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The First Epistle to the Thessalonians


1 ΠαῦλοςPaul καὶand ΣιλουανὸςSilvanus καὶand ΤιμόθεοςTimothy τῇto the ἐκκλησίᾳecclesia Θεσσαλονικέωνof Thessalonians ἐνin θεῷGodπατρὶFather καὶand κυρίῳto Lord ἸησοῦJesus Χριστῷ·Christ;

χάριςgrace ὑμῖνto you καὶand εἰρήνη.peace.

2 ΕὐχαριστοῦμενWe are giving thanks τῷto the θεῷGod πάντοτεalways περὶabout πάντωνall ὑμῶνof you μνείανmention ποιούμενοιmaking ἐπὶupon τῶνthe προσευχῶνprayers ἡμῶν,of us, 3 ἀδιαλείπτωςincessantly μνημονεύοντεςbearing in mind ὑμῶνof you τοῦof the ἔργουwork τῆςof the πίστεωςfaith καὶand τοῦof the κόπουlabor τῆςof the ἀγάπηςlove καὶand τῆςof the ὑπομονῆςendurance τῆςof the ἐλπίδοςhope τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us Ἰησοῦof Jesus ΧριστοῦChrist ἔμπροσθενin front τοῦof the θεοῦGod καὶand πατρὸςFather ἡμῶν,of us, 4 εἰδότες,having known, ἀδελφοὶbrothers ἠγαπημένοιhaving been loved ὑπὸby τοῦthe θεοῦ,God, τὴνthe ἐκλογὴνchoosing ὑμῶν,of you, 5 ὅτιthat τὸthe εὐαγγέλιονgood news ἡμῶνof us οὐκnot ἐγενήθηbecame εἰςinto ὑμᾶςyou ἐνin λόγῳword μόνονonly ἀλλὰbut καὶalso ἐνin δυνάμειpower καὶand ἐνin πνεύματιspirit ἁγίῳholy καὶand πληροφορίᾳfull assurance πολλῇ,much, καθὼςaccording as οἴδατεyou have known   οἷοιwhat sort of ones ἐγενήθημενwe became ὑμῖνto you δι’through ὑμᾶς·you; 6 καὶandὑμεῖςyou μιμηταὶimitators ἡμῶνof us ἐγενήθητεyou became καὶand τοῦof the κυρίου,Lord, δεξάμενοιhaving accepted τὸνthe λόγονword ἐνin θλίψειtribulation πολλῇmuch μετὰwith χαρᾶςjoy πνεύματοςof spirit ἁγίου,holy, 7 ὥστεas-and γενέσθαιto become ὑμᾶςyou τύπονtype πᾶσινto all τοῖςthe (ones) πιστεύουσινbelieving ἐνin τῇthe ΜακεδονίᾳMacedonia καὶand ἐνin τῇthe ᾿Αχαίᾳ.Achaia.

8 ἀφ’From ὑμῶνyou γὰρfor ἐξήχηταιhas been sounded out the λόγοςword τοῦof the κυρίουLord οὐnot μόνονonly ἐνin τῇthe ΜακεδονίᾳMacedonia καὶand ᾿Αχαίᾳ,Achaia, ἀλλ’but ἐνin παντὶevery τόπῳplace the πίστιςfaith ὑμῶνof you the (one) πρὸςtoward τὸνthe θεὸνgod ἐξελήλυθεν,has gone out, ὥστεas-and μὴnot χρείανneed ἔχεινto be having ἡμᾶςus λαλεῖνto be speaking τι·anything; 9 αὐτοὶthey γὰρfor περὶabout ἡμῶνus ἀπαγγέλλουσινthey are reporting back ὁποίανwhat sort of εἴσοδονway into ἔσχομενwe had πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶς,you, καὶand πῶςhow ἐπεστρέψατεyou turned upon πρὸςtoward τὸνthe θεὸνGod ἀπὸfrom τῶνthe εἰδώλωνidols δουλεύεινto be slaving θεῷto God ζῶντιliving καὶand ἀληθινῷ,true, 10 καὶand ἀναμένεινto be remaining up τὸνthe υἱὸνSon αὐτοῦof him ἐκout of τῶνthe οὐρανῶν,heavens, ὃνwhom ἤγειρενhe raised ἐκout of τῶνthe νεκρῶν,dead (ones), ἸησοῦνJesus τὸνthe (one) ῥυόμενονdrawing to self ἡμᾶςusἐκout of τῆςthe ὀργῆςwrath τῆςthe (one) ἐρχομένης.coming.


1 ΑὐτοὶVery (ones) γὰρfor οἴδατε,you have known, ἀδελφοί,brothers, τὴνthe εἴσοδονway into ἡμῶνof us τὴνthe (one) πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶςyou ὅτιthat οὐnot κενὴempty γέγονεν,it has come to be, 2 ἀλλὰbut προπαθόντεςhaving suffered before καὶand ὑβρισθέντεςhaving been insolently treated καθὼςaccording as οἴδατεyou have known ἐνin ΦιλίπποιςPhilippi ἐπαρρησιασάμεθαwe were made outspoken ἐνin τῷthe θεῷGod ἡμῶνof us λαλῆσαιto speak πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶςyou τὸthe εὐαγγέλιονgood news τοῦof the θεοῦGod ἐνin πολλῷmuch ἀγῶνι.struggling. 3 The γὰρfor παράκλησιςencouragement ἡμῶνof us οὐκnot ἐκout of πλάνηςerror οὐδὲnot-but ἐξout of ἀκαθαρσίαςuncleanness οὐδὲnot-but ἐνin δόλῳ,deceit, 4 ἀλλὰbut καθὼςaccording as δεδοκιμάσμεθαwe have been proved ὑπὸby τοῦthe θεοῦGod πιστευθῆναιto be entrusted with τὸthe εὐαγγέλιονgood news οὕτωςthus λαλοῦμεν,we are speaking, οὐχnot ὡςas ἀνθρώποιςto men ἀρέσκοντεςpleasing ἀλλὰbut θεῷto God τῷthe (one) δοκιμάζοντιproving τὰςthe καρδίαςhearts ἡμῶν.of us.

5 οὔτεNor γάρfor ποτεsometime ἐνin λόγῳword κολακίαςof flattery ἐγενήθημεν,we became, καθὼςaccording as οἴδατε,you have know, οὔτεnor προφάσειto pretense πλεονεξίας,of covetousness, θεὸςGod μάρτυς,witness, 6 οὔτεnor ζητοῦντεςseeking ἐξout of ἀνθρώπωνmen δόξαν,glory, οὔτεnor ἀφ’from ὑμῶνyou οὔτεnor ἀπ’from ἄλλων,others, δυνάμενοιbeing able ἐνin βάρειheavy thing εἶναιto be ὡςas Χριστοῦof Christ ἀπόστολοι·apostles; 7 ἀλλὰbut ἐγενήθημενwe became νήπιοιbabes ἐνin μέσῳmidst ὑμῶν,of you, ὡςas ἐὰνif ever τροφὸςnurse θάλπῃmay be cherishing τὰthe ἑαυτῆςof herself τέκνα·children; 8 οὕτωςthus ὀμειρόμενοιhaving affectionate desire ὑμῶνof you ηὐδοκοῦμενwe were thinking well μεταδοῦναιto give share ὑμῖνto you οὐnot μόνονonly τὸthe εὐαγγέλιονgood news τοῦof the θεοῦGod ἀλλὰbut καὶalso τὰςthe ἑαυτῶνof selves ψυχάς,souls, διότιthrough which ἀγαπητοὶloved (ones) ἡμῖνto us ἐγενήθητε.you became.

