Exodus 4:21 BDC: Did God Harden Pharaoh’s Heart?

How to Interpret the Bible-1

Exodus 4:21 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

21 Jehovah said to Moses, “When you go and return to Egypt see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in your hand; but I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.

APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot

The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

Exodus mentions that a heart is hardened or unbending 19 times. In the list below, each of the situations is listed, along with the Hebrew verb used and the subject of that verb. At times the text states that the heart itself grows hard, while in other instances, there is an agent— Jehovah or Pharaoh—who does the hardening.

Reference Verb Subject
4:21 zq Jehovah
7:3 qšh Jehovah
7:13 zq heart
7:14 kbd heart
7:22 zq heart
8:15 kbd Pharaoh
8:19 zq heart
8:32 kbd Pharaoh
9:7 kbd heart
9:12 zq Jehovah
9:34 kbd heart
9:35 zq heart
10:1 kbd Jehovah
10:20 zq Jehovah
10:27 zq Jehovah
11:10 zq Jehovah
14:4 zq Jehovah
14:8 zq Jehovah
14:17 zq Jehovah
Mosaic Authorship HOW RELIABLE ARE THE GOSPELS

It should be noted, Jehovah is the subject of kbd only once (10:1); all of the other times it is the heart of Pharaoh or Pharaoh himself

Jehovah God had to bring ten plagues on the land of Egypt. With each plague, the Pharaoh hardened his heart, and this allowed the people to see the great power of the real God. (Ex 7:3-5, 14–11:10) Throughout the process, many Egyptians had seen, who the true God of heaven and earth is, and that he deserves obedience. For instance, the seventh plague of hail was announced, and many Egyptians made sure their livestock was under shelter; thus they exercised faith in the Israelite God. (Ex 9:20, 21) Even in the end, when Pharaoh finally released the Israelites, he hardened his heart yet again, coming after the Israelites with his army. (Ex 14:8, 9; 15:9) However, he met destruction along with his army in the Red Sea, drawing even more attention to the great power of Jehovah God. (Ex 14:27, 28; Ps 136:15) This event promoted God’s name and reputation for decades throughout the land, as to what Jehovah did when the Pharaoh hardened his heart against Him.—Ex 18:10, 11; Jos 2:10, 11; 9:9; 1Sa 6:6.

Since God gives the people advance warnings, it could never be His fault, if they choose to become stubborn. Having said that, now let us look at what the Scriptures really say:

Exodus 7:13 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

13 And Pharaoh’s heart was hardened,[1] and he would not listen to them, as Jehovah had said.

We see that Pharaoh’s heart grew hard because he would not listen.

Exodus 8:15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was a relief, he hardened[2] his heart and would not listen to them, as Jehovah had said.

Exodus 4:21 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

21 Jehovah said to Moses, “When you go and return to Egypt see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in your hand; but I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.

This is really prophetic in that God is saying what will happen as the result of His actions. In other words, it is spoken of as though God did something because his actions are what brought about the outcome that He knew would come.

DEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP Agabus Cover BIBLICAL CRITICISM

God does not harden hearts against people’s free will, but he does tell us what to expect, and if we stubbornly ignore that loving insight, he did harden our heart by his actions, but it came about because of our stubbornness. In support of the above, the appendix to Rotherham’s translation shows that in Hebrew the occasion or permission of an event is often presented as if it were the cause of the event and that “even positive commands are occasionally to be accepted as meaning no more than permission.” After quoting Hebrew scholars M. M. Kalisch, H. F. W. Gesenius, and B. Davies in support, Rotherham states that the Hebrew sense of the texts involving Pharaoh is that “God permitted Pharaoh to harden his own heart, spared him, gave him the opportunity, the occasion, of working out the wickedness that was in him. That is all.”—The Emphasized Bible, appendix, p. 919; compare Isa 10:5-7.

