BIBLICAL STUDIES MAGAZINE THE CHURCH CURE Book of Proverbs
Edward D. Andrews
EDWARD D. ANDREWS (AS in Criminal Justice, BS in Religion, MA in Biblical Studies, and MDiv in Theology) is CEO and President of Christian Publishing House. He has authored ninety-two books. Andrews is the Chief Translator of the Updated American Standard Version (UASV).

Many times, when we face a difficult decision in life, we seek out a second opinion from another, going to the wisest person we know. Wisdom is the ability to take the knowledge and understanding that we have acquired and apply it to life’s situations. Thus, as we have seen back in chapter 4, verse 7, we were exhorted to “get wisdom.” Moreover, the book of Proverbs begins with the importance of knowing wisdom and instruction. There are two invitations in Proverbs chapter 9: Lady Wisdom and Lady Foolishness, the simpleminded foolish woman. Lady Wisdom is sending her maidens out into the streets, the highest parts of the city to offer all to her feast. The simpleminded foolish woman is sitting at the door of her home that is also in the highest part of the city, inviting all who pass by to her home for a feast. The choice one makes is a matter of life and death depending on whose invitation is accepted. Only those who have a reverential fear of displeasing Jehovah God will choose wisely.

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The Way of Wisdom

Proverbs 9:1-2 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

Wisdom has built her house;
she has hewn her seven pillars.
She has slaughtered her beasts;[1] she has mixed her wine;
she has also set her table.

Wisdom has built her house: In 8:34, Wisdom first refers to her house. It is wisdom herself, who has built her house, not having another do it for her.

She has hewn her seven pillars: The Greek Septuagint (LXX) has, “she has set up her seven pillars.” The Hebrew text has hewn (chatsab), which refers to taking an ax or ax-like tool and striking an object, to cut off or out of another main object. Pillars are a tall vertical structure of stone or wood used as a support for a building,[2] or a portico, which is a porch or walkway leading to a house.

On the pillars, John H Walton writes, “Many theories have been put forward to explain the significance of the seven pillars of Wisdom’s house. Perhaps the most notorious suggests that the previous chapters can be divided into seven speeches, but the text does not naturally divide into the desired units to make this theory work. Some interpret the significance of the number seven as indicating the seven planets known at the time; others take it as a reference to the seven creation days. However, the simplest and best explanation is to take the number seven in its typical symbolic sense as indicating completeness. We are to picture a beautiful, large house.”[3] The author of Proverbs is simply conveying the idea that Wisdom’s home has much space and is well-made, and impressive, while the fool or the stupid one’s home is found in Sheol, that is, gravedom. The number seven can be seen as the adequacy or abundance of this house, as being the right size, and having plenty for the banquet.

She has slaughtered her beasts; she has mixed her wine: Here slaughtered (tabach) simply means the killing or butchering of animals or beasts that have been raised specifically for food. Here mixed wine may refer to the practice of diluting wine with water. The Jewish people did not find undiluted wine as being tasteful. The wine on Passover was mixed with three parts water and one-part wine. Then, again, there was also the practice of mixing spices into the wine to give it a variety of flavors. Or, it could be that wisdom did both of these.

She has also set her table: Setting her table meant preparing it for food for a banquet. The table itself is not like the modern-day table but rather a mat or some animal hide placed on the floor. It could also be some wooden structure that is only a few inches off the floor.

We see that wisdom has built a strong house, which is ready to receive many people. It seems that the feast is ready, as the meat is there, as well as the wine, with the table being set. The question that begs to be asked at this point is, ‘who are the guests that have been invited to this feat?’ Feasting with wisdom from God brings about no hurt, no reproach, no regrets, but only improvement oneself and the creation or formation of right motives in the heart. We in our humility need to take wisdom’s discipline and thereby reject death, and instead choose life in honor and happiness.

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Lady Wisdom’s Plea

  Proverbs 9:3 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

She has sent out her young maidens to call
from the highest places in the city,

She has sent out her young maidens to call: The Hebrew rendered young maidens (naarah) refers to female servants who are working for her owner or employer, particularly in the household, usually someone of a lower social status. Here to call (Heb. qara) means to utter or announce an invitation, which is shouted as a public message.

From the highest places in the city: The Hebrew word rendered city (qereth) is a large densely populated area that is larger than a village settlement or community but smaller than the larger cities. The expression here in Proverbs 9:3b is the same in 9:14b, where it speaks of the foolish woman.

The Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary says, “The location of Wisdom’s house at the highest point of the city is extremely significant to understanding whom she represents. In the ancient Near East, the only building allowed to occupy the acropolis is the temple. In this way, the poet associates Woman Wisdom with Yahweh. She stands primarily for Yahweh’s wisdom and ultimately for Yahweh himself.”[4]

Lady Wisdom has built her house and prepared the feat, it is now time to invite her guests. Therefore, she sends out her young maidens to the highest places in the city to call in the people. This reminds of Jesus’ Parable of the Large Banquet in Luke 14:15-24. Today, Christians are to serve as the messengers of true wisdom, being busy in the work of God, inviting people, within our communities, wherever they may be found, to take in the true wisdom of God’s Word, a banquet indeed, leading to eternal life. – John 17:3.

