EXEGETICAL INSIGHT: Spirit Body or Spiritual Body? 1 Corinthians 15:35-49

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THE CREATION DAYS OF GENESIS gift of prophecy
Barry Hofstetter is an instructor of Latin at Jack M. Barrack Hebrew Academy. Previously: he North American Reformed Seminary and The American Academy. He Studied M.Div. and Th.M. at Westminster Theological Seminary. Graduated in 1991

1 Corinthians 15:35-49 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
The Resurrection Body
35 But someone will say, “How are the dead raised? And with what kind of body do they come?” 36 You foolish person! What you sow does not come to life unless it dies. 37 And that which you sow, you do not sow the body which is to be, but a bare grain, perhaps of wheat or of some other kind. 38 But God gives it a body just as it has pleased him, and gives to each of the seeds its own body. 39 All flesh is not the same flesh, but there is one flesh of men, and another flesh of animals, and another flesh of birds, and another of fish. 40 There are also heavenly bodies and earthly bodies, but the glory of the heavenly is one, and the glory of the earthly is another. 41 There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for star differs from star in glory.
42 So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption; it is raised up in incorruption. 43 It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; 44 it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. 45 So also it is written, “The first man, Adam, became a living soul.” The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 46 But the spiritual is not first, but the natural; then the spiritual. 47 The first man is from the earth and made of dust; the second man is from heaven. 48 As was the man of dust, so also are those who are of the dust, and as is the man of heaven, so also are those who are of heaven. 49 And just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we will also bear the image of the man of heaven.

Earlier in 1 Corinthians 15, Paul describes Jesus as the firstfruits of the resurrection, and in Ephesians 2:1-10, our salvation and resurrection from the dead are inextricably linked with Jesus’ resurrection. In the passage under consideration above, however, Paul talks about the resurrection body as being a spiritual body. Some have suggested that this means that we will not have literal physical bodies, but rather spirit bodies. Is this the case? Is there a disconnect, a contradiction, between the nature of Jesus’ resurrection and the nature of the believer’s resurrection? As the KJV translates Paul in another context, “God forbid!”

The context of 1 Corinthians 15:44-45 (15:1-34) involves those who deny a general resurrection from the dead. Paul replies, in a very logical manner, that if the dead are not raised, then we are without hope, for this means that Jesus Christ himself has not been raised, and this in turn empties the Gospel of all meaning. We are united to Christ, and that which Christ experiences, we in turn experience in that unity. Christ’s resurrection is the pattern of that to which we look forward, for Christ himself is the firstfruit.

These considerations in turn lead Paul to discuss the nature of the resurrection, which is inseparably interwoven with the work of Christ. Paul uses the analogy of seed in comparison to the full-grown plant. That which the believer experiences now is the seed (cf. 1 Pet 1:23); the resurrection if the full growth of that which has been begun (cf. Phil 1:6). It’s important to remember that the analogy of seed to full growth implies an essential continuity toward the beginning and the end of the process, that the final state and the beginning state are linked and that the beginning gives rise to the end.

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Rather more than implicit in the passage is that to understand our own resurrection, we must consider the resurrection of Christ, which is certainly to be informed by the descriptions in the gospels. These reveal an essential continuity with the pre-resurrection state, while determining that the resurrection body is no longer bound by the coils of sin and death. It is still essentially completely human. Notice in Luke 24:36-43 that Jesus describes his body as having flesh and bones, that he may be touched (i.e., there is solid physical substance) and that he can eat, just as he did before his resurrection. What is different is that Jesus has completed his work on the cross and overcome sin and death (cf. 1 Cor 15:51-53). Death no longer holds him, not only because of his own sinless nature, but because he is the victorious one who has defeated the forces of sin, Satan, and death. Some biblical theologians speak of the “eschatological” nature of Christ’s victory. Eschatology is the study of the end times, but the adjective eschatological is often used in biblical studies and theology to refer to the completion of any aspect of redemption. The eschatological nature of Christ’s work on the cross and his resurrection means that redemption is fully accomplished, although the Bible indicates that it is not yet fully applied, but the implications must be worked out in history until “the eschaton,” the return of the Lord in glory.

