REASONABLE FAITH Why Me_ THE BOOK OF JAMES

Authored by Edward D. Andrews

Before beginning this commentary, it is highly recommended that you read the DIGGING DEEPER chapters at the end,* as they will enable the reader to understand better what lies ahead. If you do not, some comments may be difficult to comprehend. Focus on the articles in the red font but if you have the time read all of the DIGGING DEEPER.

These DIGGING DEEPER chapters are linked here below for your convenience.

The book of James is one of the easiest to read and most beneficial as to application in our Christian lives. James is an essential book for any Christian to read, as it contains within it, principles for Christian living and many practical applications that serve as expectations for the life of the Christian. James deals with a variety of topics throughout his letter to these Christians. In chapter one, James deals with issues such as trials, the nature of temptation, application of God’s word, and authentic religion. In chapter two James deals with matters such as favoritism, and what true saving faith looks like. In chapter three, James deals with the proper use of the tongue and danger of an uncontrolled tongue and heavenly wisdom compared with demonic wisdom. In chapter four James discusses issues of quarreling and fighting, repentance, speaking against one’s brother and making plans apart from God. Then, in chapter five James warns the rich against coming destruction and calls upon the Christian to be patient in light of their afflictions, and the ministry responsibilities of the spiritually sick person and elders they call upon. James throughout his letter often asks his audience questions to challenge their Christian walk and relationship with God.

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Authorship

James, who is the author of this book, is one of at least four James’ who is mentioned in the New Testament. The four are as follows:

  • James, who is the father of the apostle Judas (not Judas Iscariot) Lu 6:16; Ac 1:13
  • James, who is the Son of Zebedee; brother of John and one of the 12 apostles of Jesus Christ Matt 10:2
  • James was the son of Alphaeus, who was also another apostle of Jesus Christ. (Matt 10:2, 3; Mark 3:18; Lu 6:15; Ac 1:13) Some scholars believe that Alphaeus was the same person as Clopas. Therefore, James’ mother would have been Mary, which would be the same “Mary the mother of James the Less and Joses, and Salome.” (John 19:25; Mark 15:40; Matt 27:56) He might have been called “James the Less,” because he was younger or smaller physically than James, the son of Zebedee was. If these scholars are wrong; then, there are five James in the New Testament.
  • James, the son of Joseph and Mary, who was a half-brother of Jesus. (Mark 6:3; Gal. 1:19) He was not an apostle, but he was the overseer of the church at Jerusalem (Ac 12:17), as well as the author of the book bearing his name.

The author of our letter simply writes of himself as, “James, a slave[1] of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ.” (Jam 1:1) As we can see from our list of four in the above, Jesus had two apostles named James. (Matt 10:2-3) However, these are unlikely candidates as authors. One James, who was one of the 12 apostles, the son of Zebedee, was the first of the 12 to be martyred (Acts 12:2). He was executed about 44 C.E.[2] This is far too early of a date for the book of James to have been penned by James, the son of Zebedee. The other James, who was an apostle, the son of Alphaeus, was not that well known in the Bible record, so we do not know hardly anything about him. When we think of the James, who wrote the letter bearing his name, it is an outspoken person, who was crucial and influential in early Christianity. Moreover, being that there were two apostles named James, the son of Alphaeus, would have likely mentioned himself in some way to differentiate himself. The James of our book had no need to identify himself.

Therefore, the evidence points to the only actual prospect as the author of the book of James, the half-brother of Jesus, as he was well-known enough to go by “James.” The apostle Paul visited him (Gal. 1:18-19) and referred to as “the Lord’s brother” (v. 19). He was a “pillar” of the Jerusalem congregation (2:9). He presided over the Jerusalem council in Acts 15:13-19. Yes, this unbelieving half-brother of Jesus was moved by the resurrection and the special appearance from his brother, he became the most prominent James of the New Testament and could go by “James” alone. – Matthew 13:55; Acts 21:15-25; 1 Corinthians 15:7; Galatians 2:9.

Again, the author of our book identifies himself as “James, a slave of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ,” which is very similar to Jude and his letter, the other half-brother of Jesus Christ, who wrote, “Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ and brother of James.” (Jam. 1:1; Jude 1:1) Finally, the salutation to the book of James has the term “Greetings!” in the same way as the council in Jerusalem’s letter to Gentile believers.–Acts 15:13, 22, and 23.

