GENESIS 3:15: Who Was This Woman, the Serpent, and the “Seeds”?

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Young Christians

Genesis 3:15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

15 And I will put enmity between you and the woman,
    and between your offspring and her offspring;
he shall bruise your head,
    and you shall bruise his heel.”

The seed of the woman or offspring of the woman is an unnamed person prophetically referred to in the biblical Book of Genesis. As a result of the serpent’s temptation of Eve, which resulted in the fall of man, God announces (in Genesis 3:15) that he will put enmity between the seed of the serpent and the seed of the woman. In Christianity, this verse is known as the protoevangelium [protevangeliumproto-evangelium , and protoevangelion], and is interpreted as a prophecy of the coming of Jesus. In Judaism, the “seed of the woman” is taken as a collective reference to mankind in general.

This prophecy would remain a mystery among the Jewish people for over 1,550 years, some 52 years after the Seed had been born.  Galatians 4:4 says: “But when the fullness of time came, God sent forth his Son, born of a woman …” An angel named Gabriel told a Jewish virgin named Mary in the year 2 B.C.E., “and behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David … The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; and for that reason, the one who is born will be called holy, the Son of God.”—Luke 1:31-32, 35.

Shortly thereafter, God would place the life of his Son in Mary’s womb so that he came to be born of a woman. Even though Mary was an imperfect woman, Jesus was born a perfect human, inheriting no imperfection from her, as he was “the Son of God.” Yet, Jesus’ human parents, both being descendants of David, supplied Him with the rights as an heir of David. God has brought David’s offspring to Israel a Savior, Jesus, as he promised. (Acts 13:22-23) When Jesus was baptized in 29 C.E., God anointed him with the Holy Spirit and said, “This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.” (Matthew 3:16-17) After more than 1,500 years, the Seed had come! (Galatians 3:16) In time, more would be revealed about the Seed.—2 Timothy 1:10.

During Jesus’ ministry, we would learn who the serpent of Genesis 3:15 would be, Satan. And the serpent’s seed would be followers of Satan. (Matthew 23:33; John 8:44) The apostle John, 63 years after Jesus’ ransom sacrificial death, resurrection, and ascension back to heaven, reveals how Satan and his seed would be crushed forever. (Revelation 20:1-3, 10, 15) However, forty-five years earlier the woman was identified as “the Jerusalem above,” the new Jerusalem, the heavenly Jerusalem.—Galatians 4:26; Heb. 12:18–24; Revelation 3:12; 21:2, 9ff.

The bruising of the serpent’s head refers primarily to the final defeat of Satan, while the bruising of the heel of the seed of the woman is taken to refer to the crucifixion of Christ. Louis Berkhof, for example, wrote: “The death of Christ, who is in a preeminent sense the seed of the woman, will mean the defeat of Satan.”[1]

[1] Louis Berkhof, Systematic Theology, Eerdman’s 1996, page 294

APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot

Genesis 3:15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
15 And I will put enmity between you [Satan] and the woman [Angelic Body],
    and between your [Satan’s] offspring [Demons and Humans] and her offspring [Jesus];
he [Jesus] shall bruise your head [death, eternal destruction],
    and you shall bruise his heel [crucified].”

Christ is the Seed of the woman. But determining who the woman is becomes the biggest debate, so let’s unpack that with logic. Genesis 3:15 tells us about “the woman.” Some have argued that this was Eve. Maybe even Eve herself thought she was the woman. (Cp. Genesis 4:1.) However, an enmity that was to last for thousands of years makes that impossible since Eve died thousands of years ago. Catholics often understand the “woman” of Genesis 3:15 to refer primarily to the Virgin Mary rather than Eve. The text in Genesis also connects to the sign the Lord gives to King Achaz through Isaiah 7:14, “Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.” Here again, this enmity between “the woman” and Satan lasted for thousands of years before Christ was born as a human, and Mary could not battle Satan, as humans are incredibly frail compared to angels, especially higher-ranking angels. One angel slaughtered 185,000 Assyrian soldiers in one night. (2 Ki 19:35) Further, we know that the serpent addressed by God is an invisible, powerful spirit person, Satan the Devil, and part of his seed include millions of demons, powerful spirit creatures, that is, fallen angels. Therefore, it is logical that if there was this ongoing battle between “the woman” and Satan for thousands of years, “the woman” would also be spirit person as well. Revelation 12:1-2 tells us, “And a great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. She was pregnant and was crying out in birth pains and the agony of giving birth.” Therefore, “the woman” is used figuratively as God’s heavenly angelic organization of spirit creatures that have been battling Satan and his demons for thousands of years, including Gabriel, and Michael the archangel.