9 μνημονεύετεyou are bearing in mind γάρ,for, ἀδελφοί,brothers, τὸνthe κόπονlabor ἡμῶνof us καὶand τὸνthe μόχθον·toil; νυκτὸςof night καὶand ἡμέραςof day ἐργαζόμενοιworking πρὸςtoward τὸthe μὴnot ἐπιβαρῆσαίto put weight upon τιναanyone ὑμῶνof you ἐκηρύξαμενwe preached εἰςinto ὑμᾶςyou τὸthe εὐαγγέλιονgood news τοῦof the θεοῦ.God. 10 ὑμεῖςyou μάρτυρεςwitnesses καὶand the θεός,God, ὡςas ὁσίωςloyally καὶand δικαίωςrighteously καὶand ἀμέμπτωςunblamably ὑμῖνto you τοῖςthe (ones) πιστεύουσινbelieving ἐγενήθημεν,we became, 11 καθάπερaccording to which (things) even   οἴδατεyou have known ὡςas ἕναone ἕκαστονeach ὑμῶνof you ὡςas πατὴρfather τέκναchildren ἑαυτοῦof himself παρακαλοῦντεςencouraging ὑμᾶςyou καὶand παραμυθούμενοιconsoling καὶand μαρτυρόμενοι,bearing witness, 12 εἰςinto τὸthe περιπατεῖνto be walking about ὑμᾶςyou ἀξίωςworthily τοῦof the θεοῦGod τοῦthe (one)καλοῦντοςcalling ὑμᾶςyou εἰςinto τὴνthe ἑαυτοῦof himself βασιλείανkingdom καὶand δόξαν.glory.

13 ΚαὶAnd διὰthrough τοῦτοthis καὶalso ἡμεῖςwe εὐχαριστοῦμενare giving thanks τῷto the θεῷGod ἀδιαλείπτως,incessantly, ὅτιbecause παραλαβόντεςhaving received alongside λόγονword ἀκοῆςof hearing παρ’beside ἡμῶνof us τοῦof the θεοῦGod ἐδέξασθεyou accepted οὐnot λόγονword ἀνθρώπωνof men ἀλλὰbut καθὼςaccording as ἀληθῶςtruthfully ἐστὶνit is λόγονword θεοῦ,of God, ὃςwhich καὶalso ἐνεργεῖταιis working within ἐνin ὑμῖνyou τοῖςthe (ones) πιστεύουσιν.believing. 14 ὑμεῖςyou γὰρfor μιμηταὶimitators ἐγενήθητε,you became, ἀδελφοί,brothers, τῶνof the ἐκκλησιῶνecclesias τοῦof the θεοῦGod τῶνthe (ones) οὐσῶνbeing ἐνin τῇthe ἸουδαίᾳJudeaἐνin ΧριστῷChrist Ἰησοῦ,Jesus, ὅτιbecause τὰthe αὐτὰvery (things) ἐπάθετεyou suffered καὶalso ὑμεῖςyou ὑπὸby τῶνthe ἰδίωνown συμφυλετῶνfellow tribesmen καθὼςaccording as καὶalso αὐτοὶthey ὑπὸby τῶνthe Ἰουδαίων,Jews, 15 τῶνof the (ones) καὶalso τὸνthe κύριονLord ἀποκτεινάντωνhaving killed ἸησοῦνJesus καὶand τοὺςthe προφήταςprophets καὶand ἡμᾶςus ἐκδιωξάντων,having persecuted out, καὶand θεῷto God μὴnot ἀρεσκόντων,pleasing, καὶand πᾶσινto all ἀνθρώποιςmen ἐναντίων,of (ones) contrary, 16 κωλυόντωνhindering ἡμᾶςus τοῖςto the ἔθνεσινGentiles λαλῆσαιto speak ἵναin order that σωθῶσιν,they might be saved, εἰςinto τὸthe ἀναπληρῶσαιto fill up αὐτῶνof them τὰςthe ἁμαρτίαςsins πάντοτε.always. ἔφθασενCame ahead δὲbut ἐπ’upon αὐτοὺςthem the ὀργὴwrath εἰςinto τέλος.end.

17 ἩμεῖςWe δέ,but, ἀδελφοί,brothers, ἀπορφανισθέντεςhaving been orphaned off ἀφ’from ὑμῶνyou πρὸςtoward καιρὸνappointed timeὥρας,of hour, προσώπῳto face οὐnot καρδίᾳ,to heart, περισσοτέρωςmore abundantly ἐσπουδάσαμενwe speeded up τὸthe πρόσωπονface ὑμῶνof you ἰδεῖνto see ἐνin πολλῇmuch ἐπιθυμίᾳ.desire. 18 διότιThrough which ἠθελήσαμενwe willed ἐλθεῖνto come πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶς,you, ἐγὼI μὲνindeed ΠαῦλοςPaul καὶand ἅπαξonce καὶand δίς,twice, καὶand ἐνέκοψενcut in on ἡμᾶςus the Σατανᾶς.Satan. 19 τίςWhat γὰρfor ἡμῶνof us ἐλπὶςhope or χαρὰjoy or στέφανοςcrown καυχήσεως—of boasting— or οὐχὶnot καὶalso ὑμεῖς—youἔμπροσθενin front τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us ἸησοῦJesus ἐνin τῇthe αὐτοῦof him παρουσίᾳ;presence? 20 ὑμεῖςyou γάρfor ἐστεyou are the δόξαglory ἡμῶνof us καὶand the χαρά.joy.


1 ΔιὸThrough which μηκέτιnot yet στέγοντεςbearing up ηὐδοκήσαμενwe thought well καταλειφθῆναιto be left down ἐνin ᾿ΑθήναιςAthens μόνοι,(ones) alone, 2 καὶand ἐπέμψαμενwe sent Τιμόθεον,Timothy, τὸνthe ἀδελφὸνbrother ἡμῶνof us καὶand διάκονονservant τοῦof theθεοῦGod ἐνin τῷthe εὐαγγελίῳgood news τοῦof the χριστοῦ,Christ, εἰςinto τὸthe στηρίξαιto fix firmly ὑμᾶςyou καὶand παρακαλέσαιto comfort ὑπὲρover τῆςthe πίστεωςfaith ὑμῶνof you 3 τὸthe μηδέναno one σαίνεσθαιto be swayed ἐνin ταῖςthe θλίψεσινtribulations ταύταις.these. αὐτοὶVery (ones) γὰρfor οἴδατεyou have known ὅτιthat εἰςinto τοῦτοthis (thing) κείμεθα·we are lying; 4 καὶand γὰρfor ὅτεwhen πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶςyou ἦμεν,we were, προελέγομενwe were saying before ὑμῖνto you ὅτιthat μέλλομενwe are about θλίβεσθαι,to be suffering tribulation, καθὼςaccording as καὶalso ἐγένετοit has occurred καὶand οἴδατε.you have known. 5 διὰThrough τοῦτοthis κἀγὼalso I μηκέτιnot yet στέγωνbearing up ἔπεμψαI sent εἰςinto τὸthe γνῶναιto know τὴνthe πίστινfaith ὑμῶν,of you, μήnot πωςsomehow ἐπείρασενhe tempted ὑμᾶςyou the (one) πειράζωνtempting καὶand εἰςinto κενὸνempti (ness) γένηταιmight become the κόποςlabor ἡμῶν.of us.