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Historical Setting (Bible Background)

James does not give us much information about the historical context of which he is writing, but rather provides principles and imperatives for his readers. We know from James 1:1 that James is writing to Christians that have been scattered. This has been taken to refer to the scattering of Christians that took place after the stoning of Stephen (Acts 8:1). If this were the case, it could indicate that James is writing to believers that were undergoing persecution for their faith. James makes mention of how the Christians were being mistreated in that they were not being paid their wages by their laborers (James 5:1-6). James also writes to his readers that they are to remain patient in their suffering in light of the Lord’s return. (James 5:9-11) James mentions that the trials were various that these believers were enduring and not just limited to persecutions (James 1:2-4). Therefore, we know that James’ audience was going through trials in whatever capacity those might have been: whether physical persecution, financial oppression or whatever they may have been facing.

When James speaks of “the twelve tribes in the Dispersion,” he is not referring to the 12 tribes of literal Israel, i.e., the Jews, who made up Judaism, as being his “brothers” that were ‘holding the faith in our Lord Jesus Christ.’ (See James 1:2; 2:1, 5) Before Jesus’ execution, He made it clear that the 12 tribes of literal Israel had been rejected. He said, “the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people producing its fruits.” (Matt. 21:43) Who are these people that would produce fruit? It was “the Israel of God.” (Gal. 6:16) After Jesus’ ransom sacrifice, those who entered the Christian congregation were not Jews in a fleshly way but were the Israel of God in an inward way, a spiritual Israel, open to both Jew and Gentile. (Rom. 2:29; 4:16, 17; 9:6-8; Gal. 3:7, 29; 4:21-31; Phil. 3:3) These spiritual Israelites were dispersed throughout the then known world. “There arose on that day a great persecution against the church in Jerusalem, and they were all scattered throughout the regions of Judea and Samaria, except the apostles.” (Ac 8:1) So after that, through these scattered ones and the work of the evangelists, congregations were being started all through the Roman Empire. In fact, we find Peter using the same words as James, “the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia.” (1 Pet. 1:1) Therefore, Jews were living in dispersed nations at the times of James writing. Whatever the case, James letter is writing to Christians that were going through trials of many various kinds.

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Literary Form

James is written as an epistle since it is written to a particular group of scattered Christians. Throughout the letter of James, he provides these first-century believers with practical wisdom for their life and functions as the Proverbs of the New Testament. James writes as one who was very familiar with the Hebrew wisdom literature as he discusses such things as wisdom, wealth, and the usage of the tongue. James uses very clear, concise and direct statements to his readers that make it very understandable even for the modern reader. The use of the Greek language as used by James shows that he was familiar with the Greek culture and the language. Many modern scholars believe that the book of James is of the literary[3] Koine in regard to the level of Greek (common, conversational, literary). In addition, James also writes in a way that that shows he is very familiar with the words of Christ, in particular, the Sermon on the Mount.

James’ letter does not seem to focus on one particular topic, but rather he deals with a variety of specific issues to the first-century believers. James deals with the everyday realities that the first-century believers would have been dealing with in their Christian life. James at times is very direct, and to the point, while at other times he asks rhetorical questions and often uses illustrations from the Palestinian landscape and climate to make his points.  More than likely, this letter was written with the intent to be read publicly or at least among the believers.

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Theme

James throughout his letter seems to move rapidly to cover a variety of topics pertaining to these early Christians. James letter is not a large theological letter like Paul’s letter to the Romans. Rather James is very pinpointed and precise, jumping from one subject matter to another. James is very direct in dealing with the issues that were about these first century Christians and is concerned that they remain steadfast in the midst of their trials. James throughout his letter covers several different topics that would affect his audience.