[1] Lit strong

[2] Lit made heavy

SCROLL THROUGH DIFFERENT CATEGORIES BELOW

BIBLE TRANSLATION AND TEXTUAL CRITICISM

The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2
The Reading Culture of Early Christianity From Spoken Words to Sacred Texts 400,000 Textual Variants 02
The P52 PROJECT 4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUS
APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot APOSTOLIC FATHERS
English Bible Versions King James Bible KING JAMES BIBLE II
9781949586121 THE NEW TESTAMENT DOCUMENTS
APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot

BIBLICAL STUDIES / INTERPRETATION

How to Interpret the Bible-1
how-to-study-your-bible1
israel against all odds ISRAEL AGAINST ALL ODDS - Vol. II

EARLY CHRISTIANITY

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST by Stalker-1 The TRIAL and Death of Jesus_02 THE LIFE OF Paul by Stalker-1
PAUL AND LUKE ON TRIAL
APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot APOSTOLIC FATHERS I AM John 8.58

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM

The Epistle to the Hebrews
REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES APOLOGETICS
AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT_01
Young Christians
INVESTIGATING JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation
Jesus Paul THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK
REASONING WITH OTHER RELIGIONS APOLOGETICS
APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot
REASONABLE FAITH FEARLESS-1
Satan BLESSED IN SATAN'S WORLD_02 HEROES OF FAITH - ABEL
is-the-quran-the-word-of-god UNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM THE GUIDE TO ANSWERING ISLAM.png
DEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP Agabus Cover BIBLICAL CRITICISM
Mosaic Authorship HOW RELIABLE ARE THE GOSPELS
THE CREATION DAYS OF GENESIS gift of prophecy

TECHNOLOGY

9798623463753 Machinehead KILLER COMPUTERS
INTO THE VOID

CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY

Why Me_ Explaining the Doctrine of the Last Things Understaning Creation Account
Homosexuality and the Christian second coming Cover Where Are the Dead
CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY Vol. CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY Vol. II CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY Vol. III
CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY Vol. IV CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY Vol. V MIRACLES
Human Imperfection HUMILITY

CHILDREN’S BOOKS

READ ALONG WITH ME READ ALONG WITH ME READ ALONG WITH ME

PRAYER

Powerful Weapon of Prayer Power Through Prayer How to Pray_Torrey_Half Cover-1

TEENS-YOUTH-ADOLESCENCE-JUVENILE

THERE IS A REBEL IN THE HOUSE thirteen-reasons-to-keep-living_021 Waging War - Heather Freeman
Young Christians DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS 40 day devotional (1)
Homosexuality and the Christian THE OUTSIDER RENEW YOUR MIND

CHRISTIAN LIVING

GODLY WISDOM SPEAKS Wives_02 HUSBANDS - Love Your Wives
WALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD THE BATTLE FOR THE CHRISTIAN MIND (1)-1
ADULTERY 9781949586053 PROMISES OF GODS GUIDANCE
APPLYING GODS WORD-1 For As I Think In My Heart_2nd Edition Put Off the Old Person
Abortion Booklet Dying to Kill The Pilgrim’s Progress
WHY DON'T YOU BELIEVE WAITING ON GOD WORKING FOR GOD
YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE Let God Use You to Solve Your PROBLEMS THE POWER OF GOD
HOW TO OVERCOME YOUR BAD HABITS-1 GOD WILL GET YOU THROUGH THIS A Dangerous Journey
ARTS, MEDIA, AND CULTURE Christians and Government Christians and Economics

CHRISTIAN COMMENTARIES

CHRISTIAN DEVOTIONALS
40 day devotional (1) Daily Devotional_NT_TM Daily_OT
DEVOTIONAL FOR CAREGIVERS DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS DEVOTIONAL FOR TRAGEDY
DEVOTIONAL FOR YOUTHS 40 day devotional (1)

CHURCH HEALTH, GROWTH, AND HISTORY

LEARN TO DISCERN Deception In the Church FLEECING THE FLOCK_03
The Church Community_02 THE CHURCH CURE Developing Healthy Churches
FIRST TIMOTHY 2.12 EARLY CHRISTIANITY-1

Apocalyptic-Eschatology [End Times]

Explaining the Doctrine of the Last Things Identifying the AntiChrist second coming Cover
ANGELS AMERICA IN BIBLE PROPHECY_ ezekiel, daniel, & revelation

CHRISTIAN FICTION

Oren Natas_JPEG Sentient-Front Seekers and Deceivers
Judas Diary 02 Journey PNG The Rapture

One thought on “Exodus 4:21 BDC: Did God Harden Pharaoh’s Heart?

Add yours

Leave a Reply

Powered by WordPress.com.

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: