EXEGETICAL INSIGHTS: Pastors Say, “In the Greek Or in the Hebrew, it means this …”

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How to Interpret the Bible-1 INTERPRETING THE BIBLE how-to-study-your-bible1

Professor Gary Yates wrote, 

Preachers always have to be careful trying to make sweeping theological conclusions based on the lexical meanings of Greek or Hebrew words. Lexical meanings alone rarely settle those kinds of issues. I was listening to a message on the radio, where the pastor was arguing that the Greek verb “to choose” was more specific than our English word because it refers to choices made independently. Thus, God’s choices are always independent of human choices. I’ve never really heard that argued before, and it seems more that he is reading a lot of theological baggage into the Greek lexicon. Whether you agree with that idea theologically is not the point. The lexical meaning of that word does not carry all of that theological weight with it. There would then have to be a separate word for non-independent choosing. The meaning of the word simply means “to choose.” Whether it refers to independent or non-independent choices has to be determined by all the contextual factors surrounding that word in every context that it appears. Simply appealing to, “In the Greek (or in the Hebrew), it means this” is almost always not a good argument for whatever theological point you are trying to make.

Timothy Scott Warren asked the all-important question,

So, if I can’t say, “According to the Hebrew/Greek . . . why did I spend all that money taking those courses?

Kevan Dale Keane made a curious comment,

I would trust someone who took a Greek immersion course before I trusted someone who only had a few semesters and wasn’t fluent in the language

EDWARD D. ANDREWS (AS in Criminal Justice, BS in Religion, MA in Biblical Studies, and MDiv in Theology) is CEO and President of Christian Publishing House. He has authored over 160 books. Andrews is the Chief Translator of the Updated American Standard Version (UASV).

I will take on the job of offering some balance to this Facebook discussion. 

Timothy Scott Warren, you can say “According to the Hebrew/Greek . . .” Take what is being said by Yates with a grain of salt. It is like the professor who says proof-texting is bad and the next thing they post a week later on Facebook is an argument with 9 different verses throughout the Bible to support what they believe, i.e., proof-texting. It needs to be qualified, proof-texting is bad when taken out of context.

Much is gained in the original language words, as the words are what convey the meaning. We are after what the authors meant by the words that they used. Many times, it is more than can be conveyed by the English rendering, or the English rendering is just a bad translation choice. Paul about 21 times, Peter a couple of times use the word epignosis, not gnosis. And all translations except a couple render its knowledge when it means accurate or full knowledge. Big difference.

Below I will give a bullet point of just a few ways the churchgoer has some advantages over others when he or she knows at least the basics of biblical Hebrew and Greek.

  • To get all the meaning out of every word so as to get at what the author meant by his use of those words bit not going beyond the author’s intended meaning nor twisting the meaning of the word for theological bias. 
  • To accurately unleash the meaning of God’s Word
  • Deeper Study is a form of worship
  • To be able to determine the meaning for yourself
  • The Bible translation may be wrong
  • Christian Apologetic Evangelism
  • To contend for the faith (Jude 1:3)
  • New & Old Testament Textual Studies – Ascertaining the original words of the original text
  • It opens up a whole new level of study tools
  • The starting point for biblical exegesis is Hebrew and Greek grammar

Dr. Ted Hildebrandt tells us “‘For the word of God is full of living power. It is sharper than the sharpest knife, cutting deep into our innermost thoughts and desires. It exposes us for what we really are’ (Heb. 4:12). It is our goal to hear this message more carefully and unleash its transforming power within this postmodern context in a way that is consistent with the original intent of the divine and human authors. Learning Greek will allow us to move one step closer to the source.” THE most important reason for studying Greek is Christian Apologetic Evangelism. (Matt. 24:14; 28:19-20; Ac 1:8) Every Christian is responsible to take part in the Great Commission to make disciples.

REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES APOLOGETICS CONVERSATION EVANGELISM

PETER SAID to “always being prepared to make a defense [ἀπολογία apologia] to anyone who asks you for a reason”
(1 Peter 3:15)

Almost all of the articles on 1 Peter 3:15 focuses on the phrase “being prepared to make a defense” and there is a great need for such an exhortation. However, what gets lost in the shuffle is that it is to be done with gentleness and respect. This article is going to focus on the how-to defend part of Peter’s words. “Our response should be characterized not by smugness or vindictiveness but by gentleness and respect. These words suggest that the believer should approach others carefully and kindly. A Christian should not attempt to cram the truth down someone’s throat or to speak patronizingly or critically to them. According to Grudem, “Such witness must be given with gentleness and (respect), not attempting to overpower the person with the force of human personality or aggressiveness, but trusting the Holy Spirit himself to quietly persuade the listener” (Grudem, 153).”