  • Introduction (1:1)
  • Expectation of trials (1:2-4)
  • What to do when trials come (1:5-8)
  • Position of the man in trials (1:9-12)
  • Position of the man in trials (1:9-12)
  • Truth of temptation (1:13-15)
  • God the giver of good gifts (1:16-18)
  • Essential attitudes and behaviors (1:19-25)
  • True religion (1:26-27)
  • Warning against favoritism (2:1-13)
  • Faith without works is dead (2:14-20)
  • Faith justified by works (2:21-26)
  • Warning to teachers (3:1)
  • The uncontrolled tongue (3:1-12)
  • Proper understanding of wisdom (3:13-18)
  • Source of quarrels and conflicts (4:1-10)
  • Warning against oath taking (4:11-12)
  • Improper planning and boasting (4:13-17)
  • Judgment on the rich (5:1-6)
  • Call for patient endurance (5:7-11)
  • Reality of swearing (5:12)
  • Responsibility of the sick and elders (5:13-18)
  • Restoration of the strayed brother (5:19-20)

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Purpose

The fact that James refers to the Jewish Law would at first glance, seem to indicate that the audience for whom he was writing to was Jewish. James appears to write to those familiar with the Old Testament. James used Old Testament examples such as Abraham, Job, and Elijah, persons with which his audience would have been familiar. However, the ones James was primarily writing to are outside of Palestine (1:2; 2:1, 7; 5:7), and it has been almost 30 years since the death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ. In other words, many Gentiles have come into the Christian congregation, especially outside of Palestine. Because of regular reading from the Hebrew Old Testament, likely by way of the Septuagint, the Gentile Christians would have been aware of every Old Testament aspect in the book of James. When he said, “Was not Abraham our father” (2:21), it was similar to the way Paul expressed it at Galatians 3:28-29. There Paul was making the point that: one need not be a fleshly Jew, to be Abraham’s descendants.

Additionally, James does not mention much of the life, death, or resurrection of Christ in his letter. Therefore, his readers must have understood and have been familiar with Christ, and no explanation seems to have been necessary, as to the deity of Christ. Rather James gives his readers principles and ethical standards to abide by in their relationship with Christ, in light of the trials that they were facing.

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Canonicity and Authenticity

The letter of James is included in three very prominent manuscripts, the Vaticanus,[4] the Sinaiticus[5] and the Codex Alexandrinus[6] of the 4th and 5th centuries C.E. In addition, it was found in the Syriac Peshitta, as well as at least ten ancient catalogs before the Council of Carthage in 397 C.E. The early Church Fathers quoted from it, such as Origen (184-254 C.E.), Eusebius (260-340 C.E.), Cyril of Jerusalem (313-386 C.E.), Gregory Nazianzus (329-390 C.E.), Chrysostom (347-407 C.E.), and Jerome (340-420). In addition, some of the early Apologists and Apostolic Fathers used James in their writings, such as Clement of Rome (d. about 99 C.E.), Ignatius[7] of Antioch (35-107 C.E.), Polycarp[8] (69-155 C.E.) and Justin Martyr (100-165 C.E.).

REASONABLE FAITH Why Me_ FEARLESS-1

Place and Date of Writing

The first-century Jewish historian records that James, Jesus’ half-brother, was martyred by being stoned to death, with the High Priest Ananus (Ananias), a Sadducee, being responsible. This took place after the death of the Roman governor Festus, about 62 C.E., yet before his successor, Albinus, took office. Josephus writes,

(197) And now Caesar, upon hearing the death of Festus, sent Albinus into Judea, as procurator; but the king deprived Joseph of the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to that dignity on the son of Ananus, who was also himself called Ananus. (198) Now the report goes, that this elder Ananus proved a most fortunate man; for he had five sons, who had all performed the office of a high priest to God, and he had himself enjoyed that dignity a long time formerly, which had never happened to any other of our high priests: (199) but this younger Ananus, who, as we have told you already, took the high priesthood, was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees,[9] who are very rigid in judging offenders, above all the rest of the Jews, as we have already observed; (200) when, therefore, Ananus was of this disposition, he thought he had now a proper opportunity [to exercise his authority]. Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the Sanhedrin of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, [or, some of his companions]; and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned.[10]

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This brings us to the question of, just when did James pen his letter? Well, he addressed the letter from Jerusalem “to the twelve tribes in the Dispersion.” (James 1:1) The dispersion took place around 50 C.E. We must consider that Christianity did not get its start until the ascension of Jesus Christ in 33 C.E., and it would have taken time to spread out to the dispersion that James speaks of, which came about by the work of Paul and others. Not only would this scattering out, and growth needs to take place, but then the time to develop the problems that James speaks of in his letter. The letter shows that Christianity has progressed to the point of no longer being in small groups, but rather in congregations, with elders (overseers) taking the lead among them. Enough time has passed that these congregations have grown complacent and were just going through the motions, an outward appearance of religious worship. (James 2:1-4; 4:1-3; 5:14; 1:26, 27) Therefore, James likely wrote his letter just before his death, say between 60-62 C.E.

