Ephesians 4:24 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

24 and put on the new man,[1] the one created according to the likeness of God in righteousness and loyalty of the truth.

This means, we are to allow the new self to govern our activities. We are to begin living the lifestyle that corresponds to who we have become in Christ. This new holy self, shows we are maturing, growing in unity with the body, and doing our part of the body’s work.[2]

God is “the Father of lights,” and “there is no darkness in him at all.” (James 1:17; 1 John 1:5) The Son said of himself, “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.” (John 8:12) Christian worshipers of the Father and the Son have the illumination: mentally, emotionally, morally, and spiritually, as “they shine as lights in the world.” (Phil 2:15) Jesus said to his followers in the Sermon on the Mount, “Let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven.” (Matt. 5:16) Jesus also said,

John 3:19-21 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

19 And this is the judgment: that the light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light, because their works were wicked. 20 For the one who practices wicked things hates the light and does not come to the light, so that his works may not be exposed. 21 But the one who practices the truth comes to the light, in order that his works may be revealed that they are accomplished in God.

Some 2,700 years ago, the Prophet Isaiah gave this coming contrast,

Isaiah 60:2 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

For, behold, darkness shall cover the earth and thick darkness the peoples; but Jehovah will arise upon you, and his glory will be seen upon you.

Some 700 years later, the apostle Paul spoke of the condition of all humanity, who is alienated from God,

Ephesians 6:12 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

12 For our struggle[3] is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the powers, against the world-rulers of this darkness, against the wicked spirit forces in the heavenly places.

“The reason this spiritual armor is needed is that our struggle is not against flesh and blood. The picture of warfare here implies that we do not face a physical army. We face a spiritual army. Therefore our weapons must be spiritual.” This list “seems to suggest a hierarchy of evil spirit-beings who do the bidding of Satan in opposing the will of God on earth.”[4] Paul was very concerned about this darkness outside of God’s sovereignty, exhorting Christians on how they were to remain free from such darkness,

Ephesians 4:17 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

17 This, therefore, and testify in the Lord, that you no longer walk as the Gentiles also walk, in the futility of their mind.

Ephesians 5:8 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

for you were formerly darkness, but now you are light in the Lord; walk as children of light

Here in 4:17, Paul speaks of “the futility of their mind.” What did he mean? According to The Anchor Bible, it “implies emptiness, idleness, vanity, foolishness, purposelessness, and frustration.” What Paul wanted his first century readers of Ephesus to realize, the fame and glory of the Greek culture and Roman Empire, may have seemed striking, remarkable and extraordinary, but to pursue them was ‘empty, vanity, foolish, and purposeless.’ This mindset was merely immediate gratification, a showy display of one’s life, which would end in frustration and regret. This was true of that ancient world, how much more so of the narcissistic world of today. In Ephesians 5:8, Paul helps his readers to appreciate that they were freed from the darkness of this world; therefore, they were/are obligated to “walk as children of light.”

Come to Know Jesus Christ

Paul goes on to describe the unclean world of his day, as well as the worthless pursuits, before returning to the Ephesian Christians.

Ephesians 4:20-21 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

20 But you did not learn Christ in this way, 21 if indeed you have heard him and have been taught in him, just as truth is in Jesus

The apostle had spent close to three years in the city of Ephesus, preaching and teaching. Therefore, he would have known many in the Ephesian congregation. (Acts 20:31-35) Thus, when he said, “that is not the way you learned Christ,” he evidenced just how well he knew the Ephesian Christians, that they had not be taught some lenient, diluted, wishy-washy truth that would condone the types of serious wrongdoing that he had described in 4:17-19. He knew that they had been given an accurate knowledge of the real Christian way of life, which was exemplified by Jesus Christ. As a result, the Ephesians no longer walked in the darkness of the Roman world that surrounded them. Rather, they ‘walked as children of light.’

Considering verses 20-21 of chapter 4, we notice that Paul implied a study process of sorts, with his expressions: ‘to ‘learn,’ ‘to hear’ and ‘to be taught.’ Of course, we cannot learn from Jesus directly, like those throughout his three and half year ministry. However, we can “learn Christ” through the Word of God, and the many helpful study tools that are available to us today. Yet, this is only possible, if we buy out the time for diligent personal Bible study at home, and take the time to prepare for Christian meetings. Moreover, we need to put faith in the things that we learn, which is evidence by our putting them into our daily lives. Then, we can honestly say, that we “have heard about him and were taught in him.”

Note too after the study process, Paul said, “As the truth is in Jesus.” We should observe that Paul hardly ever uses the personal name Jesus in his writings, without also using Christ or just Christ alone. In other words, he says either Jesus Christ, or Christ. In fact, out of 47 references to Jesus Christ in the book of Ephesians, this is the only time that he uses Jesus by itself. Generally, a reference to the personal name Jesus alone is to the person of Jesus, his human side, while a reference to Christ alone is a reference to his office, the anointed one. Jesus had said of him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life.” (John 14:6) Paul elsewhere tells us that in Jesus “are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.” Jesus did not say, ‘I am the teacher of the truth,’ but rather “I am … the truth.” He was the greatest teacher who ever lived, but he also lived the truth and was the epitome of the truth, i.e., was the embodiment of the truth, the personification of the truth. Therefore, being a true Christian is not just having a head full of knowledge and wisdom, but it is also a way of life, the essence of who we are. When we “learn Christ,” this means that we pattern ourselves after him, imitating him, following in his steps closely, by living the truth. Paul helps us to appreciate how we can “learn Christ” and “walk as children of light, as he went on to say,

Take Off the Old Man

Ephesians 4:22-24 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

22 that you take off, according to your former way of life, the old man, who is being destroyed according to deceitful desires,23 and to be renewed in the spirit of your minds, 24 and put on the new man,[5] the one created according to the likeness of God in righteousness and loyalty of the truth.

The often-used metaphorical image of ‘putting off’ and ‘putting on’ reminds us of taking of and putting on an article of clothes. (Rom. 13:12, 14; Eph. 6:11-17; Col. 3:8-12; 1 Thess. 5:8) If we carry the metaphor a little further, the article of clothing is taken off once it has been soiled, and a new article of clothing is put on. If we are out eating and spill some soup down the front of our shirt, we rush to change it. Certainly, our spirituality is far more critical than an article of clothing.

How does one go about taking off that old person? If we look at the Greek verb behind “put off,” we will notice that it is in the aorist tense. The aspect[6] of the aorist is like that of a snapshot photo, while other verbs, such as the present and the imperfect, are more like an ongoing movie. Buist Fanning describes aspect in this way: “The action can be viewed from a reference-point within the action, without reference to the beginning or end-point of the action, but with a focus instead on its internal structure or make-up. Or the action can be viewed from a vantage-point outside the action, with focus on the whole action from beginning to end, but without reference to its internal structure.”[7]

The “aorist aspect was used when the Greek writer didn’t want you to pay any attention to the duration or the completion of the action. … The action itself could have taken years, but that’s not the point.” (Black 1998, 96) The action here of ‘putting off” the old person is a onetime snapshot, or ‘once and for all.’ ‘The old person, as well as our former manner of life,’ must be removed with a certain and conclusive action, carefully and completely. In other words, this is not something we can simply consider, dither or even waver. Why?

The expression “being corrupted” is evidence that “the old self” is in a constant and progressive decline into a moral ruination, continuously deteriorating. Yes, as we subtly feed the desires of the flesh, our moral compass that God gave us is weakened, until it no longer warns of the wrongs that we practice. Yes, they become our new norms. Those of humanity who reject the Word of God will continue in this not caring about good behavior or morals, i.e., downward spiral. They will believe that they do have values, moral and good behavior, but this is because they have ruined their moral compass and are unable to recognize the difference between good and bad. These have “become hardened by the deception of sin.” (Hebrews 3:13) This is what is known as innocent appearing situations, where they place themselves in harm’s way spiritually, not even realizing the dangers, like an animal that is boiled alive, because the heat is turned up so slow, they do not realize. If we allow ourselves to ignore the Scriptures, the path is the same for us as well. The end of those things is death.”–Romans 6:21

Romans 8:13 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

13 for if you are living according to the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.

Paul begins by saying that believers are under obligation—but not to the sinful nature. Rather, our obligation is to the Spirit. The believer is indwelled by the Spirit; the believer’s spirit has been regenerated by the Spirit; and the believer’s body will be resurrected from the dead by the Spirit. That puts the believer under an obligation to put to death the misdeeds of the body. What believer, understanding the implications of the presence of the Spirit that Paul has just enumerated, could feel the slightest freedom to indulge the sinful desires of the flesh? We are under a holy obligation. And if we do not put to death the misdeeds of the body? It is a sign that no obligation to do so is felt, which is a sign of the lack of the presence of the Spirit, which is a sign that you will die. (Boa and Kruidenier 2000, p. 254)

Be Renewed in the Spirit of Your Mind

If we have gotten our clothes soiled with dirt, grease and sweat while, at work, we do not just come home and take off our clothes, and put on clean clothes. No, we take a shower, cleaning our body thoroughly before we put on clean clothes.[8] This is what Paul makes clear in the second half of his spiritual illumination, saying, ‘be renewed in the spirit of our mind. (Eph. 4:23) Back in verses 17-18 of this chapter Paul said that the worldly were ‘walking in the futility of their mind,’ “being darkened in understanding.” The mind is the center of consciousness that generates thoughts, feelings, ideas, and perceptions, and stores knowledge and memories. This is what must be renewed. How does this renewal process work?

“According to Ephesians 4:23, the sphere in which the renewal takes place is ‘the spirit of your mind,’ an unusual expression which has no analogy in the rest of ancient Greek literature. Many regard the phrase as a reference to the Holy Spirit and render the verse, ‘Be renewed by the Spirit in your mind’. No, this is not the case, the phrase “renewed in the spirit of your mind,” literally reads, “to be renewed in the spirit of the mind of you.” (Marshall 1993, p. 768-9) Nowhere in Scripture is the Holy Spirit spoken of as belonging to humans, or as a part of a human. Here the meaning is “a person’s emotional dispositions considered collectively and understood by the seat of emotional faculties, the soul; especially as positively or negatively disposed toward God.” (Boisen, et al. 2014) In other words, the inclination causes a person to exhibit a particular attitude, outlook, or feeling or to act in a certain way or follow a certain course. Therefore, the “spirit of the mind” is the force that sets our mind into motion, i.e., our inclinations, predisposition, leanings, likings, or dispositions.

Because of human imperfection, the “spirit of the mind” or the force that sets our mind into motion is toward the desires of his or her imperfect flesh. (Eccl. 7:20; 1 Cor. 2:14; Col. 1:21; 2:18) Some Christians have taken of the old person, and have given up their former bad practices, but have not overcome their sinful mental inclinations, predisposition, leanings, likings, or dispositions. This means, they will eventually return to those bad practices if their mental inclinations go unchanged. An example would be those who have given up smoking or abusing alcohol or drugs. If they have not made any effort toward being made new in the force that sets their mind into motion, they will eventually return to their former ways. If there is to be real change, they must ‘be transformed by the renewal of their mind.’–Romans 12:2

Do we play a role in making the force that sets our mind into motion new, so that our inclinations, predisposition, leanings, likings, or dispositions are toward good? The Greek verb ananeousthai (to be renewed) is in the present tense, which is expressing continuous action.[9] What continuous action is needed? We need to have a personal Bible study program, as well as a family Bible study if we have a family. This study needs to be more involved than just surface reading of the Bible. We also need to be preparing for each Christian meeting, so that we can fully participate. What does this accomplish? It is by our taking in this knowledge, which is inspired by God (2 Tim. 3:16), generated by the Holy Spirit (2 Pet. 1:21), and is brought back to our minds by the Holy Spirit. Let us take a quick look at the science of how memories are stored in our brain.

How Memories are Stored in the Brain

Researchers have been able to trace memory down to the structural and even the molecular level in recent years, showing that memories are stored throughout many brain structures in the connections between neurons, and can even depend on a single molecule for their long-term stability.

The brain stores memories in two ways. Short-term memories like a possible chess move, or a hotel room number are processed in the front of the brain in a highly developed area called the pre-frontal lobe, according to McGill University and the Canadian Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction.

Short-term recollection is translated into long-term memory in the hippocampus, an area in the deeper brain. According to McGills, the hippocampus takes simultaneous memories from different sensory regions of the brain and connects them into a single “episode” of memory, for example, you may have one memory of a dinner party rather than multiple separate memories of how the party looked, sounded, and smelled.

According to McGill, as memories are played through the hippocampus, the connections between neurons associated with a memory eventually become a fixed combination, so that if you hear a piece of music for example, you are likely to be flooded with other memories you associate with a certain episode where you heard that same music.[10]

In some ways, a memory implanted in our brain is like writing on the hard drive of our computer (i.e., storing and retrieving digital information), which is relatively permanent. The reason we run the disk defragmenter is to keep the information in its proper place. As we work with our computer throughout the day, it is like taking books off the shelf at the library, and then putting in back in the wrong place. At the end of the day, the librarian is tasked with putting them back in the right place. Our disk defragmenter accomplishes the same thing, so the information can be found faster. When the memory is created in our brain, it leaves an imprint, which is accessed faster and faster each time that it is used. If the information that is stored is the Bible and Bible study tools, it will begin to create new patterns of thinking within us. Within our brain lies our worldview. A worldview is a comprehensive and usually personal conception or view of humanity, the world, or life.