After we have become spiritually strong from deeper studies, we are to help three groups of people:

JUDE SAID to (1) “have mercy [ἐλεᾶτε] on THOSE who doubt,” [διακρινομένους (διακρίνω diakrinō)], that is fellow Christians

(2) ‘OTHERS non-Christians by snatching [ἁρπάζοντες (ἁρπάζω harpazō)] from the fire.’

(3) “to OTHERS show mercy with fear [φόβῳ (φόβος phobos)]” These are godless people. Yes, ungodly men had slipped into the church and now some had fallen under their influence of these false teachers. They are NOT beyond hope. They need to be shown mercy with fear or caution that you too are not somehow misled. Christian apologetic evangelism can save some.
(Jude 22-23)

Jesus Paul THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK

PAUL SAID, “6 Brothers, even if anyone is caught in any trespass,[*] you who are spiritual, restore [καταρτίζετε (καταρτίζω katartizō)] such a one in a spirit of gentleness; each one looking to yourself, so that you too will not be tempted.” (Galatians 6:1)

To “restore” such a person is to readjust their thinking. It is replacing something or fixing something that is broken, make something that is insufficient, sufficient. If anyone stumbles in the faith, has become spiritually weak, has begun to live in sin, we are to make every effort to “RESTORE” that one to his or her formerly spiritually strong self but only if we have the knowledge, wisdom, and spiritual insight to do so.

[*] Trespass: (Gr. paraptōma) This is a sin that can come in the way of some desire (lusting), some thinking (entertaining wrongdoing), or some action (carrying out one’s desires or thoughts that he or she has been entertaining) that is beyond or overstepping God’s righteous standards, as set out in the Scriptures. It is falling or making a false step as opposed to standing or walking upright in harmony with the righteous requirements of God.–Matt. 6:14; Mark 11:25; Rom. 4:25; 5:15-20; 11:11; 2 Cor. 5:19; Gal. 6:1; Eph. 1:7; 2:1, 5; Col 2:13.

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST by Stalker-1 The TRIAL and Death of Jesus_02 THE LIFE OF Paul by Stalker-1

Interrogative Questioning

When Jesus was 12 years old and he was left behind for three days, he was in the temple talking with very highly educated Jewish religious leaders.

This was no 12-year-old boy’s questions of curiosity. The Greek word erotao means to “ask,” “question,” and is a synonym of eperotao. The latter of the two was used by Luke and is much more demanding, as it means, “to ask a question, to question, interrogate someone, to questioning as used in judicial examination” and therefore could include counter questioning. Therefore, Jesus, at the age of twelve did not ask childlike questions, looking for answers, but was likely challenging the thinking of these Jewish religious leaders.

BIBLE DIFFICULTIES

This incident is far more magnificent than one might first realize. Kittel’s Theological Dictionary of the New Testament helps the reader to appreciate that the Greek word eperotao (to ask, to question, to demand of), for “questioning” was far more than the Greek word erotao (to ask, to request, to entreat), for a boy’s inquisitiveness. Eperotao can refer to questioning, which one might hear in a judicial hearing, such as a scrutiny, inquiry, counter questioning, even the “probing and cunning questions of the Pharisees and Sadducees,” for instance those we find at Mark 10:2 and 12:18-23.

Trusting Into Jesus Christ

John 3:16 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

 

16 For God so loved the world that he gave his only-begotten Son, in order that whoever believes in [trusting in] him will not be destroyed but have eternal life.

John 3:36 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

 

36 The one believing in [trusting in] the Son has eternal life, but the one who disobeys the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.

Believe, faith, Trust in: (Gr. pisteuo) If pisteuo is followed by the Greek preposition eis, (“into, in, among,” accusative case), it is normally rendered “trusting in” or “trust in.” (John 3:16, 36; 12:36; 14:1) The grammatical construction of the Greek verb pisteuo “believe” followed by the Greek preposition eis “into” in the accusative gives us the sense of having faith into Jesus, putting faith in, trusting in Jesus. – Matt. 21:25, 32; 27:42; John 1:7, 12; 2:23–24; 3:15-16, 36; 6:47; 11:25; 12:36; 14:1; 20:31; Acts 16:31; Rom. 4:3.

A Grammar of New Testament Greek series, by James Moulton, says, “The importance of the difference between mere belief … and personal trust.”* Both these senses can be conveyed using the Greek word pisteuo. The context helps us to identify the different senses of the meaning of pisteuo. Then again, we also have the different grammatical constructions that also convey what the Bible author had meant by his use of the word. When pisteuo is simply followed by a noun in the dative case, it is merely rendered as “believe,” such as the chief priest and elders response to Jesus at Matthew 21:25, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will say to us, ‘Why then did you not believe him?’ However, in Romans 4:3 we have pisteuo follow by a noun in the dative in the Updated American Standard Version, yet it is rendered “For what does the Scripture say? “Abraham put faith in God, and it was credited to him as righteousness.” (The ASV, RSV, ESV, NASB, and others have “Abraham believed God”)

* James Moulton, A Grammar of New Testament Greek, Vol. 1: Prolegomena (London, England: T & T Clark International, 2006), 68.

If pisteuo is followed by the Greek preposition epi, “on,” it can be rendered “believe in” or believe on.” At Matthew 27:42, it reads, “we will believe in him [i.e., Jesus].” At Acts 16:31, it reads “And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved …” (KJV, UASV similarly) What is the difference between “believing in Jesus” and “believing on Jesus”? Believing in Jesus is merely acknowledging that he exists while believing on Jesus is to accept absolutely, having no doubt or uncertainty, trusting in, putting faith in or trust in, exercising faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. Faith is NOT so much something Christians have but rather something Christians do.

APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot APOSTOLIC FATHERS

WE GAIN INSIGHTS AND THEOLOGICAL INSIGHTS

The Soul Dies, Breaths, Man Became Living Soul, a Soul Sins, a Soul Works, a Soul Has Feelings, a Soul is Troubled, a Soul Weeps, Refers to People, Animals, and the Life a Person or Animal Has

The Hebrew (nephesh [נֶפֶשׁ) is found in the Old Testament over 750 times. The Greek (psucheʹ ψυχή) is used over 100 times in the New Testament. The meanings that the English “soul” commonly has in the minds of most churchgoers and unbelievers alike are not what the authors meant by their use of the Hebrew and Greek words. This is because translators render them as “person,” “life,” “being,” etc.

Soul: (Heb. נֶפֶשׁ nephesh; Gr. ψυχή psuchē) The Hebrew word nephesh and the Greek word psuche basically refer to (1) people, (2) animals, or (3) the life that a person or animal has. (Gen. 1:20; 2:7; Num. 31:28; 1 Pet. 3:20) The Bible author’s use of both nephesh and psyche, in connection with earthly creatures, humans or animals, refer to that which is material, tangible, visible, and mortal. A soul breathes. (Gen. 2:7) A soul is a living creature that sins (Lev. 5:1) works (Lev. 22:30) can be kidnapped (Deut. 24:7), can be annoyed (Judges 16:16), tormented from the troubles of this imperfect life (Job 19:2), weeps because of grief (Ps 119:28), become troubled because of distress (John 12:27), become fearful (Ac 2:43), as well souls being in subjection to the government.  (Rom. 13:1) The Bible speaks of the life that the creature has (Ex. 4:16; Josh. 9:24; 2 Ki 7:7; Prov. 12:10; Matt. 20:28; Phil. 2:30) The Human soul = body [dust of the ground] + active life force (“spirit”) [Hebrew, ruachwithin the trillions of human cells which make up the human body + breath of life [Hebrew, neshamah] that sustains the life force from God. In other words, the “soul” is we, everything that we are, so the soul or the human can die. – Ecclesiastes 3:19-20.

In other words, when we breathe our last breath, our cells begin to die. Death is the ending of all vital functions or processes in an organism or cell. When our heart stops beating, our blood is no longer circulating, carrying nourishment and oxygen (by breathing) to the trillions of cells in our body; we are what are termed, clinically dead. However, somatic death has yet to occur, meaning we can be revived, after many minutes of being clinically dead, if the heart and lungs can be restarted again, which gives the cells the oxygen they need.

After about three minutes of clinical death, the brain cells begin to die, meaning the chances of reviving the person is less likely as each second passes. We know that it is vital that the breathing and blood flow be maintained for the life force (ruach chaiyim) in the cells. Nevertheless, it is not the lack of breathing or the failure of the heart beating alone, but rather the active life force (“spirit”) [Hebrew, ruach] within the trillions of human cells which make up the human body + breath of life [Hebrew, neshamah] that sustains the life force from God.

DEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP Agabus Cover BIBLICAL CRITICISM

Gehenna, Hades, Sheol, and Tartarus

Gehenna (γέεννα geenna) appears 12 times in the Greek New Testament books, and many translators render it by the word “hell.” Hades (ᾅδης hadēs) occurs ten times in the Greek New Testament, and many translators render it by the word “hell.” Sheol (שְׁאוֹל sheol) occurs 66 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. The Greek Septuagint, uses the word Hades 73 times, employing it 60 times to translate the Hebrew word Sheol. Tartarus (ταρταρόω tartaroō; from Τάρταρος Tartaros) is found only in 2 Peter 2:4 and is rendered “hell.” If the were consistently rendered gehenna, hades, sheol, and tartarus, it would force the reader to go dig into what these words mean.

Fall Asleep In Death

Fallen asleep in death: Matt 28:13; John 11:11; Acts 7:60; 1 Cor 7:39 – Lit has fallen asleep (κεκοίμηται kekoimētai)

Both the Hebrew Old Testament and the Greek New Testament render the original language words as “sleep” and “fall asleep,” which refer to a sleeping body and a dead body. Below, we can see from the context of Matthew 28:13 that this is physical sleep.

Matthew 28:13 (UASV)
κοιμωμένων koimōmenōn
Lexical: sleep; fall asleep

Literal Translation: asleep
Sense: to be or become asleep

Matthew 28:13 Updated American Standard Version
13 and said, “Say, ‘His disciples came by night and stole him away while we were asleep.’

However, in the verses below the context is to be asleep in death; the figurative extension of the physical sleep in the sense of being at rest and peace; the person in the sleep of death exists in God’s memory as they sleep in death; it is only temporary for those who are physically asleep so it will be true for those who are asleep in death.

Acts 7:60 (UASV)
ἐκοιμήθη ekoimēthē
Lexical: sleep; fall asleep

Literal Translation: asleep
Sense: to be asleep in death; the figurative extension of the physical sleep in the sense of being at rest and at peace; the person in the sleep of death exists in God’s memory as they sleep in death; it is only temporary for those who are physically asleep so it will be true of those who are asleep in death.

Acts 7:60 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
60 Then falling on his knees, he cried out with a loud voice, “Lord, do not hold this sin against them!” Having said this, he fell asleep in death.

1 Corinthians 7:39 (UASV)
κοιμηθῇ koimēthē

Lexical: sleep; fall asleep
Literal Translation: asleep

Sense: to be asleep in death; the figurative extension of the physical sleep in the sense of being at rest and at peace; the person in the sleep of death exists in God’s memory as they sleep in death; it is only temporary for those who are physically asleep so it will be true of those who are asleep in death.

1 Corinthians 7:39 Updated American Standard Version

39 A wife is bound to her husband as long as he lives. But if her husband falls asleep in death, she is free to be married to whom she wishes, only in the Lord.

1 Thessalonians 4:13 (UASV)
κοιμωμένων koimaōmenōn

Lexical: sleep; fall asleep
Literal Translation: asleep

Sense: to be asleep in death; the figurative extension of the physical sleep in the sense of being at rest and at peace; the person in the sleep of death exists in God’s memory as they sleep in death; it is only temporary for those who are physically asleep so it will be true of those who are asleep in death.

1 Thessalonians 4:13 Updated American Standard Version
13 But we do not want you to be ignorant, brothers, about those who are sleeping in death, so that you will not grieve as do the rest who have no hope.

Here Paul is addressing the issue of those “who are sleeping” in death (koimaōmenōn). Koimaō is a common word for sleep that can be used as “to sleep,” “sleep,” or “fall asleep.” However, it is also used in Greek, Jewish, Christian writings, and the apostle Paul’s letters as a figurative extension of the physical sleep in the sense of being asleep in death. Paul is not using the common sense of the word here but rather he is using it to refer to the condition of the dead between death and the resurrection.