Paul then speaks of different kinds of “flesh” (Grk., sarx) and “bodies” (Grk. somata). Now, if we think of this in terms of modern scientific categories, we are going to be hopelessly lost, but Paul seems to have in mind here is the creation distinctions between the various examples that he gives, so that what Paul has in mind is really the creation account in Genesis 1, which speaks of different “types” or “kinds.” These various examples do not all look or behave the same, and have different properties according to God’s design of them and purpose for them. Even stars have different types of properties which may be distinguished (Paul is probably thinking of stars and planets, but we are really not sure, and one can always reference the commentaries for more complete treatments). Again, the point is this, that the resurrection body is going to have certain properties peculiar to its state. It is not the same as the pre-resurrection body, but it is in continuity with it. Paul’s allusions here to the Genesis account suggest that the resurrection is on the same level as the original creation, a cosmic order event. The resurrection, in other words, parallels creation, and may be seen as re-creation (much as the flood can be seen as a re-creation and re-ordering of the original creation, yet still in fundamental continuity with it, and so similar OT analogies).

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Paul continues his comparison and contrast with the original creation account by comparing and contrasting the “first” (Grk, protos) Adam with the “last” (Grk., eschatos) Adam, and one must see Gen 2:7 as part of the background here. In Gen 2:7, God breaths (Heb. naphach) the breath of life into Adam, and Adam becomes a “living soul [person/being]” (Heb. nephesh chayah). Significantly, when the author of Genesis speaks of Adam’s formation, he does not use the term ruach (ruach, breath, wind, spirit, cf. Gen 1:2), but a different root altogether to speak of God imparting life to the clay statue he has molded. Paul seems to pick up on the distinction here, when he contrasts the first and second Adam. The first Adam has a psychikon body (living, soulish, the related noun psuche in the KJV usually translated “soul,” but referring in general to the principle of physical life, cf. Heb. naphach), the second Adam has been given a *pneumatikon* (spiritual, cf. Heb. ruach) body. The first Adam is given life; the second Adam becomes the source of life for all who are united to him.

The key word for our purposes here is the Greek word pneumatikos (spiritual). It is the adjectival form of pneuma (breath, wind, spirit), and throughout Paul’s epistles regularly, with one or two exceptions clearly qualified by the context, refers to the Spirit of God. This adjectival form is used of that which possesses or is in some way qualified or conditioned by the Spirit of God. Paul uses it, for example, of Christians in Gal. 6:1 (“you who are spiritual…). A detailed study will bear this out, and one can always reference the various lexicons.

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In this context, the resurrection body of Christ is clearly that which is conditioned eschatologically by the Spirit of God. It is in a completed state to which nothing else may be added. It is the body made alive and brought to its final state by God’s Spirit. It bears its own unique properties, which are appropriate to that state of completeness no longer affected by sin and death, but this does not mean that it is amorphous or invisible. It certainly does not mean that it is intangible. Such a body really exists, and has finite characteristics. It is better than bodies, which are not fully realized, in that it no longer is troubled by limitations inherent in the fallen state. It is not subject to the potential frailties of the pre-resurrection sinless bodies of Christ and of Adam before the fall. Christ has given the believer a share in this very same pneuma, even as we derive the principle of physical life (but condemned to death) from Adam. The resurrected individual does not cease to be who he is in terms of his personal integrity, but he transcends his prior limitations and becomes that which God fully intends him to be (cf. John 3:2).

With these considerations in mind, Paul then uses language which would be familiar to his readers, the apocalyptic language of the final resurrection. Paul speaks of the last trumpet, and speaks of the dead in general, at one moment in time (Grk. *en atomo*) being raised with Christ (cf. 1 Thess. 4:15-17). At that point, even those who are not “asleep” will join with the dead in that final resurrection. The seed will come to full fruition in the blink of an eye, and no one will be able to deny that Christ is Lord, since every knee will bow. The believer will then continue in eternity in the resurrection state with a perfected body perfectly suited to the eternal glory of God and the enjoyment of him.

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APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot APOSTOLIC FATHERS

The Hope of a Resurrection

EDWARD D. ANDREWS (AS in Criminal Justice, BS in Religion, MA in Biblical Studies, and MDiv in Theology) is CEO and President of Christian Publishing House. He has authored over 160 books. Andrews is the Chief Translator of the Updated American Standard Version (UASV).

All of us have lost a loved one to this force to be reckoned with, and it is only a matter of time before we have to face the greatest enemy humankind has ever known, death! However, we have been given a hope that is as great as the penalty that we are under. We have the hope of life eternal, and if we die, it is the hope of a resurrection. This hope means that we will be reunited with the loved ones that we have lost. Some in the past have had a foretaste of this great hope:

Mark 5:35, 41-42 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
35 While he was still speaking, they came from the house of the synagogue official, saying, “Your daughter has died; why trouble the Teacher anymore?” 41 Taking the child by the hand, he said to her, “Talitha koum!” (which is translated, “Little girl, I say to you, get up!”). 42 And immediately the girl got up and began walking (for she was twelve years old), and immediately they were amazed and completely astounded.