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Agabus is a mysterious prophetic figure that appears only twice in the book of Acts. Though his role is minor, he is a significant figure in a great debate between cessationists and continualists. On one side are those who believe that the gift of prophecy is on par with the inspired Scriptures, infallible, and has ceased. On the other side are those who define it as fallible and non-revelatory speech that continues today in the life of the church. Proponents of both camps attempt to claim …

WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIEWHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIE?: Should You Be Afraid of Death or of People Who Have Died?

People grow old, get sick, and die. Even some children die. Should you be afraid of death or of anybody who has died? Do you know what happens if we die? Will you ever see your dead loved ones again? “If a man dies, shall he live again?” asked the man Job long ago. (Job 14:14) Did God originally intend for humans to die? Why do you grow old and die? What is the Bible’s viewpoint of death? What is the condition of the dead? Are the dead aware of what is happening around them? What hope is there for the dead?

UNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of ViewUNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of View

Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the BasicsBIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the Basics

Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses: Examining the History of the Watchtower Translation and the Latest Revision

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses is going to challenge your objectivity. Being objective means that personal feelings or opinions do not influence you in considering and representing facts. Being subjective means that your understanding is based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or ideas. If the reader finds these insights offense, it might be a little mind control at work from years of being told the same misinformation repeatedly, so ponder things objectively …

REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES: Sharing CHRIST as You Help Others to Learn about the Mighty works of God

Use of REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES should help you to cultivate the ability to reason from the Scriptures and to use them effectively in assisting others to learn about “the mighty works of God.” – Acts 2:11. If Christians are going to be capable, powerful, efficient teachers of God’s Word, we must not only pay attention to what we tell those who are interested but also how we tell them. Yes, we must focus our attention on…

REASONING WITH THE WORLD’S VARIOUS RELIGIONS: Examining and Evangelizing Other Faiths

God’s will is that “all sorts of men should be saved and come to an accurate knowledge of truth.” (1 Tim. 2:4) God has assigned all Christians the task of proclaiming the Word of God, teaching, to make disciples. (Matt. 24:15; 28:19-20: Ac 1;8 That includes men and women who profess a non-Christian religion, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam to mention just a few. If there are Hindus, Buddhist or Muslims are in your community, why not initiate a conversation with them? Christians who take the Great Commission seriously cannot afford to ignore these religions…

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

FLEECING THE FLOCK_03FLEECING THE FLOCK: Setting the People of God Free From the Lies of Tithing

Evangelist Norman Robertson claims that “Tithing is God’s way of financing His kingdom on the earth.” He asserts that “It is His system of economics which enables the Gospel to be preached.” Not bashful about telling his followers of their duty to give, he flatly states: ‘Tithing isn’t something you do because you can afford it. It is an act of obedience. Not tithing is a clear violation of God’s commandments. It is embezzlement.’ Most likely you accept that giving should be part of Christian worship. However, …

Deception In the ChurchDECEPTION IN THE CHURCH: Does It Matter How You Worship?

DECEPTION IN THE CHURCH by Fred DeRuvo asks Does It Matter How You Worship? There are 41,000 different denominations that call themselves “Christian” and all would claim that they are the truth. Can just any Christian denomination please God? Can all be true or genuine Christianity if they all have different views on the same Bible doctrines? DeRuvo will answer. He will focus on the largest part of Christianity that has many different denominations, the charismatic, ecstatic Signs and Wonders Movements. These ecstatic worshipers claim … DeRuvo will answer all these questions and more according to the truth of God’s Word.—John 8:31-32; 17:17.

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …

DEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in RevelationDEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in Revelation

church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …

JOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK: Experience the Ministry of Jesus in a Spiritually Captivating WayJOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK

Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT The Christian Worldview

An Encouraging Thought elucidates the ways in which Tolkien’s The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are informed by and communicate a biblical worldview. This book will help readers appreciate the ways in which a biblical worldview informs Tolkien’s work, to the end that their own faith may be confirmed in strength, focused in understanding, deepened in joy, and honed in its ability to communicate the Gospel.