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Leaving Your Old Ways for the Ways of Wisdom

Proverbs 9:4-6 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

“Whoever is simple,[5] let him turn in here!”
As for him who is in want of heart,[6] she says to him,
“Come, eat of my bread
and drink of the wine I have mixed.
Leave your simple ways,[7] and live,
and walk in the way of understanding.”

“Whoever is simple, let him turn in here!”: The simple (Heb. pethi) referred to hear are the inexperienced, the lowly, humble of God’s people. Wisdom’s asking these ones of little education, who were scorned and disdained by the elite to turn in here [her house], to share a feast with her. While Wisdom’s invitation to share a meal that she has prepared is the intended meaning, but the sense here is that these ones need to acquire wisdom and the benefits that it will bring.

When the Son of God came to the earth, he did not take the good news to the elite of the Jewish people, the wealthy, the Jewish religious leaders. We are told at Luke 4:16-21, “and he [Jesus] stood up to read. And the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was given to him. And he unrolled the scroll and found the place where it was written, ‘The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set free those who are oppressed, to proclaim the favorable year of the Lord.’ And he rolled up the scroll and gave it back to the attendant and sat down; and the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. And he began to say to them, ‘Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.’”

Yes, Jesus came to bring the good news of the kingdom, to free them from the Jewish religious leaders and those of noble birth, who were oppressing them. The apostle Paul told the Corinthians Christians similarly. He wrote, “For consider your calling, brothers, that there were not many wise according to the flesh [not wise according to human standards], not many mighty, not many noble; but God has chosen the foolish things of the world to shame the wise, and God has chosen the weak things of the world to shame the things which are strong, 28 and the insignificant things [implying a lack of noble descent; inferior] of the world and the despised God has chosen, the things that are not, so that he might bring to nothing the things that are.” (1 Corinthians 1:26-29)

From the very start of Christianity, those who were chosen and those who were attracted to this new faith was primarily the lowly, humble people. The twelve apostles of Jesus Christ, the foundation of Christianity, were not selected from the elite of the Jewish religious leaders: the educated scribes and Pharisees. (Ephesians 2:20) Rather, they were from the working class who performs manual labor for very little wages, having the very basic education needed, four being fishermen by trade. (Matthew 4:18-22; 10:2-3) These men were viewed by the elite religious leaders as “uneducated[8] and untrained men.” Young’s Literal Translation (YLT) has “unlettered,” that is, not educated in the rabbinic schools; not meaning illiterate. (Acts 4:13) These so-called “lettered” highly educated scribes and Pharisees talked down to, disparaged, denigrated the long-awaited Messiah, scornful and disdainful of his teachings and his followers.

As for him who is in want of heart, she says to him: An inexperienced person is newly learning as to the ways of Wisdom. Because he is inexperienced, this one may be “in want of heart,” as Solomon expresses it. The Hebrew (chaser leb) is rendered (interpreted) as “lacks sense” in other translations. (ESV, LEB, CSB) Again, this is an inexperienced person, who is lacking good sense and wisdom, lacking good judgment or discernment in that they are newly learning the ways of Wisdom. This one’s motives need not necessarily be bad and it will take some time to bring one’s heart in the ways of Wisdom. This involves bringing this inexperienced one, the new one’ thoughts, desires, affections, emotions, and goals in life into harmony with the will and purposes of God. When someone has put on the new person, has acquired a biblical worldview, has the mind of Christ, they have molded the inner person in a godly way, “getting heart.” – Proverbs 19:8.

“Come, eat of my bread: The Hebrew word for bread (lechem) can be used in a general sense for food.

and drink of the wine I have mixed: Here, again, mixed wine may refer to the practice of diluting wine with water. The Jewish people did not find undiluted wine as being tasteful. The wine on Passover was mixed with three parts water and one-part wine. Then, again, there was also the practice of mixing spices into the wine to give it a variety of flavors. Or, it could be that wisdom did both of these.

Leave your simple ways, and live: These inexperienced ones need to leave behind their foolish ways, quit associating with ignorant ones who reject the ways of Wisdom. And live (Heb. chayah) is giving one’s former life with these foolish ones.

and walk in the way of understanding.”: In the Hebrew walking (ashar) can be following a life course and the sense of the word here is behavior, to now live or behave in the way of Wisdom. Understanding (Heb. binah) is the ability to see how the parts or aspects of something are connected to one another. One who possesses understanding can see the big picture (the entire matter) and not just the isolated facts.

Lady Wisdom has sent out her servant girls to town, to invite everyone, who is able to hear her voice. She is especially looking for those that lack understanding or are simply confused as to the life that is before them, these being the inexperienced ones. These ones are being offered a chance at a different kind of life than they had previously known. The wisdom found within God’s Word is able to help man in his imperfection, to make the choices that he would have made under perfection. Simply put, the simple (inexperienced; lacking good sense) are invited to the feast, so that they can become wise.