Acts 9:36-41 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
36 Now in Joppa there was a disciple named Tabitha (which translated in Greek is called Dorcas); this woman was full of good deeds of kindness and good works which she continually did. 37 Now it happened that in those days she became ill and died, and when they had washed her, they laid her in an upper room. 38 Since Lydda was near Joppa, the disciples, having heard that Peter was there, sent two men to him, imploring him, “Do not delay in coming to us.” 39 So Peter arose and went with them. When he arrived, they brought him into the upper room; and all the widows stood beside him, weeping and showing all the tunics and garments that Dorcas used to make while she was with them. 40 But Peter put them all outside, and knelt down and prayed; and turning to the body he said, “Tabitha, arise.” And she opened her eyes, and when she saw Peter she sat up. 41 And he gave her his hand and raised her up. Then, calling the holy ones and widows, he presented her alive.

We have already heard of the charges that Satan has risen against God in chapter six of this book. The resurrection hope allows God to let Satan play out his challenges, to resolve the issues that would have otherwise plagued us for an eternity. It is like when you suffer through a painful medical treatment, to enjoy thereafter with all the complications of the issues you had. It is only by means of the greatest resurrection, namely Jesus Christ, that we can have this hope.

Matthew 20:28 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
28 even as the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his soul as a ransom for many.”

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Resurrection is a Foundational Doctrine

Hebrews 6:1-2 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
Therefore, leaving behind the elementary doctrine about the Christ, let us press on to maturity, not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works and faith in God, and of instruction about washings, the laying on of hands, the resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgment.

The resurrection is a foundational doctrine of our Christian faith. However, it does not fit into the world of humankind that is alienated from God. They see this as the only life there is, and so they are in pursuit of fleshly pleasures, to make the most of it. The mindset of some of the first century was, “If the dead are not raised, ‘Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die.’” (1 Cor. 15:32, ESV) We, on the other hand, do not need to chase after the things that Satan’s world has to offer.

Acts 17:32 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
32 Now when they heard of the resurrection of the dead, some mocked, but others said, “We will hear you concerning this also again.”

We need to look to at least two hopes that humans have the opportunity of having. Some are of new Israel and is seen as being given a kingdom, a chosen race, a royal priesthood, and ruling with Christ for a thousand years. There will be a need to investigate this, and this section will be a little more complex than any other part of this book. It is critical to all of us, so bear with me. I am going to quote some leading evangelical scholars at length.

Revelation 5:9-10 English Standard Version (ESV)
And they sang a new song, saying,
“Worthy are you to take the scroll
    and to open its seals,
for you were slain, and by your blood you ransomed people for God
    from every tribe and language and people and nation,
10 and you have made them a kingdom and priests to our God,
    and they shall reign on the earth.”

Revelation 5:9-10 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
And they sang a new song, saying,
“Worthy are you to take the scroll
    and to open its seals,
for you were slain, and purchased for God with your blood men
    from every tribe and language and people and nation,
10 and you have made them a kingdom and priests to our God,
    and they shall reign over the earth.”

According to this verse, Jesus will rule “on” the earth. For another consideration, see the next subheading: Over the earth or On the Earth?

A further result of the Lamb’s sacrifice is the establishment[1] of the redeemed as a kingdom and priests: kai epoiēsas autous tǭ theǭ hēmōn basileian kai hiereis (“and You made them a kingdom and priests to our God”). The threefold occurrence of this theme in Revelation (cf. also Rev. 1:6; 20:6) indicates that talk about such a spiritual heritage was common parlance among Christians of John’s day (Swete). As God’s possession,[2] the redeemed will not merely be God’s people over whom He reigns, but will also share God’s rule in the coming millennial kingdom (cf. 1 Cor. 4:8; 6:3) (Charles; Ladd). This kingdom is the goal toward which the program of God is moving, as emphasized by basileusousin (“they shall reign”) later in v. 10 (cf. Rev. 20:4). The idea of priesthood found in hiereis (“priests”) means full and immediate access into God’s presence for the purpose of praise and worship (Ladd). It also includes the thought of priestly service to God (Mounce). Though believers are currently viewed as a royal priesthood (1 Pet. 2:5, 9; cf. Ex. 19:6), this is only preliminary to the fullness of the way they will function alongside Christ in the millennial kingdom.[3]

Kai basileusousin epi tēs gēs (“and they shall reign on the earth”) explains more fully the earlier basileian (“kingdom”). The fact that believers will serve as reigning powers means that they will be the equivalent of kings (Charles; Beckwith). Spelled out more particularly in 20:4 regarding the millennial kingdom and in 22:5 regarding the eternal state, they will join with Christ in His continual reign following His second advent to the earth. This all stems from the epoch determining redemptive work of the Lamb.[4]

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT_01

On the earth or Over the Earth

πί epí [2093] is in the genitive and can range from: on, upon; over; at, by; before, in the presence of; when, under, at the time of;[5] Below you are going to find a list the genitive epi within Revelation that has a similar construction. Please pay special attention to 5:10, 9:11, and 11:6, but there will be others that are similar.

If we are to establish that some translations are choosing a rendering because it suits their doctrine, we must compare how they render the same thing elsewhere. You do not need to be a Greek scholar below, so you can ignore the grammar talk, and just notice the similarities and differences.

I do believe that the English is a problem in trying to say, “they shall reign on the earth.” First, because this is not a location issue: i.e., where. The genitive epi is dealing not with where, but with authority over, which is expressed by having it over _____ not on _____

Please also take special note that the context of all of these epi genitives that follow the active indicative verb and then are followed by the genitive definite article and noun are dealing with authority.

 The verb “to reign” is properly used of kings and queens, and here implies complete power over the world and its inhabitants. So another way of expressing this is “and they shall rule over the world and its inhabitants” or “they shall have power over ….”[6]

  • Rev 5:10: basileusousin epi tēs gēs (“They are reigning [opon, on, over] the earth”)[7]
  • ESV: they shall reign on the earth
  • NASB: they will reign upon the earth
  • ASV: they reign upon earth
  • DBY: they shall reign over the earth
  • πί epí is in the genitive and comes after the future active indicative verb followed by the definite article and followed by a definite genitive article and noun
  •  Rev 9:11: echousin ep autōn basilea (They are having [upon, on, over] them king)
  • ESV: They have as king over them
  • NASB: They have as king over them
  • ASV: They have over them as king
  • DBT: They have a king over them
  • πί epí is in the genitive and comes after the present active indicative verb followed by a definite genitive article and noun
  •  Rev 11:6: exousian echousin epi tōn hudatōn (they are having authority [upon, on, over] the water)
  • ESV: they have power over the waters
  • NASB: they have power over the waters
  • ASV: they have power over the waters
  • DBY: they have power over the waters
  • πί epí is in the genitive and comes after the future active indicative verb followed by a definite genitive article and noun
  •  Rev 2:26: dōsō autō exousian epi tōn ethnōn (I shall give to him authority [upon, on, over] the nations)
  • ESV:  I will give authority over the nations
  • NASB: I WILL GIVE AUTHORITY OVER THE NATIONS
  • ASV: I give authority over the nations
  • DBY: will I give authority over the nations,
  • πί epí is in the genitive and comes after the future active indicative verb followed by a definite genitive article and noun
  • Rev 6:8: edothē autois exousia epi to tetarton tēs gēs (was given to them authority [upon, on, over] the fourth of the earth)
  • ESV:  they were given authority over a fourth of the earth
  • NASB: Authority was given to them over a fourth of the earth
  • ASV: here was given unto them authority over the fourth part of the earth
  • DBY: authority was given to him over the fourth of the earth
  • πί epí is in the genitive and comes after the future active indicative verb followed by a definite genitive article and noun
  •  Rev 13:7: edothē autō exousia epi pasan phulēn kai laon kai glōssan kai ethnos (was given to it authority [upon, on, over] every tribe and people and tongue and nation)
  • ESV:  authority was given it over every tribe and people and language and nation
  • NASB: authority over every tribe and people and tongue and nation was given to him
  • ASV: there was given to him authority over every tribe and people and tongue and nation
  • DBY: was given to it authority over every tribe, and people, and tongue, and nation
  • πί epí is in the genitive and comes after the future active indicative verb followed by a genitive noun. While there is no definite article, it still seems definite in that we know which one: everyone.
  •  Rev 14:18: ho echōn exousian epi tou puros the one having authority [upon, on, over] the fire
  • ESV:  who has authority over the fire
  • NASB: the one who has power over fire
  • ASV: he that hath power over fire
  • DBY: having power over fire
  • Rev 16:9: tou echontos tēn exousian epi pas plēgas (the one having the authority (upon, on, over) the plagues)
  • ESV:  who had power over these plagues
  •  NASB: who has the power over these plagues
  • ASV: who hath the power over these plagues
  • DBY: who had authority over these plagues
  • Rev 17:18: hē polis megalē hē echousa basileian epi tōn basileōn tēs gēs (the woman whom you saw is the city the great the one having kingdom (upon, on, over) the kingdoms of the earth)
  • ESV:  the great city that has dominion over the kings of the earth
  • NASB: the great city, which reigns over the kings of the earth.
  • ASV: the great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.
  • DBY: the great city, which has kingship over the kings of the earth