Excursion “the Woman” as God’s Heavenly Angelic Organization

Michael, the great prince who stands up – Who is Michael? Archangel: (ἀρχάγγελος archaggelos) Michael (מִיכָאֵל Mikael/Μιχαήλ Michaēl) is the only spirit named as an archangel in the Bible. Nevertheless, some Bible scholars believe that ‘it is possible that there are other archangels. However, the prefix “arch,” meaning “chief” or “principal,” indicates that there is only one archangel, the chief angel. Yes, Gabriel is very powerful, but no Scripture ever refers to him as an archangel. If there were multiple archangels, how could they be described as arch (chief or principal) angels? In the Scriptures, “archangel” is never found in the plural. Clearly, Michael is the only archangel, and as the highest-ranking angel, like the highest-ranking general in the army, Michael stands directly under the authority of God, as he commands the other angels, including Gabriel, according to the Father’s will and purposes. Michael, the Archangel, whose name means, “Who is like God?”); he disputed with Satan over Moses’ body. (Jude 9) Michael with Gabriel stood guard over the sons of Israel and fought for Israel against demons. (Dan. 10:13, 21) He cast Satan and the demons out of heaven. (Rev. 12:7-9) He will defeat the kings of the earth and their armies at Armageddon, and he will be the one given the privilege of abyssing Satan, the archenemy of God. – Revelation 18:1-2; 19:11-21.

How does Michael, the great prince who stands up? Michael, the archangel fights for God’s sovereignty.

The spirit person or creature named Michael is only mentioned by name five times in the Bible. Nevertheless, he is always in the midst of some very serious intense action when he is mentioned. We have Michael in the book of Daniel battling wicked angels. In the Epistle of Jude, Michael is found disputing with Satan. In the book of Revelation, he is waging war with Satan the Devil and his demon army. As was said, Michael is the highest-ranking angel, who is always found in Scripture defending the sovereignty of God, living up to his name, which means “Who Is Like God?”

Michael is so powerful; no enemy could ever defeat him. Revelation states, “war broke out in heaven: Michael and his angels made war with the dragon, and the dragon and its angels waged war.” Michael is the leader of an army of God’s faithful angels, including Gabriel. Michael is under the command of Jesus Christ himself. – Matt 13:41; 16:27; 24:31; 2 Thess. 1:7; 1 Pet. 3:22; Rev. 19:14-16.

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT_01

Michael the archangel is spoken of in the following texts:

Daniel 10:2, 13, 20-21 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
In those days I, Daniel, was mourning for three weeks. 13 The prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me twenty-one days, but Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me, for I was left there with the kings of Persia, 20 Then he said, “Do you know why I have come to you? But now I will return to fight against the prince of Persia, and when I go out, look, the prince of Greece will come. 21 But I will tell you what is inscribed in the book of truth, and there is none who contends by my side against these except Michael, your prince.

Chapter 10 of the book of Daniel precedes the final vision that was given to Daniel, the battles between The Kings of the North and the South.

Thus, Satan the Devil has been using his power through rebel “angels who did not keep to their own domain but deserted their proper dwelling place [in heaven], he has kept in eternal bonds under deep [spiritual] darkness [known as Tartarus (2 Pet.2:4)] for the judgment of the great day.” – Jude 1:6.

These rebel angels had the power at one time to materialize in human form, just like the ones that remain faithful to God, as they delivered messages for Him. (Gen. 18:1, 2, 8, 20-22; 19:1-11; Josh. 5:13-15) The “proper dwelling” that Jude speaks of is heaven, to which these angels abandoned, to take on human form, and have relations that were contrary to nature with the “the daughters of man.” (Dan. 7:9-10) The Bible intimates that these rebel angels were stripped of their power to take on human form, as you never hear of it taking place again after the flood, only spirit possession after that. These disobedient angels are now “spirits in prison,” who had been thrown into “eternal chains under gloomy darkness,” which is more of a condition of limited powers, not so much a place, like a maximum-security prison. – 1 Peter 3:19; 2 Peter 2:4; Jude 6.