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Be Wise and Accept Constructive Counsel

Proverbs 9:7-9 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

He who corrects a scoffer gets himself abuse,
and he who reproves a wicked man gets injury.[9]
Do not reprove a scoffer, or he will hate you;
reprove a wise man, and he will love you.
Give instruction to a wise man, and he will be still wiser;
teach[10] a righteous man, and he will increase in learning.

He who corrects a scoffer gets himself abuse: The verb translated correct (Heb. yasar) means to offer corrective counsel with the intention of improving the behavior of another. As discipline it need not come across as punishment, it is simply straight talk, withholding no punches, being very direct in teaching ones how to live their lives in the reverential fear of God so that they become wise from the life lessons before they are tempted by this wicked world and those alienated from God that would put them to the test.

The Hebrew word rendered scoffer (lets) is referring to someone who jeers, mocks, ridicules or treats someone with contempt. The person ridiculing another builds up resentment, anger, and hatred for the one trying to help make his path straight. Here the scoffer or ridiculer is one who resists being offered constructive correction and instruction. The abuse (Heb. qalon) is what one receives for his efforts at trying to give direction to a scoffer, which is utter contempt, disrespect, and dishonor.

And he who reproves a wicked man gets injury: This line is quite similar to the first line in meaning. Reprove (Heb. yakach) is similar in meaning to correct and has the same strong sense offering another straight talk, withholding no punches, being very direct in teaching ones how to live their life. The slight difference here with yakach reprove over yasar correct is that yakach carries a value judgment, implying that the one being reproved is guilty. When we look at the Hebrew word for wicked (rasha), we get the same implication of guilt, as the evil person is unrighteous, with a focus on the guilt of his being in violation of some standard.

Scoffers like to ridicule others, but if they are ridiculed themselves, they are unable to take it and will react badly, even violently. The wicked person has no appreciation for the one offering him reproof, to help him on the path of life. It can be very unwise to try and teach the beneficial truths of God’s Word to someone who has utter contempt for you and the truth you are trying to share, for he will only ridicule your efforts. In your endeavor to reach the honest hearted with the good news of the kingdom, you need to be careful not to get too involved in debates and extensive argumentation with ridiculers.

Do not reprove a scoffer, or he will hate you: Reprove renders the same word that was used in 9:7b. Scoffer is as was used in 9:7a. Scoffers and hate are used in Proverbs 1:22, where the question is asked, “How long, O simple ones, will you love being simple-minded? And how long will scoffers delight in their scoffing and fools hate knowledge?”

Reprove a wise man, and he will love you: This line is the beginning of three lines (9:8b-9) that will contrast the first three lines of 9:7-8a. Reprove renders the same word from the previous line and that was used in 9:7b. Truly wise (Heb. chakam) ones can talk frankly to each other with straight talk, holding nothing back and help each other to improve or to correct themselves where needed. The wise has a capacity for insight, understanding, and discernment. Here love you has the sense of respecting you.

Give instruction to a wise man, and he will be still wiser: Why will a wise person love or respect you for giving him reproof? Because he knows that through correction “he will be still wiser.”

Teach a righteous man, and he will increase in learning: Increase in learning is one who continues to take in knowledge. No one is too wise or too old to keep learning.

If we are to be taught by wisdom, there will be times when we must accept correction and reproof. Of course, most of us tend to bristle at such times, yet it becomes easier as we mature in the faith. A scoffer is a ridiculer, one who expresses derision or scorn about somebody or something. This one does not receive correction well at all and has a dislike of anyone so offering. The wicked are in a whole other category, as they are blinded by their hatred for others, especially anyone suggesting they need help.

Therefore, it is a waste of time to attempt to offer ‘what is holy [Scriptural wisdom] to dogs or throw your pearls [Scriptural wisdom] in front of pigs, lest they trample them with their feet, and turn around and tear you to pieces.’ (Matt. 7:6) These ones will only ridicule any attempt that we make at sharing the good news with them. We can look to the apostle Paul, who while teaching some Jews in Antioch, came across some, who just wanted to do nothing but contradict him. What was Paul’s response? He told them “since you thrust [Scripture] aside and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we are turning to the Gentiles.” Acts 13:45-46

There will come times when we are trying to share the good news, and they will look to just debate, criticize, and argue with us. If it is they alone, it would be best just to walk away, letting it be their loss. However, if it is a public place of some sort, and others are listening intently at how you answer the challenges, it may be best to offer a reasonable answer, then express that you are not here to argue, and walk away. If you had not offered the parting answer, the others may have thought you did not have an answer.

The Christian is to be different from the world of humankind that surrounds them. As a disciple of Christ, we need to cultivate a love for discipline. The Word of God corrects us every time we pick it up. Yes, it is difficult to hear where we are falling short, but we should never be offended by correction, even if it is coming from a human representative of God. For some who have years on them, they may believe that with gray hair, they are wise from life experience. Even so, the Bible is filled with knowledge, understanding, and wisdom, from God, who has no beginning, and we will never live long enough, that we do not need counsel from time to time.