Revelation 5:9-10 has a high level of theological content. It either says that Jesus and his co-rulers are going to rule from heaven, over the earth or on the earth. It is theological bias to have several cases of similar context and the same grammatical construction, rendering the verses the same every time, yet to then render one verse contrary to the others, simply because it aligns with one’s theology. Whether that is the case here or not, the readers will have to determine for themselves. The point regardless is this, either way, Jesus is ruling the earth, and we are blessed to have had his ransom sacrifice and resurrection. Slow down for the next few pages, as things are going to get a little deeper. We can grasp it if we just slow down meditate on what is being said, and get out our dictionary if we have to, and write the definitions in the book beside the word and read again.

Young Christians

Heavenly Hope 

Revelation 14:1-4 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
14 Then I looked, and behold, the Lamb was standing on Mount Zion, and with him one hundred and forty-four thousand, having his name and the name of his Father written on their foreheads. And I heard a voice from heaven, like the sound of many waters and like the sound of loud thunder, and the voice which I heard was like the sound of harpists playing on their harps. And they sang a new song[25] before the throne and before the four living creatures and the elders; and no one could learn the song except the one hundred and forty-four thousand who had been purchased from the earthThese are the ones who have not been defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are the ones who follow the Lamb wherever He goes. These have been purchased from among men as first fruits to God and to the Lamb.

The whole of chapter 14 is proleptic. As a summary of the Millennium (20:4–6), the first five verses feature the Lamb in place of the beast, the Lamb’s followers with His and the Father’s seal in place of the beast’s followers with the mark of the beast, and the divinely controlled Mount Zion in place of the pagan-controlled earth (Alford, Moffatt, Kiddle).[8]

Revelation 7:1-4 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
 I heard the number of the sealed, 144,000, sealed from every tribe of the sons of Israel

Various efforts have sought to determine the significance of the number 144,000. An understanding of the number as symbolical divides it into three of its multiplicands, 12 × 12 × 1000. From the symbolism of the three it is concluded that the number indicates fixedness and fullest completeness.[9] Twelve, a number of the tribes, is both squared and multiplied by a thousand. This is a twofold way of emphasizing completeness (Mounce). It thus affirms the full number of God’s people to be brought through tribulation (Ladd). The symbolic approach points out the impossibility of taking the number literally. It is simply a vast number, less than a number indefinitely great (cf. 7:9), but greater than a large number designedly finite (e.g., 1,000, Rev. 20:2) (Lee). Other occurrences of the numerical components that are supposedly symbolic are also pointed out, 12 thousand in Rev. 21:16, 12 in Rev. 22:2, and 24, a multiple of 12, in Rev. 4:4. This is done to enhance the case for symbolism (Johnson). Though admittedly ingenious, the case for symbolism is exegetically weak. The principal reason for the view is a predisposition to make the 144,000 into a group representative of the church with which no possible numerical connection exists. No justification can be found for understanding the simple statement of fact in v. 4 as a figure of speech. It is a definite number in contrast with the indefinite number of 7:9. If it is taken symbolically, no number in the book can be taken literally. As God reserved 7,000 in the days of Ahab (1 Kings 19:18; Rom. 11:4), He will reserve 144,000 for Himself during the future Great Tribulation.[10] (Thomas, Revelation 1-7: An Exegetical Commentary 1992, 473-74)

These ones are made up of those under the new covenant, the Law of Christ, those called out of natural Israel, the new Israelites, also known as the Israel of God. They are a chosen number that is to reign with Jesus as kings, priests, and judges. Therefore, we ask, what is the other hope?

