the day!
For the day of Jehovah is near,
and as destruction from the Almighty.
2 Blow a trumpet in Zion;
sound an alarm on my holy mountain!
Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble,
for the day of Jehovah is coming! It is near!
2 A day of darkness and gloom,
a day of clouds and thick darkness!
Like blackness there is spread upon the mountains
a great and mighty people;
there has been nothing like it from old,
and after it nothing will be again
for generation after generation.
Times of Destructive Judgment
Unfaith Judah and Jerusalem (Isa 2:11-17)
11 The haughty eyes of man shall be brought low,
and the lofty pride of men shall be humbled,
and Jehovah alone will be exalted in that day.
12 For Jehovah of armies has a day
upon all that is proud and lofty,
upon all that is lifted up, and it shall be brought low;
13 upon all the cedars of Lebanon,
lofty and lifted up;
and upon all the oaks of Bashan;
14 upon all the lofty mountains,
and upon all the hills that are lifted up;
15 upon every high tower,
and upon every fortified wall;
16 upon all the ships of Tarshish,
and upon all the beautiful craft.
17 And the haughtiness of man must bow down,
and the lofty pride of men shall be brought low,
and Jehovah alone will be exalted in that day.
The Sons of the King of Judah and Jerusalem Would Not Escape (Zeph. 1:4-8)
4 “I will stretch out my hand against Judah
and against all the inhabitants of Jerusalem;
and I will cut off from this place the remnant of Baal
and the name of the idolatrous priests along with the priests,
5 those who bow down on the rooftops
to the army of the heavens,
those who bow down and swear to Jehovah
and yet swear by Malcam,
6 those who have turned back from following Jehovah,
who do not seek Jehovah or inquire of him.”
The unfaithful prophets of Israel (Eze 13:5)
5 You have not gone up into the breaches or built up a wall for the house of Israel, that it might stand in battle in the day of Jehovah.
Haughty Edom to Be Brought Low (Obadiah 1, 15)
1 The vision of Obadiah.
Edom Will Be Humbled
Thus says Jehovah God concerning Edom:
We have heard a report from Jehovah,
and a messenger has been sent among the nations:
“Rise up! Let us rise against her for battle!”
15 For the day of Jehovah is near upon all the nations.
As you have done, it shall be done to you;
your deeds shall come back on your own head.
Babylon and Egypt (Isa 13:1, 6; Jer 46:1-2, 10)
The Judgment of Babylon
13 The pronouncement concerning Babylon which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw.
6 Wail, for the day of Jehovah is near;
It will come as a destruction from the Almighty.
Judgment on Egypt
46 The word of Jehovah that came to Jeremiah the prophet concerning the nations.
2 About Egypt, concerning the army of Pharaoh Neco king of Egypt, which was by the Euphrates River at Carchemish, which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon defeated in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah:
10 That day is the day of the Lord, Jehovah of armies,
a day of vengeance,
to avenge himself on his adversaries.
The sword shall devour and be satisfied
and drink its fill of their blood.
For the Lord, Jehovah of armies holds a sacrifice
in the north country by the river Euphrates.
The Coming of Elijah before Jehovah’s Day (Malachi 4:5-6)
4 “For look, the day is coming, burning like a furnace, and all the arrogant and every doer of wickedness will be chaff. The day that is coming shall set them ablaze,” says Jehovah of armies, “so that it will leave them neither root nor branch. 2 But for you who fear my name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its wings; you shall go out leaping like calves from the stall. 3 And you will tread down the wicked, for they will be ashes under the soles of your feet, on the day when I act,” says Jehovah of armies.
4 Remember the law of my servant Moses, the statutes and judgment decisions which I commanded him in Horeb for all Israel.
5 “Look, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and awesome day of Jehovah comes. 6 And he will turn the hearts of fathers to the sons, and the hearts of the sons to their fathers; so that I will not come and strike the land, devoting it to destruction.”
The Prophet like John—The Transfiguration of Jesus (Matt. 11:11-14; Mark 9:11-13)
11 Truly, I say to you, among those born of women there has arisen no one greater than John the Baptist! Yet the one who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. 12 From the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven has suffered violence, and violent men take it by force. 13 For all the Prophets and the Law prophesied until John. 14 And if you are willing to accept it, he is Elijah, the one who is to come. 15 He who has ears to hear, let him hear.
11 And they asked him, saying, “Why is it that the scribes say that Elijah must come first?” 12 And he said to them, “Elijah indeed does come first and restores all things. And how is it written of the Son of Man that he should suffer many things and be treated with contempt? 13 But I tell you that indeed Elijah has come, and they did to him whatever they wanted, just as it is written about him.”