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Daily Devotionals

DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS: Growing Up In Christ

Young ones and teens, you are exposed to complex problems that your parents may not understand. Young Christians, you are bombarded with multiple options for solving everyday problems through social media. Where do you turn to find answers? Where can you look to find guidance from Scripture? In order to provide a Christian perspective to problem-solving, the author of this devotional book decided to take a different approach.

DEVOTIONAL FOR TRAGEDYDEVOTIONAL FOR THOSE COPING WITH TRAGEDY: A Journey Back to God

This devotional book follows the author’s own faith journey back to God. Significant life events can shake our world and distort our faith. Following life’s tragedies, a common reaction is to become angry with God or to reject Him altogether. Examples of tragedies or traumas include life-changing events such as physical or sexual assault, destruction of one’s home, the tragic death of a loved one, diagnoses of terminal diseases, divorce, miscarriages, or being a victim of a crime. Tragedies or traumas can cause feelings of anxiety, depression, shame, and guilt.

DEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERSDEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERS: Finding Strength Through Faith 

Throughout the book, common themes emerge to support caregivers. The reader will find interesting Bible Scriptures, offering a Christian perspective, for handling issues that may arise. These inspiring passages will assist the caregiver in finding peace and faith as they travel their journey as a caregiver. Although caregivers may not know how long they will play this role, they take on the responsibility without any question. Taking care of others is often mentioned in the Bible and, as noted in this devotional, this self-sacrificing, highly valued, and often challenging service will ultimately be rewarded.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL Daily Musings From the Old Testament

Humans must breathe in the air of our atmosphere to survive. Many cities because of pollution face a dangerous level of contamination in their air. However, an even more deadly air affects both Christians and nonChristians. Ordinary methods or devices cannot detect this poisonous air.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musing From the New Testament

Paul counseled, “Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth.” (Col. 3:2) It is, for this reason, Marshall has penned the DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musings From the New Testament, which can help us be protected against Satan’s efforts at controlling our mind and heart.  For each day of the year, DAILY DEVOTIONAL provides a Daily Bible Reading and comments for consideration.

BREAD OF HEAVEN: Daily Meditations on Scripture

BREAD OF HEAVEN helps the reader to have a greater understanding of the timeless truths of Scripture and a deeper appreciation of the grandeur of God. It offers meditations on selected Scriptures which will draw the reader’s attention upwards to the Savior.

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE SECRET HIDEAWAYTHE SECRET HIDEAWAY ON BRIDGETON HILL

Rachael Garrison knows all the shrewd ways to successfully close multi-million-dollar real estate deals with her father’s famous New York real estate enterprise. But beyond her savvy to rake in huge deals is her premonition that an impending global takeover of the world’s financial wealth is on the horizon by evil leaders of The Great Ten Nations. From New York City to the Irish Hills of Michigan, and into the streets of Detroit her life takes on enormous purpose as

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] Or servant

[2] In this publication, instead of the traditional “A.D.” and “B.C.,” the more accurate “C.E.” (Common Era) and “B.C.E.” (before the Common Era) are used.

[3] Literary Koine is scholarly writing, i.e., professional writing.

[4] The Codex Vaticanus is one of the oldest and most valuable extant manuscripts of the Greek Bible (Gregory number: B/03).

[5] The Sinaiticus or the “Sinai Bible” is one of the four great uncial codices, an ancient, handwritten copy of the Greek Bible.

[6] Codex Alexandrinus is a 5th-century manuscript of the Greek Bible, containing the majority of the Septuagint and the New Testament. It is one of the four Great uncial [i.e., written in all caps] codices.

[7] Ignatius was a student of the apostle John.

[8] Polycarp was a student of the apostle John. Irenaeus relates that Polycarp “was not only instructed by apostles, and had intercourse with many who had seen Christ, but was also appointed for Asia by apostles, in the church that is in Smyrna an overseer.”–A Critical History of Christian Literature and Doctrine by James Donaldson (p. 155, 2009)

[9] It hence evidently appears that Sadducees might be high priests in the days of Josephus, and that these Sadducees were usually very severe and inexorable judges, while the Pharisees were much milder, and more merciful, as appears by Reland’s instances in his note on this place, and on Josephus’s Life 34, and those taken from the New Testament, from Josephus himself, and from the rabbis; nor do we meet with any Sadducees later than this high priest in all Josephus.

[10] Jewish Antiquities, XX, 197-200 (ix, 1); Webster’s New Biographical Dictionary, 1983, page 350.

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