Mosaic Authorship HOW RELIABLE ARE THE GOSPELS

While there is little doubt that demons are very dangerous, mighty, and very strong, we still need not dread them. After the flood, their power was limited, and God does use the good angels to protect his servants from demons. After the flood, the rebellious angels returned to heaven. They were not permitted back into the faithful angel’s intimate, enlightened spirit family with God. Rather, they were cut off from any spiritual wisdom, knowledge, and understanding from God; after that, only a dark outlook for the future. As was mentioned above, these rebel angels were confined to a condition of spiritual darkness known as Tartarus. (2 Pet. 2:4) God restrained them with “eternal bonds under deep [spiritual] darkness.” Again, while they no longer have the power or the ability to materialize in human form, they can possess other humans other than God’s true servants and control world affairs under the guidance of the god of this age, Satan the Devil.—2 Corinthians 4:3-4; 11:13-15.

In the prophetic book of Daniel, we find out how “the world-rulers of this darkness, … the wicked spirit forces in the heavenly places,” have been exercising control over the world since ancient times. Daniel was deeply concerned about his fellow countrymen who had returned to Jerusalem after seventy years of Babylonian captivity. He prayed on their behalf for three weeks. A good angel was sent to Daniel by God to comfort him but was delayed, so he informed Daniel, saying, “The prince [rebel angel] of the kingdom of Persia withstood me twenty-one days” – Daniel 10:2, 13.

THE CREATION DAYS OF GENESIS gift of prophecy

The angel was clearly not referring to the Persian King Cyrus, who at that time found favor in Daniel and the Israelite people. Moreover, no human could ever hold back a powerful angel for three weeks, for we remember it took but one angel to slaughter 185,000 Assyrian mighty warriors in one night. (Isaiah 37:36) Therefore, this opposing ‘prince of Persia’ could only be a rebel angel of the Devil, in other words, a demon whom Satan gave control over the Persian Empire. Later in the account, the angel of God would state that he would have to fight once against “the prince of Persia” and another demon rebel angel prince, “the prince of Greece.” (Dan. 10:20) Truly, there really are invisible “world rulers,” demon rebel princes who have been assigned a role in their control of the world under the authority of their prince of darkness himself, Satan the Devil.

On Daniel 10:13, John Walvoord writes, “This prince is not the human king of Persia, but rather the angelic leader of Persia, a fallen angel under the direction of Satan, in contrast to the angelic prince Michael who leads and protects Israel. That the angel described as ‘the prince’ of Persia is a wicked angel is clear from the fact that his opposition to the angelic messenger to Daniel was given as the reason for the twenty-one-day delay in the answer.”[1] Max Anders writes, “Every conservative commentator agrees that this verse and similar references in verses 20–21 indicate that fallen angels, to some extent, control and protect earthly kingdoms. We learn in verse 20 that Greece also had such a ‘prince,’ and apparently, as we read in 10:13, Michael may be the guardian angel of Israel.”[2] This author would go beyond both Walvoord and Anders and say that Michael is the only archangel (chief or principal), over all of the faithful angels and protecting God’s faithful servants. Now, let’s look at Daniel 12:1 again.

Daniel 12:1 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

12 “Now at that time [at Armageddon] Michael [the archangel, the most powerful angel], the great prince who stands up for the sons of your people, will arise. And there will be a time of distress [the great tribulation] such as never occurred since there was a nation until that time; and at that time your people, everyone who is found written in the book, will be rescued.

At the time of Daniel “Michael may be the guardian angel of Israel” or (Anders) “Michael who leads and protects Israel” (Walvoord) would be correct but being that, as Jesus said, “Therefore I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you [Israel] and given to a nation [Israel of God, Christianity] (Gal. 6:15-16), producing the fruit of it.” (Matt 21:45) He later went on to say of Israel, “‘Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, the way a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, and you were unwilling. Look, your house [being the chosen people] is being left to you desolate! For I say to you, from now on you will not see me until you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.’” (Matt 23:37-39) The latter words mean that the Jews were no longer God’s chosen people and that the Israel of God, Christianity was replacing them, of any of the Jewish people wanted to be one of God’s people again, they needed to accept Jesus Christ and convert from the Jewish religion to Christianity, ‘coming in the name of Christ.’ So, I would agree in a limited way with Anders and Walvoord that Michael served as a protection for Israel, yet it was ancient Israel, but he now serves as a protection for the “Israel of God” (Gal. 6:16), true Christianity. He is not a guardian angel of individual persons, but he assigns angels to prevent rebel angels from slaughtering true Christians.