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We Cannot Have Wisdom Without Knowledge

Proverbs 9:10 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

10 The fear of Jehovah is the beginning of wisdom,
and the knowledge of the Holy One is understanding.

The fear of Jehovah is the beginning of wisdom: “The fear of Jehovah” is the repeated theme of wisdom found in the book of Proverbs.[11] One who fears Jehovah, he has the qualities of humility (15:33; 22:4), wisdom (1:7), possessing faithfulness and Godly love (16:6), and a concern for his relationship with God (2:5; 9:10). In the book of Proverbs, fear of Jehovah is related to faith in God that is constantly seeking understanding.[12]  In what way is “the fear of Jehovah” “the beginning of knowledge” and ‘the beginning of wisdom’? (9:10) If we did not have a fear of Jehovah (i.e., not a morbid dread of him but rather a profound reverence and awe in the presence of such an all-powerful person), we would have no knowledge, for the Father is the Creator of all things and the Author of the Spirit-inspired Scriptures.

And the knowledge of the Holy One is understanding: Knowledge (Heb. daath) is possession of information learned by personal experience, observation, or study. The Bible strongly urges us to seek and treasure accurate knowledge, as it is far superior to gold. Here Holy One has a plural ending, which is used at times to refer saintly persons, heavenly beings, or angels (see Psa. 34:9; Job 5:1; 15:15; Zech. 14:5), so this has caused some to see the plural here referring to “holy men.” However, the parallelism here evidences otherwise, the pluralism is used to emphasize the holiness of God. Another example of this is the plural form of God (elim; elohim), is used when referring to other gods, such as at Exodus 15:11 (“gods”). It is also used as the plural of majesty, dignity, and excellence. There is no wisdom apart from God. Understanding (Heb. bunah) is the ability to see how the parts or aspects of something are connected to one another. One who possesses understanding can see the big picture (the entire matter) and not just the isolated facts. A true understanding of all facets of human life involves our appreciation of its relation to God and his will and purposes

We cannot have wisdom without knowledge. Furthermore, if we lack the fear of Jehovah, we will not use whatever knowledge we acquire to honor the Creator. What is the crucial criterion for wisdom? It is the fear of Jehovah. Of course, this is not some morbid dread but is a reverential awe for Jehovah God. We may be very studious and have acquired a storehouse of Bible knowledge. However, if it has not gotten down into our heart, the seat of motivation, moving us into reverential awe of Jehovah, we will not have the wisdom to apply the knowledge in a right way. Moreover, the knowledge of Jehovah is crucial if we are to gain insight or understanding, a facet of wisdom.

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You Will Reap What You Sow

Proverbs 9:11-12 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

11 For by me your days will be multiplied,
and years will be added to your life.
12 If you are wise, you are wise for yourself;
and if you scoff, you alone will bear it.

For by me your days will be multiplied: Days being multiplied (Heb. rabah) are the outcome of keeping company with wisdom. It is your free will choice to do so, as you are individually responsible. Days are multiplied not through God stepping into your life and miraculously prolonging it but rather by your acquiring wisdom and being obedient.

And years will be added to your life: Do you want years to be added to your life (Heb. chayyim), and would you like to be certain that you are walking down the right path and your life is heading in the right direction to have the blessing and approval of God?

If you are wise, you are wise for yourself: Making the effort and buying out the time to gain wisdom is our personal responsibility. A wise (chakam) man with good judgment acts in a way that benefits himself, and he is rewarded by his own wise decisions that he makes, not by following the footsteps of others.

And if you scoff, you alone will bear it: The scoffer (Heb. lits) or ridiculer who thinks more of himself than is necessary and who has nothing but contempt and derision for others, he alone is to blame for his own difficulties in life. Indeed, he will reap what he sows. May you, then, be “attentive to wisdom.” – Proverbs 2:2.

What can we expect from our acquiring wisdom? Verse 11 says, “by me your days will be multiplied, and years will be added to your life.” Yes, by being intimately acquainted with wisdom, our days will be increased, “wisdom restores life to its possessor.” (Eccles. 7:12) It is our responsibility to acquire biblical wisdom. As Solomon puts it, “If you are wise, you are wise for yourself; and if you scoff, you alone will bear it.” In other words, if you choose wisdom as a companion, you will have the advantage of the very knowledge of God. However, if you choose to scoff at wisdom, you will reap what you sow.

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The Way of Foolishness

Proverbs 9:13 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

13 The foolish woman is loud;
she is simpleminded[13] and knows nothing.

The foolish woman is loud: The Hebrew word (kesiluth) rendered foolish in verse 13, is literally “stupidity.” Here stupidity is personified as a woman and is seen as loud, simpleminded, and unaware of her ignorance.

She is simpleminded and knows nothing: Here the Hebrew word (pethiyyuth) rendered simpleminded, which means thoughtlessness, lack of understanding, full of simpleness. All who venture into her home are just as naïve and gullible as she.

You will notice that the foolish woman to has a house, which is said to also be the highest point in the city, meaning it would be a temple in the Ancient Near East. However, woman stupidity’s house associates her with the false gods and goddesses. It was these very false gods and goddesses, which mislead the Israelites of into false worship, abandoning the true God. Therefore, one must choose between Lady Wisdom and Lady foolishness, rather pure worship or false worship.

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Which Will You Choose?

Proverbs 9:14-15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

14 She sits at the door of her house;
on a seat at the highest places of the city,
15 calling to those who pass by,
who are going straight on their way,

She sits at the door of her house: Unlike lady wisdom, the simpleminded foolish woman does not send out maidens to call from the highest places in the city. (9:3) In addition, there are no details of the house like what we found from lady wisdom back in 9:1. Moreover, the elaborate banquet of Lady wisdom described in 9:2 is not found here with the simpleminded foolish woman either.

On a seat at the highest places of the city: The reference to the simpleminded foolish woman’s house being at the highest places in the city is the same as lady wisdom in 9:3 but they are clearly two different places.

Calling to those who pass by: The only similarity between the simpleminded foolish woman and lady wisdom is the calling out to others, which lady wisdom does in verse 3, and also 1:20–21 and 8:1-3. However, 9:3 has lady wisdom has sent out willing maidens to do the calling in the highest parts of the city while the simpleminded foolish woman sits on a seat at the front door of her house, doing the calling herself to whoever will listen.

Who are going straight on their way: The reference here to the simpleminded foolish woman calling out of her doorway to those going straight on their way could be simply to a busy street with many people passing by or a possible reference to the upright ones of Proverbs 4:25-27.

While the simpleminded foolish woman is not actively going out in the streets to find her inexperienced ones, she is calling out to all who will listen. Just as the Israelites stumbled repeatedly at the simpleminded foolish woman throughout a 1,500-year period, billions today are caught off guard at the simpleminded foolish woman. We know her better as the world of humankind, who are alienated from God and are seeking their own fleshly desires.

The simpleminded foolish woman is depicted as a loud, undisciplined, and stupid woman. She also has built a house. And she personally has taken it upon herself the task of calling out to the inexperienced ones. So, the one passing by has a choice. Will he accept lady wisdom’s invitation or that of the simpleminded foolish woman?

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An Invitation to Life and an Invitation to Death

Proverbs 9:16-17 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

16 “Whoever is simple, let him turn in here!”
And to him who is in want of heart[14] she says,
17 “Stolen water is sweet,
and bread eaten in secret is pleasant.”

Whoever is simple, let him turn in here: The simple (Heb. pethi) referred to hear are the inexperienced, the lowly, humble of God’s people. The simpleminded foolish woman’s asking these ones of little education, who were scorned and disdained by the elite to her house, to share a feast with her. Simply put, the simple (inexperienced; lacking good sense) are invited to the feast, because of the fact that they are inexperienced and naïve, which the simpleminded foolish woman is using to her advantage. This same invitation is found in 9:4-6, where Lady Wisdom is seeking to make wise these inexperienced ones.

And to him who is in want of heart she says: An inexperienced person is newly learning the ways of life. Because he is inexperienced, this one may be in want of heart, as Solomon expresses it. The Hebrew (chaser leb) is rendered (interpreted) as “lacks sense” in other translations. (ESV, LEB, CSB) Again, this is an inexperienced person, who is lacking good sense and wisdom, lacking good judgment or discernment in that they are newly learning the ways of life and while Lady wisdom wants them to learn the ways of wisdom, the simpleminded foolish woman has nothing but evil intentions toward them.

“Stolen water is sweet: This reference to stolen water is sexual in nature just like back in Proverbs 5:15 where water was used as warning against committing adultery: “Drink water from your own cistern [have sexual relation with your own wife only], flowing water from your own well.” Here to water is being used to mean sexual relations that are forbidden and so they must be kept in secret.

and bread eaten in secret is pleasant: Here bread [food] eaten in secret is a reference back to the criminal acts or conspiracies that can be a temptation to young men, who are seeking the easy way to get money, as described in Proverbs 1:11-14; 4:14-17; and 6:12-15.

Lady Wisdom offers the invitation “Whoever is simple, let him turn here.” (vs. 4) The simpleminded foolish woman offers the invitation “Whoever is simple, may he turn here!” (vs. 16) The invitations are quite different though. Notice that the Lady Wisdom is inviting those lacking wisdom and understanding, to a feast of wine, meat, and bread. Her offer is to give them wisdom and understanding from the only true God, leading to life. The simpleminded foolish woman, on the other hand, is not asking these simple ones to an improved life, but to a path leading to death. The simpleminded foolish woman is a loose woman seeking victims, by seductively offering them a good time.

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Some Simple Inexperienced Ones Choose Death

Proverbs 9:18 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

18 But he does not know that the dead are there,
that her guests are in the depths of Sheol.

But he does not know that the dead are there: The conjunction but is a contrast between the banquet invitation and what would be the consequences of accepting such an invitation, that is, death. He is referring to the simple inexperienced ones who received the invitation.  The dead is literally rephaim; the Hebrew term applies to a tall people or tribe. However, sometimes, it used in reference to those who are dead. In this verse, it has the sense of those who are powerless in death.

that her guests are in the depths of Sheol: Here her guests are referring to those the simpleminded foolish woman had ‘called to’ that was passing by her as she sat “at the door of her house; on a seat at the highest places of the city.” (9:14-15) The context is referring to who had accepted that invitation. The depths (Heb. omeq) is so deep in thought that it is not even able to be perceived, it is unknowable. The depth of the grave. Sheol: (Heb. sheol) occurs sixty-six times in the Hebrew Old Testament. The Greek Septuagint renders Sheol as Hades. It has the underlying meaning of a place of the dead, where they are conscious of nothing, awaiting a resurrection, for both the righteous and the unrighteous. (Gen. 37:35; Psa. 16:10; Ac 2:31; John 5:28-29; Acts 24:15) It corresponds to “Hades” in the New Testament.

The simpleminded foolish woman is not offering mixed wine; rather hers is offering ‘stolen waters that she claims are sweet, and bread of secrecy, which she says is pleasant.’ In Proverbs chapter 15, we see that drinking water from a cistern other than your own is metaphorical for having sexual relations with a woman other than your wife. (Proverbs 5:15-17) Therefore, we can possibly extrapolate that drinking sweet stolen waters is sexual relations outside of one’s marriage or being unmarried and committing fornication. At the very least, this water is described as sweet, better tasting than the mixed wine, because the person drinking it, has a racing heart from getting away with stealing it. The bread of secrecy is described as pleasant, more so than the woman of wisdom’s bread and meat, because it was ill-gotten gains. We are well aware today, how the advertising world sells everything with the sense of a forbidden spirit, a secret or clandestine atmosphere, making everything seem more attractive, which plays on the stupidity of the buyer.

Lady Wisdom is offering life, while the simpleminded foolish woman is silent on what is at the end of her path. However, Solomon makes it quite clear, her house guest ends up in Sheol, death. In other words, her house is really a house of death. So, let us choose life.

PROMISES OF GODS GUIDANCE King James Bible AMERICA IN BIBLE PROPHECY_

BIBLE DIFFICULTIES Proverbs Chapter 9

Proverbs 9:17 What are “stolen waters,” and why are they “sweet”?

Proverbs 5:15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

15 Drink water from your own cistern,
flowing water from your own well.

Drink water from your own cistern: The Bible is not squeamish about sexual relations, and we do well to follow that example, if we are to help, our young ones avoid the pitfalls of this world. The cistern (Heb. bôr) or well is an underground tank for storing precious rainwater and is being used as a poetic expression for the precious wife, who satisfies the desires of her husband. This is considered a private water source, unlike the water supply in public places. Therefore, the point is quite clear, just as you drink water from your own cistern or well, you only have sexual relations with your own wife.

Proverbs 9:17 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

17 “Stolen water is sweet,
and bread eaten in secret is pleasant.”

“Drink water from your own cistern, flowing water from your own well” in 5:15 is likening sexual relations within one’s marriage, as drawing stimulating water out of your own well, while stolen waters is referring to hidden immoral sexual relations. Thus, the so-called sweetness is associated with the one secretly cheating on their spouse. Thus, water is being used to mean sexual relations that are forbidden and so they must be kept in secret. Apparently, the idea of getting away with a hidden sexual relationship is what gives such waters their seeming sweetness. While it may seem like a sweetness to be in a secret, a hidden sexual relationship from your spouse, it is only a momentary pleasure. Because of our fallen flesh and human imperfection, it may for the few minutes be pleasantly fulfilled in sexual satisfaction, but where does it lead? Death.

THE POWER OF GOD BLESSED IN SATAN'S WORLD_02 Let God Use You to Solve Your PROBLEMS

REVIEW QUESTIONS

(9:1-2) How should we understand the significance of the ‘seven pillars’?

(9:3-6) Who is Lady Wisdom, and how do we know? Who is Lady Wisdom looking for and why?

(9:7-9) What must we accept if we are to be taught by wisdom? How are we to understand Matthew 7:6, as well as the Apostle Paul’s experience? How can we apply what implications from the two in our ministry?

(9:10-12) What is the crucial criterion to acquire wisdom? What can we expect from our acquiring wisdom?

(9:13-18) Who is woman folly [stupidity]? Who is woman stupidity associated with? What invitations do the two different women offer? Where does each lead? What are stolen waters and why are they sweet?

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In order to overcome and church problems, we must first talk about the different problems of the church. Many of the church problems today stem from the isms: liberalism, humanism, modernism, Christian progressivism, theological liberalism, feminism, higher criticism, and biblical criticism. Moreover, many are simply not a biblically grounded church regardless of how much they claim to be so. The marks of a true Christian church would be like the different lines that make up a church’s fingerprint, a print that cannot belong to any other church. The true Christian church contains their own unique grouping of marks, forming a positive “fingerprint” that cannot belong to any other church. William Lange Craig wrote, “Remember that our faith is not based on emotions, but on the truth, and therefore you must hold on to it.” What truth? Jesus said to the Father in prayer, “Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth.” (John 17:17) Are you doing the will of the Father? Is your church doing the will of the Father? – Matthew 7:21-23; 1 John 2:15-17.