Jehovah Will Pour Out His Spirit (Joe 2:28-32; Ac 2:16-21)
28 “And it will come to pass afterward,
that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh;
your sons and your daughters will prophesy,
your old men will dream dreams,
and your young men will see visions.
29 Even on the male and female servants
I will pour out my Spirit in those days.
Those Calling on the Name of Jehovah Will Be Saved
30 “And I will show wonders in the heavens and on the earth, blood and fire and columns of smoke. 31 The sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood Before the coming of the great and awe-inspiring day of Jehovah. 32 And everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah will be saved; For on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there will be those who escape, just as Jehovah has said, The survivors whom Jehovah calls.
16 but this is what was spoken of through the prophet Joel
17 “‘And it shall be in the last days, God says,
that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh,
and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy,
and your young men shall see visions,
and your old men shall dream dreams;
18 and even on my male slaves and on my female slaves
I will pour out some of my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy.
19 And I will show wonders in the heavens above
and signs on the earth below,
blood, and fire, and vapor of smoke;
20 the sun shall be turned to darkness
and the moon to blood,
before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes.
21 And it shall come to pass that everyone who calls upon the name of the Lord will be saved.’
That “day of Jehovah” came in 70 A.D. (See article above) It happened when God caused the armies of Rome with General Titus to execute judgment upon the Judaism of the day that had rejected and brought about false charges against the Son of God and rebelliously shouted: “Away with him, away with him … We have no king but Caesar.”—John 19:15; Dan. 9:24-27.
The Seventy Prophetic Weeks (John 19:15; Daniel 9:24-27)
15 They cried out, “Away with him, away with him, crucify him!” Pilate said to them, “Shall I crucify your King?” The chief priests answered, “We have no king but Caesar.”
24 “Seventy weeks are decreed about your people and your holy city, to finish the transgression, to put an end to sin, and to atone for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal both vision and prophet, and to anoint a most holy place. 25 Know therefore and understand that from the going out of the word to restore and rebuild Jerusalem to the coming of an anointed one, a prince, there shall be seven weeks. Then for sixty-two weeks it shall be built again with squares and moat, but in times of distress. 26 And after the sixty-two weeks, an anointed one shall be cut off and shall have nothing. And the people of the prince who is to come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. Its end shall come with a flood, and to the end there shall be war. Desolations are determined. 27 And he shall make a strong covenant with the many for one week, but in the middle of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the offering to cease. And upon the wing of abominations shall come the one causing desolation, even until a complete destruction, one that is decreed, is poured out on the one causing desolation.”
 Abomination: (שִׁקּוּץ shiqquts or שִׁקֻּץ shiqquts) It means abhorrence, an object to abhor, horror, monster, filth. The sense of shiqquts is that of a pagan idol that is worshiped, emphasizing the result of the idol worshiper becoming detestable, implying that it can make a person unclean. – 2 Ki 23:13; Ez. 5:11; 11:21; Dan. 9:27; 11:31; Hos. 9:10.
 Abomination of Desolation: (Heb. שִׁקּוּץ shiqquts or שִׁקֻּץ shiqquts שָׁמֵם shamem Gr. βδέλυγμα bdelugma ἐρήμωσις erēmōsis) An expression by Jesus recorded in Mathew 24:15 and Mark 13:14 referring to Daniel 11:31 and 12:11. Bdelugma refers to something that is an abomination, unclean, which horrifies clean persons, leaving them disgusted. Eremoseos has the sense of an extensive desolating act or destruction, which caused total ruin, leaving no place for shelter.
The Coming Day of Jehovah – The Triumph of True Worship (Zechariah 14:1-3)
14 Look, a day is coming for Jehovah, when the spoil taken from you will be divided in your midst. 2 For I will gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle, and the city shall be taken, and the houses plundered, and the women raped. Half of the city shall go out into exile, but the rest of the people shall not be cut off from the city. 3 Then Jehovah will go out and fight against those nations as when he fights on a day of battle.
- 1. Behold, a day of the Lord is coming. The Hebrew is more accurately translated, ‘A day is coming for the Lord’, which is the more arresting for being unusual, and it lays the emphasis on the Lord, not on the ‘is coming’. A threat rather than a promise is implied (cf. Joel 1:15). Just as the prophets had taught that the fall of Jerusalem in 587 bc was God’s doing, so now the first stage in the events of ‘that day’ is the city’s utter defeat (cf. Rev. 11:3, 7–10). God’s people never deserve his favour, though they readily assume they do. Judgment begins with them (Jer. 25:29; Ezek. 9:6; 1 Pet. 4:17). The defeated watch helplessly while their belongings are shared out among the enemy troops. The use of the second person, from you, in the midst of you, makes unavoidable the personal application to Jerusalem.