6 ἌρτιRight now δὲbut ἐλθόντοςhaving come Τιμοθέουof Timothy πρὸςtoward ἡμᾶςus ἀφ’from ὑμῶνyou καὶand εὐαγγελισαμένουhaving given good news of ἡμῖνto us τὴνthe πίστινfaith καὶand τὴνthe ἀγάπηνlove ὑμῶν,of you, καὶand ὅτιthat ἔχετεyou are having μνείανremembrance ἡμῶνof us ἀγαθὴνgood πάντοτεalways ἐπιποθοῦντεςyearning ἡμᾶςus ἰδεῖνto see καθάπερaccording to which (things) even καὶalso ἡμεῖςwe ὑμᾶς,you, 7 διὰthrough τοῦτοthis παρεκλήθημεν,we were comforted, ἀδελφοί,brothers, ἐφ’upon ὑμῖνyou ἐπὶupon πάσῃall τῇthe ἀνάγκῃnecessity καὶand θλίψειtribulation ἡμῶνof us διὰthrough τῆςthe ὑμῶνof you πίστεως,faith, 8 ὅτιbecause νῦνnow ζῶμενwe are living ἐὰνif ever ὑμεῖςyou στήκετεare standing ἐνin κυρίῳ.Lord. 9 τίναWhat γὰρforεὐχαριστίανthanksgiving δυνάμεθαwe are able τῷto the θεῷGod ἀνταποδοῦναιto give back instead περὶabout ὑμῶνyou ἐπὶupon πάσῃall τῇthe χαρᾷjoy to which χαίρομενwe are rejoicing δι’through ὑμᾶςyou ἔμπροσθενin front τοῦof the θεοῦGod ἡμῶν,of us, 10 νυκτὸςof night καὶand ἡμέραςof day ὑπερεκπερισσοῦsuperabundantly δεόμενοιsupplicating εἰςinto τὸthe ἰδεῖνto see ὑμῶνof you τὸthe πρόσωπονface καὶand καταρτίσαιto adjust down τὰthe ὑστερήματα(things) lacking τῆςof the πίστεωςfaith ὑμῶν;of you?

11 ΑὐτὸςVery (one) δὲbut the θεὸςGod καὶand πατὴρFather ἡμῶνof us καὶand the κύριοςLord ἡμῶνof us ἸησοῦςJesus κατευθύναιmay he straighten down τὴνthe ὁδὸνway ἡμῶνof us πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶς·you; 12 ὑμᾶςyou δὲbut the κύριοςLord πλεονάσαιmay cause to become more καὶand περισσεύσαιmay make abound τῇto the ἀγάπῃlove εἰςinto ἀλλήλουςone another καὶand εἰςinto πάντας,all (ones), καθάπερaccording to which (things) even καὶalso ἡμεῖςwe εἰςinto ὑμᾶς,you, 13 εἰςinto τὸthe στηρίξαιto fix firmly ὑμῶνof you τὰςthe καρδίαςhearts ἀμέμπτουςunblamable ἐνin ἁγιωσύνῃholiness ἔμπροσθενin front τοῦof the θεοῦGod καὶand πατρὸςFather ἡμῶνof us ἐνin τῇthe παρουσίᾳpresence τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us ἸησοῦJesus μετὰwith πάντωνall τῶνthe ἁγίωνholy (ones) αὐτοῦ.of him.


1 Λοιπόν,Leftover (thing), ἀδελφοί,brothers, ἐρωτῶμενwe are requesting ὑμᾶςyou καὶand παρακαλοῦμενwe are encouraging ἐνin κυρίῳLord Ἰησοῦ,Jesus, ἵναin order that καθὼςaccording as παρελάβετεyou received alongside παρ’beside ἡμῶνof us τὸthe πῶςhow δεῖit is binding ὑμᾶςyou περιπατεῖνto be walking about καὶand ἀρέσκεινto be pleasing θεῷ,to God, καθὼςaccording as καὶalso περιπατεῖτε,—you are walking about,— ἵναin order that περισσεύητεyou may abound μᾶλλον.rather. 2 οἴδατεyou have known γὰρfor τίναςwhat παραγγελίαςcharges ἐδώκαμενwe gave ὑμῖνto you διὰthrough τοῦthe κυρίουLord Ἰησοῦ.Jesus.

3 ΤοῦτοThis γάρfor ἐστινis θέλημαwill τοῦof the θεοῦ,God, the ἁγιασμὸςsanctification ὑμῶν,of you, ἀπέχεσθαιto be holding selves from ὑμᾶςyou ἀπὸfrom τῆςthe πορνείας,fornication, 4 εἰδέναιto have known ἕκαστονeach (one) ὑμῶνof you τὸtheἑαυτοῦof himself σκεῦοςvessel κτᾶσθαιto possess ἐνin ἁγιασμῷsanctification καὶand τιμῇ,honor, 5 μὴnot ἐνin πάθειpassion ἐπιθυμίαςof desire καθάπερaccording to which (things) even καὶalso τὰthe ἔθνηGentiles τὰthe (ones) μὴnot εἰδόταhaving known τὸνthe θεόν,God, 6 τὸthe μὴnot ὑπερβαίνεινto be stepping over καὶand πλεονεκτεῖνto be taking more of ἐνin τῷthe πράγματιmatter τὸνthe ἀδελφὸνbrother αὐτοῦ,of him, διότιthrough which ἔκδικοςavenger ΚύριοςLord περὶabout πάντωνall τούτων,these (things), καθὼςaccording as καὶalso προείπαμενwe beforehand said ὑμῖνto you καὶand διεμαρτυράμεθα.we thoroughly bore witness. 7 οὐNot γὰρfor ἐκάλεσενcalled ἡμᾶςus the θεὸςGod ἐπὶupon ἀκαθαρσίᾳuncleanness ἀλλ’but ἐνin ἁγιασμῷ.sanctification. 8 τοιγαροῦνTo you-for-therefore the (one) ἀθετῶνputting aside οὐκnot ἄνθρωπονman ἀθετεῖhe is putting aside ἀλλὰbut τὸνthe θεὸνGod τὸνthe (one) διδόνταgiving τὸthe πνεῦμαspirit αὐτοῦof him τὸthe ἅγιονholy εἰςinto ὑμᾶς.you.

9 ΠερὶAbout δὲbut τῆςthe φιλαδελφίαςbrotherly affection οὐnot χρείανneed ἔχετεyou are having γράφεινto be writing ὑμῖν,to you, αὐτοὶvery (ones) γὰρfor ὑμεῖςyou θεοδίδακτοίtaught by God ἐστεyou are εἰςinto τὸthe ἀγαπᾷνto be loving ἀλλήλους·one another; 10 καὶand γὰρfor ποιεῖτεyou are doing αὐτὸit εἰςinto πάνταςall τοὺςthe ἀδελφοὺςbrothers τοὺςthe (ones) ἐνin ὅλῃwhole τῇthe Μακεδονίᾳ.Macedonia. Παρακαλοῦμενwe are encouraging δὲbut ὑμᾶς,you, ἀδελφοί,brothers, περισσεύεινto be abounding μᾶλλον,rather, 11 καὶand φιλοτιμεῖσθαιto be fond of honor ἡσυχάζεινto be quiet καὶand πράσσεινto be performing τὰthe (things) ἴδιαown καὶand ἐργάζεσθαιto be working ταῖςto the χερσὶνhands ὑμῶν,of you, καθὼςaccording as ὑμῖνto you παρηγγείλαμεν,we laid charge, 12 ἵναin order that   περιπατῆτεyou may be walking about εὐσχημόνωςdecently πρὸςtoward τοὺςthe (ones) ἔξωoutside καὶand μηδενὸςof nothing χρείανneed ἔχητε.you may be having.

13 ΟὐNot θέλομενwe are willing δὲbut ὑμᾶςyou ἀγνοεῖν,to be ignorant, ἀδελφοί,brothers, περὶabout τῶνthe (ones) κοιμωμένων,sleeping, ἵναin order that μὴnot λυπῆσθεyou may be sad καθὼςaccording as καὶalso οἱthe λοιποὶleftover (ones) οἱthe (ones) μὴnot ἔχοντεςhaving ἐλπίδα.hope. 14 εἰIf γὰρfor πιστεύομενwe are believing ὅτιthat ἸησοῦςJesus ἀπέθανενdied καὶand ἀνέστη,he stood up, οὕτωςthus καὶalso the θεὸςGod τοὺςthe (ones) κοιμηθένταςhaving slept διὰthrough τοῦthe ἸησοῦJesus ἄξειhe will lead σὺνtogether with αὐτῷ.him. 15 ΤοῦτοThis γὰρfor ὑμῖνto you λέγομενwe are saying ἐνin λόγῳword κυρίου,of Lord, ὅτιthat ἡμεῖςwe οἱthe ζῶντεςliving οἱthe (ones) περιλειπόμενοιbeing left around εἰςinto τὴνthe παρουσίανpresence τοῦof the κυρίουLord οὐnot μὴnot φθάσωμενwe should come ahead of τοὺςthe (ones) κοιμηθέντας·having slept; 16 ὅτιbecause αὐτὸςvery (one) the κύριοςLord ἐνin κελεύσματι,command, ἐνin φωνῇvoice ἀρχαγγέλουof archangel καὶand ἐνin σάλπιγγιtrumpet θεοῦ,of God, καταβήσεταιhe will come down ἀπ’from οὐρανοῦ,heaven, καὶand οἱthe νεκροὶdead (ones) ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist ἀναστήσονταιwill stand up πρῶτον,first, 17 ἔπειταthereupon ἡμεῖςwe οἱthe ζῶντεςliving οἱthe (ones) περιλειπόμενοιbeing left around ἅμαat the same time σὺνtogether with αὐτοῖςthem ἁρπαγησόμεθαwe will be snatched ἐνin νεφέλαιςclouds εἰςinto ἀπάντησινmeeting τοῦof the κυρίουLord εἰςintoἀέρα·air; καὶand οὕτωςthus πάντοτεalways σὺνtogether with κυρίῳLord ἐσόμεθα.we shall be. 18 ὭστεAs-and παρακαλεῖτεbe you comforting ἀλλήλουςone another ἐνin τοῖςthe λόγοιςwords τούτοις.these.


1 ΠερὶAbout δὲbut τῶνthe χρόνωνtimes καὶand τῶνthe καιρῶν,appointed times, ἀδελφοί,brothers, οὐnot χρείανneed ἔχετεyou are having ὑμῖνto you γράφεσθαι,to be written, 2 αὐτοὶvery (ones) γὰρfor ἀκριβῶςexactly οἴδατεyou have known ὅτιthat ἡμέραday Κυρίουof Lord ὡςas κλέπτηςthief ἐνin νυκτὶnight οὕτωςthus ἔρχεται.is coming. 3 ὅτανWhenever λέγωσινthey may be saying ΕἰρήνηPeace καὶand ἀσφάλεια,security, τότεthen αἰφνίδιοςsudden αὐτοῖςto them ἐπίσταταιis standing upon ὄλεθροςdestruction ὥσπερas-even theὠδὶνbirth pang τῇto the [woman] ἐνin γαστρὶbelly ἐχούσῃ,having, καὶand οὐnot μὴnot ἐκφύγωσιν.they should flee out. 4 ὑμεῖςyou δέ,but, ἀδελφοί,brothers, οὐκnot ἐστὲyou are ἐνin σκότει,darkness, ἵναin order that the ἡμέραday ὑμᾶςyou ὡςas κλέπταςthieves καταλάβῃ,should receive down, 5 πάντεςall γὰρfor ὑμεῖςyou υἱοὶsons φωτόςof light ἐστεyou are καὶand υἱοὶsons ἡμέρας.of day. ΟὐκNot ἐσμὲνwe are νυκτὸςof night οὐδὲnot-but σκότους.of darkness.

6 ἄραReally οὖνtherefore μὴnot καθεύδωμενmay we be sleeping ὡςas οἱthe λοιποί,leftover (ones), ἀλλὰbut γρηγορῶμενmay we be staying awake καὶand νήφωμεν.may we be sober. 7 οἱThe (ones) γὰρfor καθεύδοντεςsleeping νυκτὸςof night καθεύδουσιν,they are sleeping, καὶand οἱthe (ones) μεθυσκόμενοιgetting themselves drunk νυκτὸςof night μεθύουσιν·they are being drunk; 8 ἡμεῖςwe δὲbut ἡμέραςof day ὄντεςbeing νήφωμεν,may we be sober, ἐνδυσάμενοιhaving put on θώρακαbreastplate πίστεωςof faith καὶand ἀγάπηςof love καὶand περικεφαλαίανhelmet ἐλπίδαhope σωτηρίας·of salvation; 9 ὅτιbecause οὐκnot ἔθετοput ἡμᾶςus the θεὸςGod εἰςinto ὀργὴνwrath ἀλλὰbut εἰςinto περιποίησινprocuring σωτηρίαςof salvation διὰthrough τοῦthe κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us Ἰησοῦof Jesus Χριστοῦ,Christ, 10 τοῦof the (one) ἀποθανόντοςhaving died περὶabout ἡμῶνus ἵναin order that εἴτεwhether γρηγορῶμενwe may be staying awake εἴτεor καθεύδωμενwe may be sleeping ἅμαat the same time σὺνtogether with αὐτῷhim ζήσωμεν.we might live. 11 ΔιὸThrough which παρακαλεῖτεbe you comforting ἀλλήλουςone another καὶand οἰκοδομεῖτεbe you building up εἷςone τὸνthe ἕνα,one, καθὼςaccording as καὶalso ποιεῖτε.you are doing.

12 ᾿ΕρωτῶμενWe are requesting δὲbut ὑμᾶς,you, ἀδελφοί,brothers, εἰδέναιto have known τοὺςthe (ones) κοπιῶνταςlaboring ἐνin ὑμῖνyou καὶand προϊσταμένουςstanding before ὑμῶνof you ἐνin κυρίῳLord καὶand νουθετοῦνταςputting mind in ὑμᾶς,you, 13 καὶand ἡγεῖσθαιto be considering αὐτοὺςthem ὑπερεκπερισσοῦsuperabundantly ἐνin ἀγάπῃlove διὰthrough τὸthe ἔργονwork αὐτῶν.of them. εἰρηνεύετεBe you peaceable ἐνin ἑαυτοῖς.selves. 14 ΠαρακαλοῦμενWe are encouraging δὲbut ὑμᾶς,you, ἀδελφοί,brothers, νουθετεῖτεbe you putting mind in τοὺςthe ἀτάκτους,disorderly, παραμυθεῖσθεbe you consoling τοὺςthe ὀλιγοψύχους,ones of little soul, ἀντέχεσθεbe you holding selves against τῶνthe ἀσθενῶν,weak (ones), μακροθυμεῖτεbe you having longness of spirit πρὸςtoward πάντας.all. 15 ὁρᾶτεBe you seeing μήnot τιςanyone κακὸνbad (thing) ἀντὶin place of κακοῦbad (thing) τινὶto anyone ἀποδῷ,he might give back, ἀλλὰbut πάντοτεalways τὸthe ἀγαθὸνgood (thing) διώκετεbe you pursuing εἰςinto ἀλλήλουςone another καὶand εἰςinto πάντας.all.