FLEECING THE FLOCK_03FLEECING THE FLOCK: Setting the People of God Free From the Lies of Tithing

Evangelist Norman Robertson claims that “Tithing is God’s way of financing His kingdom on the earth.” He asserts that “It is His system of economics which enables the Gospel to be preached.” Not bashful about telling his followers of their duty to give, he flatly states: ‘Tithing isn’t something you do because you can afford it. It is an act of obedience. Not tithing is a clear violation of God’s commandments. It is embezzlement.’ Most likely you accept that giving should be part of Christian worship. However, …

Deception In the ChurchDECEPTION IN THE CHURCH: Does It Matter How You Worship?

DECEPTION IN THE CHURCH by Fred DeRuvo asks Does It Matter How You Worship? There are 41,000 different denominations that call themselves “Christian” and all would claim that they are the truth. Can just any Christian denomination please God? Can all be true or genuine Christianity if they all have different views on the same Bible doctrines? DeRuvo will answer. He will focus on the largest part of Christianity that has many different denominations, the charismatic, ecstatic Signs and Wonders Movements. These ecstatic worshipers claim … DeRuvo will answer all these questions and more according to the truth of God’s Word.—John 8:31-32; 17:17.

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

How to Study Your BibleHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are not studiously inclined? Realize that the primary difference between a serious Bible student and a less serious Bible student is usually diligence and effort, not being a gifted student. Being a gifted Bible student alone is not enough. Efficient methods of Bible study are worth learning, for those seeking to become serious Bible students. The joy missing from many Bible students is because they do not know how to study their Bible, which means they do not do it well. Perhaps you dislike Bible study because you have not developed your study skills sufficiently to make your Bible study enjoyable. Maybe you have neglected your Bible study simply because you would rather be doing something else you enjoy.

How to Study by TorreyHOW TO STUDY: Study the Bible for the Greatest Profit [Updated and Expanded]

How can we find more enjoyment in studying the Bible? How can we make our study periods more productive? What circumstances contribute to effective personal study? How can we derive real benefit and pleasure from our Bible reading? From what activities can time be bought out for reading and studying the Bible? Why should we watch our spiritual feeding habits? What benefits come from reading and studying the Scriptures? There is a great and constantly growing interest in the study of the English Bible in these days. However, very much of the so-called study of the English Bible is unintelligent and not fitted to produce the most satisfactory results. The authors of this book already have a book entitled “HOW TO STUDY: Study the Bible for the Greatest Profit,” but that book is intended for those who are willing to buy out the time to put into thorough Bible study.

Deep Bible Study Cover_Torrey-1DEEP BIBLE STUDY: The Importance and Value of Proper Bible Study [Updated and Expanded]

Why is personal and family Bible study so important in our life now? How can we apply the Word of God in our lives? How can we use the Bible to help others? How can we effectively use the Scriptures when teaching others? How can we make decisions God’s way? How can Bible principles help us to decide wisely? Why should we have faith in God and his word? The Psalmist tells us, God’s Word “is a lamp to my foot, and a light for my path.” (Psalm 119:105) Since the Bible is a gift from God, the time and effort that we put into our personal Bible Study is a reflection of how much we appreciate that gift. What do our personal Bible study habits reveal about the depth of our appreciation of God’s Word? Certainly, the Bible is a deep and complex book, and reading and studying are not easy at times. However, with time and effort, we can develop a spiritual appetite for personal Bible study. (1 Peter 2:2)

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

Correctly interpreting the Bible is paramount to understanding the Word of God. As Christians, we do not want to read our 21st-century worldview INTO the Scriptures, but rather to takeOUT OF the Scriptures what the author meant by the words that he used. The guaranteed way of arriving a correct understanding of God’s Words is to have an accurate knowledge of the historical setting, cultural background, and of the people, governments, and religious leaders, as well as the place and time of the New Testament writings. Only with the background, setting, and context can you grasp the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has eloquently said, “It concerns Him who, being the holiest among the mighty, and the mightiest among the holy, lifted with His pierced hands empires off their hinges, turned the stream of centuries out of its channels, and still governs the ages.” …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of one of the greatest Christians who ever lived. …

The TRIAL and Death of Jesus_02THE TRIAL AND DEATH OF JESUS CHRIST: Jesus’ Final Ministry at Jerusalem [Updated and Expanded] 

With solid scholarship and exceptional clarity, beginning in Gethsemane, Stalker and Andrews examine Jesus’ trial and crucifixion. Their work is relevant, beneficial and enjoyable because they cover this historical period of Jesus’ life in an easy to understand format. Stalker’s expressive and persuasive style provides a great resource to any Bible study of the events leading to the death of Jesus Christ. THE TRIAL AND DEATH OF JESUS CHRIST is an academicish book written with a novelish style.