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT_01

Psalm 13:3 (UASV)
פֶּן־אִישַׁ֥ן הַמָּֽוֶת׃ pen-išān

Lexical: lest I sleep the death
Literal Translation: lest I sleep in death

Sense: to be asleep in death; the figurative extension of the physical sleep in the sense of being at rest and at peace; the person in the sleep of death exists in God’s memory as they sleep in death; it is only temporary for those who are physically asleep so it will be true of those who are asleep in death.

Psalm 13:3 Updated American Standard Version
3 Consider and answer me, Jehovah my God;
give light to my eyes
lest I sleep in death,

1 Kings 2:10 (UASV)
שְׁכַּ֥ב šāḵǎḇ

Lexical: lie down; rest; sleep
Literal Translation: slept

Sense: to be asleep in death; the figurative extension of the physical sleep in the sense of being at rest and at peace; the person in the sleep of death exists in God’s memory as they sleep in death; it is only temporary for those who are physically asleep so it will be true of those who are asleep in death.

1 Kings 2:10 Updated American Standard Version
10 Then David slept in death with his forefathers and was buried in the city of David.

Some have argued that the dynamic equivalent thought-for-thought translations (Then David died and was buried, NLT) are conveying the idea in a more clear and immediate way, but is this really the case? Retaining the literal rendering, the metaphorical use of the word sleep is best because of the similarities that exist between physical sleep and the sleep of death. Without the literal rendering, this would be lost on the reader. Retaining the literal rendering, “slept,” and adding the phrase “in death” completes the sense in the English text.

Mosaic Authorship HOW RELIABLE ARE THE GOSPELS

NO THEOLOGICAL IMPACT BUT SOME INTERESTING IMPACT

The Hebrew rendered “between the two evenings” (Heb. בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם ben hoarbayim) according to some scholars (e.g., Ronald B. Allen, R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke), as well as the Karaite Jews and Samaritans, at twilight, the period of the evening between when the sun sets on the horizon and the actual darkness. The Pharisees and the Rabbis viewed it differently. For them, it was the first evening when the sun began to go down and the sunset of the second evening.

The same Hebrew or Greek word can have widely different meanings in different contexts. For example, the Hebrew word zaqen and the Greek word presbuteros can be translated “older man,” or “elder,” and both are sometimes used to refer to persons that are advanced in age (Gen. 18:11; Deut. 28:50; 1 Sam. 2:22; 1 Tim 5:1-2) or to the older of two persons (older son, Lu 15:25). However, it can also apply to those holding a position of authority and responsibility in the Christian congregation (elders, 1 Tim. 5:17), in the community, or a nation. It is also used in reference to the ancestors of Israel (men of old, Heb. 11:2), as well as members of the Jewish Sanhedrin (elders, Matt. 16:21), and of the twenty-four elders (heavenly beings) seated on the twenty-four thrones around the throne of God (Rev. 4:4) Clearly, the context will determine what the author meant in his usage of these terms. The translator should always seek to reflect the literal rendering of the original language in every passage, but there will be some rare exceptions to this rule.

Your money was well spent, as you have advantages over the English reader for sure in getting at what the author meant by the words that he used. However, unlike a few decades ago, we now have study tools that help the churchgoer accomplish the same task to a degree. Kevin above spoke of being “fluent in the language.” All who are fluent in the language” have been dead for 2,000 years. Even scholars who give us our lexicons and grammars are not “fluent in the language.” Fluency means that they would be able to read, speak, and write quickly or easily with a full understanding of what is being meant. Two persons who are fluent in Koine Greek would be able to speak freely to each other just like you and I could do in English. You and I don’t have to stop and think and don’t hesitate when constructing sentences and our speech flows with very little thought given to it.

THE CREATION DAYS OF GENESIS gift of prophecy

The warning from the original post by professor Yates was simply not to get too excited and read theological bias into the text, twisting the Scriptures, or going beyond the Scriptures. I do agree with the thrust of Yates’ message. Yet, I would disagree with Yates on some level. He writes,

Simply appealing to, “In the Greek (or in the Hebrew), it means this” is almost always not a good argument for whatever theological point you are trying to make.

I think that should be reworded. “Simply appealing to, ‘In the Greek (or in the Hebrew), it means this” alone, outside of its context, or going beyond the intended meaning of the author, jamming all of its meanings into one verse, or worse still, twisting its meaning because of theological bias is never a good argument for whatever theological point you are trying to make.”

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