16 ΠάντοτεAlways χαίρετε,be you rejoicing, 17 ἀδιαλείπτωςincessantly προσεύχεσθε,be you praying, 18 ἐνin παντὶeverything εὐχαριστεῖτε·be you giving thanks; τοῦτοthis γὰρfor θέλημαwill θεοῦof God ἐνin ΧριστῷChrist ἸησοῦJesus εἰςinto ὑμᾶς.you. 19 τὸThe πνεῦμαspirit μὴnot σβέννυτε,be you extinguishing, 20 προφητείαςprophecies μὴnot ἐξουθενεῖτε·be youtreating as nothing; 21 πάνταall (things) δὲbut δοκιμάζετε,be you proving, τὸthe καλὸνfine (thing) κατέχετε,be you holding down, 22 ἀπὸfrom παντὸςevery εἴδουςseen (form) πονηροῦof wicked(ness) ἀπέχεσθε.be you holding yourselves from.

23 ΑὐτὸςVery (one) δὲbut the θεὸςGod τῆςof the εἰρήνηςpeace ἁγιάσαιmay sanctify ὑμᾶςyou ὁλοτελεῖς,completely whole, καὶand ὁλόκληρονwhole in (every) part ὑμῶνof you τὸthe πνεῦμαspirit καὶand the ψυχὴsoul καὶand τὸthe σῶμαbody ἀμέμπτωςblamelessly ἐνin τῇtheπαρουσίᾳpresence τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us Ἰησοῦof Jesus ΧριστοῦChrist τηρηθείη.may it be kept. 24 πιστὸςFaithful the (one) καλῶνcalling ὑμᾶς,you, ὃςwho καὶalso ποιήσει.will do.

25 ᾿Αδελφοί,Brothers, προσεύχεσθεbe you praying καὶalso περὶabout ἡμῶν.us.

26 ᾿ΑσπάσασθεGreet you τοὺςthe ἀδελφοὺςbrothers πάνταςall ἐνin φιλήματιkiss ἁγίῳ.holy.

27 ᾿ΕνορκίζωI am putting an oath ὑμᾶςyou τὸνthe κύριονLord ἀναγνωσθῆναιto be read τὴνthe ἐπιστολὴνletter πᾶσινto all τοῖςthe ἀδελφοῖς.brothers.

28 The χάριςgrace τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us ἸησοῦJesus ΧριστοῦChrist μεθ’with ὑμῶν.you.

The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians


1 ΠαῦλοςPaul καὶand ΣιλουανὸςSilvanus καὶand ΤιμόθεοςTimothy τῇto the ἐκκλησίᾳecclesia Θεσσαλονικέωνof Thessalonians ἐνin θεῷGod πατρὶFather ἡμῶνof us καὶand κυρίῳto Lord ἸησοῦJesus Χριστῷ·Christ;

2 χάριςgrace ὑμῖνto you καὶand εἰρήνηpeace ἀπὸfrom θεοῦGod πατρὸςFather καὶand κυρίουLord ἸησοῦJesus Χριστοῦ.Christ.

3 ΕὐχαριστεῖνTo be giving thanks ὀφείλομενwe are owing τῷto the θεῷGod πάντοτεalways περὶabout ὑμῶν,you, ἀδελφοί,brothers καθὼςaccording as ἄξιόνworthy ἐστιν,it is, ὅτιbecause ὑπεραυξάνειis having supergrowth the πίστιςfaith ὑμῶνof you καὶand πλεονάζειis becoming more the ἀγάπηlove ἑνὸςof one ἑκάστουof each πάντωνof all ὑμῶνof you εἰςinto ἀλλήλους,one another, 4 ὥστεas-andαὐτοὺςvery (ones) ἡμᾶςus ἐνin ὑμῖνyou ἐνκαυχᾶσθαιto be boasting in ἐνin ταῖςthe ἐκκλησίαιςecclesias τοῦof the θεοῦGod ὑπὲρover τῆςof the ὑπομονῆςendurance ὑμῶνof you καὶand πίστεωςof faith ἐνin πᾶσινall τοῖςthe διωγμοῖςpersecutions ὑμῶνof you καὶand ταῖςto the θλίψεσινtribulations αἷςto which    ἀνέχεσθε,you are holding selves up, 5 ἔνδειγμαshowing within τῆςof the δικαίαςrighteous κρίσεωςjudgment τοῦof the θεοῦ,God, εἰςinto τὸthe καταξιωθῆναιto be counted down worthy ὑμᾶςyou τῆςof the βασιλείαςkingdom τοῦof the θεοῦ,God, ὑπὲρover ἧςwhich καὶalso πάσχετε.you are suffering.

6 εἴπερIf-even δίκαιονrighteous (thing) παρὰbeside θεῷGod ἀνταποδοῦναιto give back instead τοῖςto the (ones) θλίβουσινmaking tribulation for ὑμᾶςyou θλίψινtribulation 7 καὶand ὑμῖνto you τοῖςthe (ones) θλιβομένοιςbeing put under tribulationἄνεσινletting up μεθ’with ἡμῶνus ἐνin τῇthe ἀποκαλύψειrevelation τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἸησοῦJesus ἀπ’from οὐρανοῦheaven μετ’with ἀγγέλωνangels δυνάμεωςof power αὐτοῦof him 8 ἐνin πυρὶfire φλογός,of flame, διδόντοςof (one) giving ἐκδίκησινvengeance τοῖςto the (ones) μὴnot εἰδόσιhaving known θεὸνGod καὶand τοῖςto the (ones) μὴnot ὑπακούουσινobeying τῷto the εὐαγγελίῳgood news τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us Ἰησοῦ,of Jesus, 9 οἵτινεςwhich ones δίκηνjustice τίσουσινwill pay ὄλεθρονdestruction αἰώνιονeverlasting ἀπὸfrom προσώπουface τοῦof the κυρίουLord καὶand ἀπὸfrom τῆςthe δόξηςglory τῆςof the ἰσχύοςstrength αὐτοῦ,of him, 10 ὅτανwhenever ἔλθῃhe should come ἐνδοξασθῆναιto be glorified within ἐνin τοῖςthe ἁγίοιςholy (ones) αὐτοῦof him καὶand θαυμασθῆναιto be wondered at ἐνin πᾶσινall τοῖςthe (ones) πιστεύσασιν,having believed, ὅτιbecause ἐπιστεύθηwas believed τὸthe μαρτύριονwitness ἡμῶνof us ἐφ’upon ὑμᾶς,you, ἐνin τῇthe ἡμέρᾳday ἐκείνῃ.that.

11 ΕἰςInto which καὶalso προσευχόμεθαwe are praying πάντοτεalways περὶabout ὑμῶν,you, ἵναin order that ὑμᾶςyou ἀξιώσῃhe might count worthy τῆςof the κλήσεωςcalling the θεὸςGod ἡμῶνof us καὶand πληρώσῃhe might fulfill πᾶσανevery εὐδοκίανwell thinking ἀγαθωσύνηςof goodness καὶand ἔργονwork πίστεωςof faith ἐνin δυνάμει,power, 12 ὅπωςso that ἐνδοξασθῇmight be glorified in τὸthe ὄνομαname τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us ἸησοῦJesus ἐνin ὑμῖν,you, καὶand ὑμεῖςyou ἐνin αὐτῷ,him, κατὰaccording to τὴνthe χάρινgrace τοῦof the θεοῦGod ἡμῶνof us καὶand κυρίουof Lord ἸησοῦJesus Χριστοῦ.Christ.