- 2. Only after laying stress on Jerusalem’s defeat does the prophet reveal the extent of the conflict. It was ludicrous that all the nations should fight against one city. The material gain would be negligible, and in any case the numbers involved would make it impossible. The only explanation is that this is an ideological conflict to remove a non-co-operative element that blocked the way to an international world order. Victory would easily be gained with overwhelmingly superior resources; plunder and rape follow, and then half the inhabitants are deported. In view of 13:8, if this is meant to have happened earlier, only one-sixth of the original population would by now remain.
3. The Lord will … fight against those nations. There is ambiguity in the preposition ‘against’ (Heb. bĕ), for it is the usual word for ‘in’, and so it could convey that the Lord was among the enemy, fighting against Israel. On the other hand, in combination with the verb ‘fight’ it usually means ‘against’. The same construction occurs in verse 14, where the sense suggests that Judah is fighting in Jerusalem and not against it. The early Christian Fathers, Cyril, Theodoret and Eusebius, interpreted the verse to mean that the Lord fights against Jerusalem, but the great majority of modern commentators think of him as intervening on Israel’s side, against the nations. The argument is not conclusive that the construction should be the same both in this verse and in verse 14. The sense is all-important. Surely the city would have been overcome by the armies of the world without the Lord’s presence amongst them. It is more likely therefore that the usual modern interpretation is correct. The Lord intervenes on behalf of his people, as when he fights on a day of battle. The simile is a reminder that this is apocalyptic picture language. The supreme example of such a day of battle was the crossing of the Red Sea, when the helpless Israelites watched the Lord fight for them; it was as they stood still that they ‘saw the salvation of the Lord’ (Exod. 14:13, 14). They did not need to fight, nor did the Lord literally wield weapons.—Joyce G. Baldwin, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi: An Introduction and Commentary, vol. 28, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1972), 215–216.
The Man of Lawlessness—the Coming of Christ (2Th 2:1-2)
2 Now we request you, brothers, with regard to the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our gathering together to him, 2 that you not be quickly shaken from your composure or be disturbed either by a spirit or a word or a letter as if from us, to the effect that the day of the Lord has come.
 Presence; Coming: (παρουσία parousia) The Greek word which is rendered as “presence” is derived from para, meaning “with,” and ousia, meaning “being.” It denotes both an “arrival” and a consequent “presence with.” Depending on the context, it can mean “presence,” “arrival,” “appearance,” or “coming.” In some contexts, this word is describing the presence of Jesus Christ in the last days, i.e., from his ascension in 33 C.E. up unto his second coming, with the emphasis being on his second coming, the end of the age of Satan’s reign of terror over the earth. We do not know the day nor the hours of this second coming. (Matt 24:36) It covers a marked period of time with the focus on the end of that period. – Matt. 24:3, 27, 37, 39; 1 Cor. 15:23; 16:17; 2 Cor. 7:6-7; 10:10; Php 1:26; 2:12; 1 Thess. 2:19; 3:13; 4:15; 5:2.
Renewed earth 2 Pet. 3:10-13; Rev. 21:1
10 But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, in which the heavens will pass away with a loud noise, the elements will burn and be dissolved, and the earth and its works will be exposed.
11 Since all these things are thus to be dissolved, what sort of people ought you to be in lives of holiness and godliness, 12 looking for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be destroyed by burning, and the elements will melt with intense heat! 13 But according to his promise we are looking for new heavens and a new earth, in which righteousness dwells.
 The earth and its works will be exposed (εὑρεθήσεται heurethesetai), “will be discovered” is the original wording according to א B KP 424c 1175 1739txt 1852 syrph, hmg arm Origen. The earth and the works in it will be burned up (κατακαησεται katakaesetai) is attested to by A 048 049 056 0142 33 614 Byz Lect syrh copbo eth al. Another variant, the earth and the works in it will disappear, is supported by one witness, C. A third variant the earth and the works in it will be found destroyed (ευρεθησεται λυομενα heurethesetai luomena) supported by P72. Several other witnesses omit the verse, Ψ 1891 vgmss. The multiple variants are scribal attempts at clarifying a difficult passage.
New Heavens and New Earth. The biblical doctrine of the created universe includes the certainty of its final redemption from the domination of sin. The finally redeemed universe is called “the new heavens and new earth.”
In the OT the kingdom of God is usually described in terms of a redeemed earth; this is especially clear in the book of Isaiah, where the final state of the universe is already called new heavens and a new earth (65:17; 66:22). The nature of this renewal was perceived only very dimly by the OT authors, but they did express the belief that a human’s ultimate destiny is an earthly one. This vision is clarified in the NT. Jesus speaks of the “renewal” of the world (Matt. 19:28), and Peter of the restoration of all things (Acts 3:21). Paul writes that God will redeem the universe from its current state of bondage (Rom. 8:18–21). This is confirmed by Peter, who describes the new heavens and the new earth as characterized by righteousness and as the Christian’s hope (2 Pet. 3:13). Finally, the book of Revelation includes a glorious vision of the end of the present universe and of the creation of a new universe, full of righteousness and of the presence of God. The vision is confirmed by God in the awesome declaration: “I am making everything new!” (Rev. 21:1–8).
The new heavens and the new earth will be the renewed creation that will fulfill the purpose for which God created the universe. It will be characterized by the complete rule of God and by the full realization of the final goal of redemption: “Now the dwelling of God is with men” (Rev. 21:3).
The fact that the universe will be created anew shows that God’s goal for humans is not an ethereal and disembodied existence, but a bodily existence on a perfected earth. The scene of the beatific vision is the new earth. The spiritual does not exclude the created order and will be fully realized only within a perfected creation.
It has been usual to discuss whether the new heavens and new earth will involve a renewal of the present universe or a complete destruction followed by re-creation ex nihilo. Both views have ardent proponents, the Reformed tradition favoring renewal and the Lutheran tradition favoring re-creation. Both views seem to have adequate biblical support (e.g., for renewal, Matt. 19:28; Acts 3:21; Rom. 8:18–21; for re-creation, 2 Pet. 3:7–13). The best view seems to be that there is both continuity and discontinuity; the universe will be renewed, but this transformation will be so complete as to introduce a radically new order of existence.—By F. Q. Gouvea
God created the earth to be inhabited, to be filled with perfect humans, who are over the animals, and under the sovereignty of God. (Gen 1:28; 2:8, 15; Ps 104:5; 115:16; Eccl 1:4) Sin did not dissuade God from his plans (Isa. 45:18); hence, he has saved redeemable humankind by Jesus’ ransom sacrifice. It appears that the Bible offers two hopes to redeemed humans, (1) a heavenly hope, or (2) an earthly hope. It also seems that those with the heavenly hope are limited in number and are going to heaven to rule with Christ as kings, priests, and judges either on the earth or over the earth from heaven. It appears that those with an earthly hope will receive eternal life here on a paradise earth as originally intended.—Edward D. Andrews.
Revelation 21:1-5 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
The New Heaven and Earth
21 Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and the sea was no more. 2 And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready as a bride adorned for her husband. 3 And I heard a loud voice from the throne, saying, “Look, the tabernacle of God is among men, and he will dwell among them, and they shall be his people, and God himself will be among them, 4 and he will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain anymore, for the former things have passed away.”
5 And the One seated on the throne said, “Look! I am making all things new.” And he said, “Write, for these words are faithful and true.”
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 Jehovah of armies: (יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֣וֹת Jehovah tsebaot) literally means an army of soldiers or military forces (Gen. 21:22; Deut. 20:9). The expression is found 285 times, with some deviations, in the Scriptures. The prophetic books, especially Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Zechariah, have the most occurrences. It is also used figuratively, “the sun and the moon and the stars, all the armies of heaven.” (Deut. 4:19) In the plural form, it is also used of the Israelites forces as well. (Ex. 6:26; 7:4; Num. 33:1; Psa. 44:9) However, the “armies” in the expression “Jehovah of armies” is a reference to the angelic forces primarily, if not exclusively. Paul and James, quoting from the Old Testament prophecies, used its equivalent (τὰ κυρίου σαβαὼθ ta kuriou sabaōth; “the Lord of armies”) in their writings. – Rom. 9:29; Jas 5:4; cf. Isa 1:9.
 Heb. (נֶפֶשׁ nephesh)
 That is, consider, think carefully
 Miller, Stephen. Holman Old Testament Commenatry – Nahum-Malachi: 20 (Holman Old Testament Commentary) (p. 125). B&H Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
 Miller, Stephen. Holman Old Testament Commenatry – Nahum-Malachi: 20 (Holman Old Testament Commentary) (pp. 109-110). B&H Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.