REASONABLE FAITH Why Me_ FEARLESS-1

The New Earth: The Earthly Hope

In the O[ld] T[estament] the kingdom of God is usually described in terms of a redeemed earth; this is especially clear in the book of Isaiah, where the final state of the universe is already called new heavens and a new earth (65:17; 66:22) The nature of this renewal was perceived only very dimly by OT authors, but they did express the belief that a humans ultimate destiny is an earthly one.[11] This vision is clarified in the N[ew] T[estament]. Jesus speaks of the “renewal” of the world (Matt 19:28), Peter of the restoration of all things (Acts 3:21). Paul writes that the universe will be redeemed by God from its current state of bondage (Rom. 8:18-21). This is confirmed by Peter, who describes the new heavens and the new earth as the Christian’s hope (2 Pet. 3:13). Finally, the book of Revelation includes a glorious vision of the end of the present universe and the creation of a new universe, full of righteousness and the presence of God. The vision is confirmed by God in the awesome declaration: “I am making everything new!” (Rev. 21:1-8)

The new heavens and the new earth will be the renewed creation that will fulfill the purpose for which God created the universe. It will be characterized by the complete rule of God and by the full realization of the final goal of redemption: “Now the dwelling of God is with men” (Rev. 21:3).

The fact that the universe will be created anew[12] shows that God’s goals for humans is not an ethereal and disembodied existence, but a bodily existence on a perfected earth. The scene of the beatific vision is the new earth. The spiritual does not exclude the created order and will be fully realized only within a perfected creation. (Elwell 2001, 828-29)

What have we learned so far in this publication? God created the earth to be inhabited, to be filled with perfect humans, who are over the animals, and under the sovereignty of God. (Gen 1:28; 2:8, 15; Ps 104:5; 115:16; Eccl 1:4) Sin did not dissuade God from his plans (Isa. 45:18); hence, he has saved redeemable humankind by Jesus ransom sacrifice. It seems that the Bible offers two hopes to redeemed humans, (1) a heavenly hope, or (2) an earthly hope. It also seems that those with the heavenly hope are limited in number and are going to heaven to rule with Christ as kings, priests, and judges either on the earth or over the earth from heaven. Not only that, but it seems that those with the earthly hope are going to receive everlasting life here on a paradise earth as originally intended.

No One Knows That Day and Hour

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TECHNOLOGY

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CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY

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CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY Vol. IV CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY Vol. V MIRACLES
Human Imperfection HUMILITY

CHILDREN’S BOOKS

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PRAYER

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[1] The aorist ἐποίησας connotes finished result. As commonly the case in the heavenly songs of this book, it is proleptic, anticipating the culmination of the process being carried out at the time the song is sung (Swete, Apocalypse, p. 81; Beckwith, Apocalypse, pp. 512–13).[1]

[2] Τῷ θεῷ (5:10) has a possessive sense: “belonging to God” as His peculiar people (Beckwith, Apocalypse, p. 513).[2]

[3] Newell, Revelation, p. 13.

[4] Robert L. Thomas, Revelation 1-7: An Exegetical Commentary (Chicago: Moody Publishers, 1992), 402.

[5] William D. Mounce, Mounce’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old & New Testament Words (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2006), 1150.

[6] Bratcher, Robert G.; Hatton, Howard: A Handbook on the Revelation to John. New York: United Bible Societies, 1993 (UBS Handbook Series; Helps for Translators), S. 105

[7] English Standard Version (ESV), New American Standard Bible (NASB), American Standard Version (ASV), and the Darby Bible (DBY)

[8] Robert L. Thomas, Revelation 8-22: An Exegetical Commentary (Chicago: Moody Publishers, 1995), 189.

[9] Alford, Greek Testament, 4:624; Charles, Revelation, 1:206; Lenski, Revelation, p. 154.

[10] Bullinger, Apocalypse, p. 282. Geyser is correct in observing that the predominant concern of the Apocalypse is “the restoration [on earth] of the twelve tribes of Israel, their restoration as a twelve-tribe kingdom, in a renewed and purified city of David, under the rule of the victorious ‘Lion of the Tribe of Judah, the Root of David’ (5:5; 22:16)” (Albert Geyser, “The Twelve Tribes in Revelation: Judean and Judeo Christian Apocalypticism,” NTS 23, no. 3 [July 1982]: 389). He is wrong, however, in his theory that this belief characterized the Judean church only and was not shared by Gentile Christianity spearheaded by Paul (ibid., p. 390).

[11] It is unwise to speak of the written Word of God as if it were of human origin, saying ‘OT authors express the belief,’ when what was written is the meaning and message of what God wanted to convey by means of the human author.

[12] Create anew does not mean a complete destruction followed by a re-creation, but instead a renewal of the present universe.

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