1 ᾿ΕρωτῶμενWe are requesting δὲbut ὑμᾶς,you, ἀδελφοί,brothers, ὑπὲρover τῆςthe παρουσίαςpresence τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us ἸησοῦJesus ΧριστοῦChrist καὶand ἡμῶνof us ἐπισυναγωγῆςbeing led together upon ἐπ’upon αὐτόν,him, 2 εἰςinto τὸthe μὴnot ταχέωςquicklyσαλευθῆναιto be shaken ὑμᾶςyou ἀπὸfrom τοῦthe νοὸςmind μηδὲnor θροεῖσθαιto be being scared μήτεnor διὰthrough πνεύματοςspirit μήτεnor διὰthrough λόγουword μήτεnor δι’through ἐπιστολῆςletter ὡςas δι’through ἡμῶν,us, ὡςas ὅτιthat ἐνέστηκενhas stood in the ἡμέραday τοῦof the κυρίου.Lord.

3 μήNot τιςanyone ὑμᾶςyou ἐξαπατήσῃshould seduce κατὰaccording to μηδέναnot any τρόπον·manner; ὅτιbecause ἐὰνif ever μὴnot ἔλθῃshould come the ἀποστασίαapostasy πρῶτονfirst καὶand ἀποκαλυφθῇshould be revealed the ἄνθρωποςman τῆςof the ἀνομίας,lawlessness, the υἱὸςson τῆςof the ἀπωλείας,destruction, 4 the (one) ἀντικείμενοςlying against καὶand ὑπεραιρόμενοςlifting up himself over ἐπὶupon πάνταeveryone λεγόμενονbeing said θεὸνgod or σέβασμα,object of reverence, ὥστεas-and αὐτὸνhim εἰςinto τὸνthe ναὸνdivine habitation τοῦof the θεοῦGod καθίσαι,to sit down, ἀποδεικνύνταshowing off ἑαυτὸνhimself ὅτιthat ἔστινhe is θεός—.god—. 5 ΟὐNot μνημονεύετεyou are remembering ὅτιthat ἔτιyet ὢνbeing πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶςyou ταῦταthese (things) ἔλεγονI was saying ὑμῖν;to you?

6 καὶAnd νῦνnow τὸthe (thing) κατέχονholding down οἴδατε,you have known, εἰςinto τὸthe ἀποκαλυφθῆναιto be revealed αὐτὸνhim ἐνin τῷthe αὐτοῦof him καιρῷ·appointed time; 7 τὸthe γὰρfor μυστήριονmystery ἤδηalready ἐνεργεῖταιis working within τῆςof the ἀνομίας·lawlessness; μόνονonly the (one) κατέχωνholding down ἄρτιright now ἕωςuntil ἐκout of μέσουmidst γένηται.might come to be. 8 καὶAnd τότεthen ἀποκαλυφθήσεταιwill be revealed the ἄνομος,lawless (one), ὃνwhom the κύριοςLord ἸησοῦςJesus ἀνελεῖwill take up τῷto the πνεύματιspirit τοῦof the στόματοςmouth αὐτοῦof him καὶand καταργήσειwill make ineffective τῇto the ἐπιφανείᾳmanifestation τῆςof the παρουσίαςpresence αὐτοῦ,of him, 9 οὗof whom ἐστὶνis the παρουσίαpresence κατ’according to ἐνέργειανworking within τοῦof the ΣατανᾶSatan ἐνin πάσῃall δυνάμειpower καὶand σημείοιςto signs καὶand τέρασινto portents ψεύδουςof lie 10 καὶand ἐνin πάσῃevery ἀπάτῃseduction ἀδικίαςof unrighteousness τοῖςto the (ones) ἀπολλυμένοις,destroying themselves, ἀνθ’instead of   ὧνwhich (things) τὴνthe ἀγάπηνlove τῆςof the ἀληθείαςtruth οὐκnot ἐδέξαντοthey received εἰςinto τὸthe σωθῆναιto be saved αὐτούς·them; 11 καὶand διὰthrough τοῦτοthis πέμπειis sending αὐτοῖςto them the θεὸςGod ἐνέργειανworking within πλάνηςof error εἰςinto τὸthe πιστεῦσαιto believe αὐτοὺςthem τῷto the ψεύδει,lie,
12 ἵναin order that κριθῶσινthey might be judged πάντεςall οἱthe (ones) μὴnot πιστεύσαντεςhaving believed τῇto the ἀληθείᾳtruth ἀλλὰbut εὐδοκήσαντεςhaving thought well τῇto the ἀδικίᾳ.unrighteousness.

13 ἩμεῖςWe δὲbut ὀφείλομενare owing εὐχαριστεῖνto be giving thanks τῷto the θεῷGod πάντοτεalways περὶabout ὑμῶν,you, ἀδελφοὶbrothers ἠγαπημένοιhaving been loved ὑπὸby Κυρίου,Lord, ὅτιbecause εἵλατοhe selected ὑμᾶςyou the θεὸςGod ἀπ’from ἀρχῆςbeginning εἰςinto σωτηρίανsalvation ἐνin ἁγιασμῷsanctification πνεύματοςof spirit καὶand πίστειto faith ἀληθείας,of truth, 14 εἰςinto which (thing) ἐκάλεσενhe called ὑμᾶςyou διὰthrough τοῦthe εὐαγγελίουgood news ἡμῶν,of us, εἰςinto περιποίησινprocuring δόξηςof glory τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us Ἰησοῦof Jesus Χριστοῦ.Christ. 15 ἌραReally οὖν,therefore, ἀδελφοί,brothers, στήκετε,be you standing, καὶand κρατεῖτεbe you holding fast τὰςthe παραδόσειςtraditions ἃςwhich ἐδιδάχθητεyou were taught εἴτεwhether διὰthrough λόγουword εἴτεor δι’through ἐπιστολῆςletter ἡμῶν.of us. 16 ΑὐτὸςVery (one) δὲbut the κύριοςLord ἡμῶνof us ἸησοῦςJesus ΧριστὸςChrist καὶand the θεὸςGod the πατὴρFather ἡμῶν,of us, the (one) ἀγαπήσαςhaving loved ἡμᾶςus καὶand δοὺςhaving given παράκλησινcomfort αἰωνίανeverlasting καὶand ἐλπίδαhope ἀγαθὴνgood ἐνin χάριτι,grace, 17 παρακαλέσαιmay he comfort ὑμῶνof you τὰςthe καρδίαςhearts καὶand στηρίξαιmay he fix firmly ἐνin παντὶevery ἔργῳwork καὶand λόγῳword ἀγαθῷ.good.


1 ΤὸThe λοιπὸνleftover (things) προσεύχεσθε,be you praying, ἀδελφοί,brothers, περὶabout ἡμῶν,us, ἵναin order that the λόγοςwordτοῦof the κυρίουLord τρέχῃmay be running καὶand δοξάζηταιit may be being glorified καθὼςaccording as καὶalso πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶς,you, 2 καὶand ἵναin order that ῥυσθῶμενwe might be drawn for self ἀπὸfrom τῶνthe ἀτόπωνout-of-place καὶand πονηρῶνwicked ἀνθρώπων,men, οὐnot γὰρfor πάντωνof all (ones) the πίστις.faith. 3 ΠιστὸςFaithful δέbut ἐστινis the κύριος,Lord, ὃςwho στηρίξειwill fix firmly ὑμᾶςyou καὶand φυλάξειhe will guard ἀπὸfrom τοῦthe πονηροῦ.wicked (one). 4 πεποίθαμενWe have been persuaded δὲbut ἐνin κυρίῳLord ἐφ’upon ὑμᾶς,you, ὅτιthat what (things) παραγγέλλομενwe are charging καὶand ποιεῖτεyou are doing καὶand ποιήσετε.you will do. 5 The δὲbut κύριοςLord κατευθύναιmay straighten down ὑμῶνof you τὰςthe καρδίαςhearts εἰςinto τὴνthe ἀγάπηνlove τοῦof the θεοῦGod καὶand εἰςinto τὴνthe ὑπομονὴνendurance τοῦof the χριστοῦ.Christ.

6 ΠαραγγέλλομενWe are charging δὲbut ὑμῖν,to you, ἀδελφοί,brothers, ἐνin ὀνόματιname τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἸησοῦJesus ΧριστοῦChrist στέλλεσθαιto be withdrawing ὑμᾶςYOU ἀπὸfrom παντὸςevery ἀδελφοῦbrother ἀτάκτωςdisorderly περιπατοῦντοςwalking καὶand μὴnot κατὰaccording to τὴνthe παράδοσινtradition ἣνwhich παρελάβετεYOU received alongside παρ’beside ἡμῶν.of us. 7 αὐτοὶVery (ones) γὰρfor οἴδατεyou have known πῶςhow δεῖit is binding μιμεῖσθαιto be imitating ἡμᾶς,us, ὅτιbecause οὐκnot ἠτακτήσαμενwe behaved disorderly ἐνin ὑμῖνyou 8 οὐδὲnor δωρεὰνfree gift ἄρτονbread ἐφάγομενwe ate παράbeside τινος,of anyone, ἀλλ’but ἐνin κόπῳlabor καὶand μόχθῳtoil νυκτὸςof night καὶand ἡμέραςof day ἐργαζόμενοιworking πρὸςtoward τὸthe μὴnot ἐπιβαρῆσαίto put weight upon τιναanyone ὑμῶν·of you; 9 οὐχnot ὅτιthat οὐκnot ἔχομενwe are having ἐξουσίαν,authority, ἀλλ’but ἵναin order that ἑαυτοὺςselves τύπονtype δῶμενwe might give ὑμῖνto you εἰςinto τὸthe μιμεῖσθαιto be imitating ἡμᾶς.us. 10 καὶAndγὰρfor ὅτεwhen ἦμενwe were πρὸςtoward ὑμᾶς,you, τοῦτοthis παρηγγέλλομενwe were charging ὑμῖν,to you, ὅτιthat εἴif τιςanyone οὐnot θέλειis willing ἐργάζεσθαιto be working μηδὲneither ἐσθιέτω.let him be eating. 11 ἀκούομενWe are hearing γάρfor τιναςsome (ones) περιπατοῦνταςwalking ἐνin ὑμῖνyou ἀτάκτως,disorderly, μηδὲνnothing ἐργαζομένουςworking ἀλλὰbut περιεργαζομένους·working around; 12 τοῖςto the δὲbut τοιούτοιςsuch (ones) παραγγέλλομενwe are charging καὶand παρακαλοῦμενwe are encouragingἐνin κυρίῳLord ἸησοῦJesus ΧριστῷChrist ἵναin order that μετὰwith ἡσυχίαςquietness ἐργαζόμενοιworking τὸνthe ἑαυτῶνof themselves ἄρτονbread ἐσθίωσιν.they may be eating.

13 Ὑμεῖςyou δέ,but, ἀδελφοί,brothers, μὴnot ἐνκακήσητεyou should behave badly in καλοποιοῦντες.doing fine. 14 εἰIf δέbut τιςanyone οὐχnot ὑπακούειis obeying τῷto the λόγῳword ἡμῶνof us διὰthrough τῆςthe ἐπιστολῆς,letter, τοῦτονthis (one) σημειοῦσθε,be you putting sign on, μὴnot συναναμίγνυσθαιto mix up selves with αὐτῷ,him, ἵναin order that ἐντραπῇ·he might be turned in;
καὶand μὴnot ὡςas ἐχθρὸνenemy ἡγεῖσθε,be you considering, ἀλλὰbut νουθετεῖτεbe you putting mind in ὡςas ἀδελφόν.brother.

16 ΑὐτὸςVery (one) δὲbut the κύριοςLord τῆςof the εἰρήνηςpeace δῴηmay he give ὑμῖνto you τὴνthe εἰρήνηνpeace διὰthrough παντὸςall [time] ἐνin παντὶevery τρόπῳ.manner. The κύριοςLord μετὰwith πάντωνall ὑμῶν.of you.

17 The ἀσπασμὸςgreeting τῇto the ἐμῇmy χειρὶhand Παύλου,of Paul, which ἐστινis σημεῖονsign ἐνin πάσῃevery ἐπιστολῇ·letter; οὕτωςthus γράφω.I am writing.

18 The χάριςgrace τοῦof the κυρίουLord ἡμῶνof us Ἰησοῦof Jesus ΧριστοῦChrist μετὰwith πάντωνall ὑμῶν.of you.



Translation and Textual Criticism

King James BibleTHE KING JAMES BIBLE: Do You Know the King James Version?

The King James Bible was originally published in 1611. Some have estimated that the number of copies of the King James Version that have been produced in print worldwide is over one billion! There is little doubt that the King James Version is a literary masterpiece, which this author has and will appreciate and value for its unparalleled beauty of expression. This book is in no way trying to take away from what the King James Version has accomplished. The King James Version is a book to be commended for all that it has accomplished. For four centuries, when English-speaking people spoke of “the Bible,” they meant the King James Version. The question that begs to be asked of those who favor the King James Bible is, Do You Know the King James Version? What do most users of the King James Bible not know about their translation? Whether you are one who favors the King James Version or one who prefers a modern translation, Andrews will answer the questions that have long been asked for centuries about the King James Bible and far more.

The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use. The translation of God’s Word from the original languages of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek is a task unlike any other and should never be taken lightly because it carries with it the heaviest responsibility: the translator renders God’s thoughts into a modern language. It is CGBT’s desire to take challenging and complex subjects and make them easy to understand. CGBT will communicate as clearly and powerfully as possible to all of its readers while also accurately communicating information about the Bible. …

DO WE STILL NEEDA LITERAL BIBLE_DO WE STILL NEED A LITERAL BIBLE?: Discover the Truth about Literal Translations

We have come a long, long way from the time that the KJV was The Bible in English and the many translations available today. Finding the right Bible for the right person can be daunting, with almost too many choices available. However, it is still possible to divide the options into two broad categories: literal translations and dynamic equivalents. What is the difference, and why should you care? Bible publishers used to say that literal translations are good for study purposes, and dynamic equivalents are better for reading. So literal translations were advertised with terms like “accurate,” “reliable,” and, of course, “literal.” For dynamic equivalent translations, terms like “contemporary,” “easy to read,” and “written in today’s English” were used. Naturally, publishers do not advertise the negatives, so they did not point out that the literal translations might be a little harder to read, or that the dynamic equivalents might not be entirely faithful to the original languages of the Bible. However, more recently, some scholars have been taking this analysis in a new direction, assessing literal translations as less desirable than dynamic equivalents even for accuracy and reliability.

KING JAMES BIBLE IITHE KING JAMES BIBLE Why Have Modern Bible Translations Removed Many Verses That Are In the King James Version?

Many have asked Edward D. Andrews as a Chief Translator, “In studying the modern Bible translations, I have come across some verses that are left out but that are in my King James Version or even my New King James Version, such as Matthew 18:11; 23:14; Luke 17:36. I have gotten conflicting opinions on social media. Can you please clear this up for me?”