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzzword. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …

DEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in RevelationDEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in Revelation

church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelation begins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …

JOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK: Experience the Ministry of Jesus in a Spiritually Captivating WayJOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK

Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT The Christian Worldview

An Encouraging Thought elucidates the ways in which Tolkien’s The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are informed by and communicate a biblical worldview. This book will help readers appreciate the ways in which a biblical worldview informs Tolkien’s work, to the end that their own faith may be confirmed in strength, focused in understanding, deepened in joy, and honed in its ability to communicate the Gospel.

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Daily Devotionals

40 day devotional (1)40 DAYS DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS Coming-of-Age In Christ

If you’ve struggled in the world of difficulties that surround you, you’re not alone. Maybe you have looked for help, and you have been given conflicting answers. 40 DAYS DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS: Coming-of-Age In Christ, can help you. Its advice is based on answers that actually work, which are found in the Bible. God’s Word has helped billions over thousands of years to face life’s challenges successfully. Find out how it can help you! 40 DAYS DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS includes seven sections, with several chapters in each. It includes the following sections: Sexual Desires and Love, your friends, your family, school, recreation, your health. You need advice you can trust! 40 DAYS DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS will give you that. This author has worked with thousands of youths from around the world. The Bible-based sound advice helped them. Now you can discover how it can help you.

DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS: Growing Up In Christ

Young ones and teens, you are exposed to complex problems that your parents may not understand. Young Christians, you are bombarded with multiple options for solving everyday problems through social media. Where do you turn to find answers? Where can you look to find guidance from Scripture? In order to provide a Christian perspective to problem-solving, the author of this devotional book decided to take a different approach.

DEVOTIONAL FOR TRAGEDYDEVOTIONAL FOR THOSE COPING WITH TRAGEDY: A Journey Back to God

This devotional book follows the author’s own faith journey back to God. Significant life events can shake our world and distort our faith. Following life’s tragedies, a common reaction is to become angry with God or to reject Him altogether. Examples of tragedies or traumas include life-changing events such as physical or sexual assault, destruction of one’s home, the tragic death of a loved one, diagnoses of terminal diseases, divorce, miscarriages, or being a victim of a crime. Tragedies or traumas can cause feelings of anxiety, depression, shame, and guilt.

DEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERSDEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERS: Finding Strength Through Faith 

Throughout the book, common themes emerge to support caregivers. The reader will find interesting Bible Scriptures, offering a Christian perspective, for handling issues that may arise. These inspiring passages will assist the caregiver in finding peace and faith as they travel their journey as a caregiver. Although caregivers may not know how long they will play this role, they take on the responsibility without any question. Taking care of others is often mentioned in the Bible and, as noted in this devotional, this self-sacrificing, highly valued, and often challenging service will ultimately be rewarded.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL Daily Musings From the Old Testament

Humans must breathe in the air of our atmosphere to survive. Many cities because of pollution face a dangerous level of contamination in their air. However, an even more deadly air affects both Christians and nonChristians. Ordinary methods or devices cannot detect this poisonous air.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musing From the New Testament

Paul counseled, “Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth.” (Col. 3:2) It is, for this reason, Marshall has penned the DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musings From the New Testament, which can help us be protected against Satan’s efforts at controlling our mind and heart.  For each day of the year, DAILY DEVOTIONAL provides a Daily Bible Reading and comments for consideration.

BREAD OF HEAVEN: Daily Meditations on Scripture

BREAD OF HEAVEN helps the reader to have a greater understanding of the timeless truths of Scripture and a deeper appreciation of the grandeur of God. It offers meditations on selected Scriptures which will draw the reader’s attention upwards to the Savior.

Christian Fiction

Sentient-FrontTHE SENTIENT a Novel

A routine classified telepathic interrogation of a potential terrorist, followed by an assignment that doesn’t go as planned thrusts Tabatha – the world’s only telepathic human – into the public eye. The exposure leads an evil neuro-scientist requesting a meeting with her in hopes of luring her to his cause as well as unveiling a deadly creative work that has spanned three decades of research and development.

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] Lit slaughtered her slaughtering

[2] Illustration by Dylan Karges

[3] John H Walton, Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (Old Testament): The Minor Prophets, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, vol. 5 (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2009), 480.

[4] John H Walton, Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (Old Testament): The Minor Prophets, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, vol. 5 (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2009), 480.

[5] I.e. inexperienced

[6] I.e. lacking good sense

[7] I.e. inexperience

[8] Or unlettered (YLT) that is, not educated in the rabbinic schools; not meaning illiterate.

[9] Lit a blemish

[10] Lit make known to

[11] (cf. 1:29; 2:5; 9:10; 10:27; 14:26, 27; 15:16, 33; 16:6; 19:23; 22:4; 23:17)

[12] Leo G. Perdue, Wisdom & Creation: The Theology of Wisdom Literature (Nashville: Abingdon, 1994), p. 79.

[13] Lit simple; implying ignorance and has a difficulty in understanding

[14] I.e. lacking good sense

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