Jude 1:9-10 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
But Michael the archangel, when he disputed with the devil and argued about the body of Moses, did not dare to bring a judgment against him in abusive terms, but said, “The Lord rebuke you!” 10 But these men speak evil of the things which they do not understand; and the things which they know by instinct, like unreasoning animals, by these things they are corrupting themselves.[3] (See Deut. 34:5-6)

David Walls and Max Anders write, “In an interesting peek behind the historical curtain that we do not get in the Old Testament, we learn that Michael was sent to bury the body of Moses when he died atop Mount Nebo (Deut. 34). According to Jewish tradition (supported by this passage), the devil argued with him about it, apparently claiming for himself the right to dispose of Moses’ body. (For Jewish sources, see Bauckham, WBC 50, 65–76.) Michael, powerful as he was, did not dare to bring a slanderous accusation against the devil but said instead, The Lord rebuke you![4]

Revelation 12:7 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
And war broke out in heaven: Michael and his angels made war with the dragon, and the dragon and its angels waged war,

The heavenly sky-drama marches ahead. The woman and her child fade out. Michael and his angels fade in; so do the angels of the dragon. John sees a great sky battle, a war in heaven. Try and picture this like a Star Wars kind of space battle. This portrays in symbols the truth of Ephesians is 6:12: ‘For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms.’ Many Bible students have puzzled over why Christ is not portrayed as the leader of the good angels. Michael has a secure place in Scripture as the only named archangel, “ruler of angels,” which is undoubtedly his role here (Jude 9). Christ as the supreme heavenly warrior is revealed only in chapter 19. As the fourth character in the drama, Michael has a bit part. This is the only verse in all of Revelation in which he appears.”[5] With all due respect to Kendell H. Easley, who says “Michael has a bit part,” you need not talk despairingly, “bit part,” about Michael the archangel to prop up Jesus Christ, as Michael is only one of two angels mentioned in the Bible, and he is the head, the chief, the principal angel over all other angels and has been serving Christ as a protector of his people since the rebels in the Garden of Eden were expelled.

And there will be a time of distress [the great tribulation] such as never occurred since there was a nation until that time – Jesus Christ, using Michael the archangel to lead the army of angels to execute and bring an end to Satan’s wicked age over imperfect humans during the  “great tribulation.” – Matthew 24:21; Jeremiah 25:33; 2 Thessalonians 1:6-8; Revelation 7:14; 16:14, 16.

Matthew 24:21-22 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

21 For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, and never will be. 22 And if those days had not been cut short, no flesh would have been saved: but for the chosen ones sake those days will be cut short.

But even in judgment, the Lord will display mercy, particularly for the sake of the elect (plural of eklektos, ‘select, chosen ones’). These are those who have placed faith in him and followed him as his disciples. The use of the term elect also highlights the Lords sovereign choice as to who these people will be.[6]

We notice that the texts above do not say that all of the chosen ones will be taken before the great tribulation. Instead, it says that the great tribulation will be cut short for their sake. This suggests that some of the chosen ones will still be present on earth during the great tribulation. Some even survive the great tribulation, meaning that they are there afterward.

Revelation 7:4, 9-10, 14 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

And I heard the number of the ones who were sealed, one hundred forty-four thousand [See note blow] sealed from every tribe of the sons of Israel: After this I saw, and look! a great multitude, which no man was able to number, out of all nations and tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, dressed in white robes and with palm branches in their hands. 10 and they cry with a great voice, saying, “Salvation to our God who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb.” 14 And I said to him, “My lord, you know.” And he said to me, “These are the ones who have come out of the great tribulation, and have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.

The case for symbolism is exegetically weak. The principal reason for the view is a predisposition to make the 144,000 into a group representative of the church with which no possible numerical connection exists. No justification can be found for understanding the simple statement of fact in v. 4 as a figure of speech. It is a definite number [at 7:4] in contrast with the indefinite number of 7:9. If it is taken symbolically, no number in the book can be taken literally. As God reserved 7,000 in the days of Ahab (1 Kings 19:18; Rom. 11:4), He will reserve 144,000 for Himself during the future Great Tribulation. (Bold mine)[7]

Some of the chosen ones, who had the great tribulation cut short for their sake, are part of the hundred and forty-four thousand of Revelation 7:4. These “chosen ones” are those who have been chosen out of true Christians by God to rule as kings, priests, and judges with Christ for a literal thousand years. The great multitude is other Christians, who are not a part of the chosen ones, which are not going to heaven to serve as kings, priests, and judges with Jesus Christ. The good news is that this great multitude of Christians will survive the great tribulation as well. God created the earth to be inhabited, to be filled with perfect humans, who are over the animals, and under the sovereignty of God. (Gen 1:28; 2:8, 15; Ps 104:5; 115:16; Eccl 1:4) Sin did not dissuade God from his plans (Isa. 45:18); hence, he has saved redeemable humankind by Jesus’ ransom sacrifice. It seems that the Bible offers two hopes to redeemed humans, (1) a heavenly hope or (2) an earthly hope. It also seems that those with the heavenly hope are limited in number and are going to heaven to rule with Christ as kings, priests, and judges either on the earth or over the earth from heaven. It seems that those with earthly hope are going to receive eternal life here on a paradise earth as originally intended.

In the O[ld] T[estament] the kingdom of God is usually described in terms of a redeemed earth; this is especially clear in the book of Isaiah, where the final state of the universe is already called new heavens and a new earth (65:17; 66:22) The nature of this renewal was perceived only very dimly by OT authors, but they did express the belief that a humans ultimate destiny is an earthly one. [It is unwise to speak of the written Word of God as if it were of human origin, saying ‘OT authors express the belief,’ when what was written is the meaning and message of what God wanted to convey by means of the human author. – Edward D. Andrews] This vision is clarified in the N[ew] T[estament]. Jesus speaks of the “renewal” of the world (Matt 19:28), Peter of the restoration of all things (Acts 3:21). Paul writes that the universe will be redeemed by God from its current state of bondage (Rom. 8:18-21). This is confirmed by Peter, who describes the new heavens and the new earth as the Christian’s hope (2 Pet. 3:13). Finally, the book of Revelation includes a glorious vision of the end of the present universe and the creation of a new universe, full of righteousness and the presence of God. The vision is confirmed by God in the awesome declaration: “I am making everything new!” (Rev. 21:1-8).

The new heavens and the new earth will be the renewed creation that will fulfill the purpose for which God created the universe. It will be characterized by the complete rule of God and by the full realization of the final goal of redemption: “Now the dwelling of God is with men” (Rev. 21:3).

The fact that the universe will be created anew [Create anew does not mean complete destruction followed by a re-creation, but instead a renewal of the present universe. – Edward D. Andrews] shows that God’s goals for humans is not an ethereal and disembodied existence, but a bodily existence on a perfected earth. The scene of the beatific vision is the new earth. The spiritual does not exclude the created order and will be fully realized only within a perfected creation. (Elwell 2001, 828-29)

“The woman,” this angelic heavenly organization, was battling Satan and his seed to protect the coming seed of the woman. Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, King David, and others could have faith in the promised seed that was prophesied to come through their genealogical line. (Genesis 22:15-18; 26:4; 28:14) Satan and his seed of demons and wicked humans often persecuted and killed these servants.—Hebrews 11:1, 2, 32-38.

END OF EXCURSION

Enmity Between Two Seeds

First, we have the seed of the Serpent. Of course, the angels who forsook their dwelling place in the heaven, to rebel with Satan against the sovereignty of God. Revelation 12:9 says, “And the great dragon was thrown down, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world, he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him.” Ephesians 6:12 says, “For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers over this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places.”

Further, John 8:44 says, “You are of your father the devil, and your will is to do your father’s desires. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks out of his own character, for he is a liar and the father of lies.” Anyone who stands in opposition to Jesus Christ, they too, are the seed of Satan. He is their figurative father.  

They were part of Satan’s seed, serving him as their figurative father. Many other humans throughout history have similarly identified themselves by doing Satan’s will, particularly in opposing and persecuting the disciples of Jesus. Collectively, these humans may be described as making up Satan’s visible organization on earth.—See John 15:20; 16:33; 17:15.

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[1] Walvoord, John. Daniel (The John Walvoord Prophecy Commentaries) (p. 246). Moody Publishers. Kindle Edition.

[2] Anders, Max. Holman Old Testament Commentary – Daniel (p. 284). B&H Publishing. Kindle Edition.

[3] Or they are destroyed

[4] David Walls and Max Anders, I & II Peter, I, II & III John, Jude, vol. 11, Holman New Testament Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1999), 263.

[5] Kendell H. Easley, Revelation, vol. 12, Holman New Testament Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1998), 210–211.

[6] Stuart K. Weber, Matthew, vol. 1, Holman New Testament Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000), 401.

[7] Robert L. Thomas, Revelation 1-7: An Exegetical Commentary (Chicago: Moody Publishers, 1992), 474.

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