Have you experienced this? The book of Revelation warns: “if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his share in the tree of life and in the holy city, which are described in this book.” Yes, removing a true part of the Bible would be a serious matter. (Rev. 22:19) But had this happened? Do you know why these verses are omitted from modern translations? You might wonder, ‘Is my modern Bible translation lacking something that the King James Version has?’ The reader of the King James Version may feel that they have something that the modern Bibles do not. Andrews will help the reader find the answers to whether verses are being omitted and far more when it comes to the differences between the King James Bible and the Modern Bible translations.


The fascinating story of how we got the English Bible in its present form starts 1,120 years ago. HISTORY OF ENGLISH VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE covers the fascinating journey of the Bible from the 9th century AD to the beginning of the 20th-century. The chief translator of the Updated American Standard Version Edward D. Andrews invites readers to explore the process of from the early manuscripts to contemporary translations today.

And so, it was that translators like William Tyndale were martyred for the honor of giving the people a Bible that could easily be understood. What a price they had paid, however; it was a priceless gift! Tyndale and others before and after him had worked with the shadow of death towering over their heads. However, by delivering the Bible to many people in their native tongue, they opened up before them the possibility, not of death, but life eternal. As Jesus Christ said in the Tyndale Bible, “This is lyfe eternall that they myght knowe the that only very God and whom thou hast sent Iesus Christ.” (John 17:3) May we, therefore, know the value of what we can now hold in our hands, and may we diligently study God’s Word.

Choosing Your BibleCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word of God. Then, there are dynamic equivalents, where the translator determines what the author meant by the original language text, and this is what they give the reader. There is also a paraphrase translation, which is an extremely interpretive translation. Exactly what are these differences? Are some translations better than others? What standards and principles can we use to determine what makes a good translation? Andrews introduces the readers to the central issues in this debate and presents several reasons why literal translations are superior to dynamic equivalent and paraphrase translations. We do not need to be a Bible scholar to understand these issues, as well as the importance of having the most accurate and faithful translation that is reflective of the original text. …


THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT (TTNT) is an introduction, intermediate and advanced level coverage of the text of the New Testament. Andrews introduces the new and relatively new reader to this subject in the first few chapters of the TTNT. Andrews deepens his handling of the material, while still making it easy to understand in the next few chapters of the TTNT, all the while being very informative in both sections. All of this prepares the reader for Wilkins’ advanced chapters. THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews offer the reader an account of the copying by hand and transmission of the Greek New Testament. They present a comprehensive survey of the manuscript history from the penning of the 27 New Testament books to the current critical texts. What did the ancient books look like and how were documents written? How were the New Testament books published? Who would use secretaries? Why was it so hard to be a secretary in the first century? How was such work done? What do we know about the early Christian copyists? What were the scribal habits and tendencies? Is it possible to establish the original text of the NewTestament? …

Introduction to New Testament Textual CriticismINTRODUCTION TO THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: From The Authors and Scribe to the Modern Critical Text

INTRODUCTION TO THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT is a shortened 321 pages of Andrews and Wilkins 602 page TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT without losing the value of content. The foremost thing the reader is going to learn is that the Greek New Testament that our modern translations are based on is a mirror-like reflection of the original and can be fully trusted. The reader will learn how the New Testament authors made and published their books, the secretaries in antiquity and their materials like Teritus who helped Paul pen the epistle to the Romans, and the book writing process of the New Testament authors and early copyists. The reader will also discover the reading culture of early Christianity and their view of the integrity of the Greek New Testament. The reader will also learn how textual scholars known as paleography determine the age of the manuscripts.

The reader will learn all about the different sources that go into our restoring the Greek New Testament to its original form. Then, Andrews will cover the ancient version, the era of the printed text, and the arrival of the critical text. After that, the reader will be given a lengthy chapter on examples of how the textual scholar determines the correct reading by his looking at the internal and external evidence. Finally, and most importantly, the reader will find out the truth about the supposed 400,000 textual errors within the Greek New Testament manuscripts. The last chapter will be faith-building and enable you to defend the Word of God as inerrant.

The Reading Culture of Early ChristianityTHE READING CULTURE OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY: The Production, Publication, Circulation, and Use of Books in the Early Christian Church

THE READING CULTURE OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY provides the reader with the production process of the New Testament books, the publication process, how they were circulated, and to what extent they were used in the early Christian church. It examines the making of the New Testament books, the New Testament secretaries and the material they used, how the early Christians viewed the New Testament books, and the literacy level of the Christians in the first three centuries. It also explores how the gospels went from an oral message to a written record, the accusation that the apostles were uneducated, the inspiration and inerrancy in the writing process of the New Testament books, the trustworthiness of the early Christian copyists, and the claim that the early scribes were predominantly amateurs. Andrews also looks into the early Christian’s use of the codex [book form], how did the spread of early Christianity affect the text of the New Testament, and how was the text impacted by the Roman Empire’s persecution of the early Christians?

400,000 Textual Variants 02400,000+ SCRIBAL ERRORS IN THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT MANUSCRIPTS: What Assurance Do We Have that We Can Trust the Bible?

The Bible has been under attack since Moses penned the first five books. However, the New Testament has faced criticism like no other time over the 50-70-years. Both friend and foe have challenged the reliability of our New Testament. Self-proclaimed Agnostic textual scholar Dr. Bart D. Ehrman has claimed that there are 400,000+ scribal errors in our Greek New Testament manuscripts. A leading textual scholar, Greek grammarian, and Christian apologist Dr. Daniel B. Wallace has stipulated that this is true. This is of particular interest among all Christians, who have been charged with defending the Word of God. – 1 Peter 3:15.

In this volume, textual scholar Edward D. Andrews offers the churchgoer and textual student a defense against this specific attack on the New Testament. Andrews offers the reader a careful analysis of the relevant evidence, giving his readers logical, reasonable, rational assurances that the New Testament can be trusted more than ever before. He will explain the differences between the older Bible translations and the newer ones. Andrews will explain why we do not need the original manuscripts to have the original Word of God. He will reveal how reliable our manuscripts are, how they survived the elements and the persecution of early Christianity, as well as withstanding careless and even deceitful scribes. Finally, Andrews will deal with the 400,000+ scribal errors in the Greek New Testament manuscripts extensively. The author takes a complicated subject and offers his readers an easy to understand argument for why they can have confidence in the Bible despite various challenges to the trustworthiness of Scripture, offering an insightful, informed, defense of God’s Word.

4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUSMISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Fourth Edition]

This fourth edition will be dealing with the Greek text of our New Testament, through the Eyes of Dr. Bart D. Ehrman, in his New York Times bestseller: Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why (2005). First, in the introduction, we will look into Bart D. Ehrman’s early life and spiritual decline as he moved from being an evangelical conservative Christian to becoming an agnostic skeptic. Second, we will open with chapter one covering the book writing process of the New Testament authors and early Christian scribes. Then, we will spend three lengthy chapters covering the reading culture of early Christianity because of Ehrman’s claim of just how low the literacy rates were in early Christianity. After that, we will take one chapter to investigate the early Christian copyists because of Ehrman’s claim that most of the scribal errors come from the first three centuries. Following this will be one of the most critical chapters examining Ehrman’s claim of 400,000 textual variants [errors] and what impact they have on the integrity of the Greek New Testament. We will then investigate Bible Difficulties and what they mean for the trustworthiness of God’s Word. After that, we will give the reader the fundamentals of some of Ehrman’s complaints, debunking them as we investigate each one throughout seven chapters.

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