Everything from the day that we were born plays a role in developing our worldview. Such things that develop our worldview are life experiences, parents, teachers, news media, entertainment, work experiences, politics, as well as our religious experiences. Literally, everything that enters our minds develops our worldview. Therefore, as we take in spiritual food, we are developing our biblical worldview, developing a new pattern of thinking, i.e., we are renewing in the spirit of our mind. Now, if we barely fed on the Word of God, we would have a very weak biblical mindset, just as we would have a very weak body if we barely ate food. In addition, if we ate nothing but junk food, we would not have a healthy body. Additionally, if we ate foods that were harmful to our body (allergic), it could kill us. Therefore, if we take in junk food type information or harmful information into our brain, it could affect our spiritual health even causing spiritual shipwreck.–Philippians 4:8

Put On the New Man

Ephesians 4:24 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

24 and put on the new man, the one created according to the likeness of God in righteousness and loyalty of the truth.

We take off the old man; clean ourselves up from the practicing of any sin, renewing the spirit of our mind, putting on the new man. This “new” man is not a new version of us, it is a completely new us, “in accordance with God.” Paul told the Colossians, “put on the new man that is being renewed in knowledge according to the image of the one who created him.” (3:10, LEB) How does this completely new man come about?

Adam and Eve were created in the image of God (Gen. 1:26-27), meaning that they possessed a perfect moral compass and spiritual qualities, which imperfect humans still possess to a degree. Once we accept Jesus Christ, to the point of complete trust in his ransom sacrifice, we will take off the old man, and we “will be set free from its bondage to corruption and obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God.” (Rom 8:19-21) If we truly ‘belong to Christ Jesus we will have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires.’–Galatians 5:24

Romans 6:6 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

knowing this, that our old man was crucified together with him, in order that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be slaves to sin

Created in Righteousness and Holiness from the Truth

Colossians 3:1-17 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

Put On the New Person

3 If then you have been raised up with Christ, keep seeking the things above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth. For you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. When Christ, who is our life, is revealed, then you also will be revealed with Him in glory.

Take Off the Old Person and Put On the New Person

Deaden, therefore, your members on the earth: sexual immorality,[11] uncleanness, lustful passion,[12] evil desire, and greediness, which is idolatry. On account of these the wrath of God is coming [upon the sons of disobedience],[13] and you once walked in these things when you were living in them. But now you must put them all away: anger, wrath, malice, slander, and obscene talk from your mouth. Do not lie to one another, seeing that you have put off the old man[14] with its practices 10 and have put on the new man[15] who is being renewed through accurate knowledge[16] according to the image of the one who created him, 11 where there is not Greek and Jew, circumcised and uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave, free; but Christ is all, and in all.

Seek New Behavior

12 Therefore, put on as God’s chosen ones, holy and beloved, a heart of compassion, kindness, humility, meekness, and patience, 13 putting up with one another and forgiving one another. If anyone should have a complaint against another, forgiving each other; as the Lord has forgiven you, so you also must forgive. 14 And above all these things put on love, which is a perfect bond of union.

15 And let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts,[17] to which also[18] you were called in one body. And be thankful.[19] 16 Let the word of Christ[20] dwell in you richly, in[21] all wisdom teaching and admonishing[22] one another with psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts unto God. 17 And whatever you do, in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him.

Put Sin to Death (3:5–11)

Paul exhorted the Colossians to put to death whatever belonged to their “earthly nature” (3:5). This suggests that they had not been living consistently with the principle of a spiritual death and resurrection in their conversion. Some think it is only coincidental that Paul listed five vices in 3:5 and five more in 3:8 and then five virtues in 3:12. More likely Paul was responding to the heretics’ list of vices and virtues. The list initially focused on sexual sins. Those who commit such sins bring the wrath of God on themselves. In their former way of life the Colossians practiced this kind of sin. Now they were commanded to differentiate themselves from such conduct.

Put on Love (3:12–17)

This section completes Paul’s exhortation to the Colossians to maintain a holy lifestyle. Paul admonished them “to clothe yourselves with compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness and patience.” Over all these they should “put on love, which binds them all together in perfect unity”.

The heretics were obviously causing divisions in the church. The way to unity included letting the peace of Christ and the word of Christ rule in their hearts. This required obedient application. So Paul said, “Whatever you do, whether in word or deed, do it all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him”.[23]

We have considered Paul’s words at Ephesians 4:17-24, which has given us much to ponder. Verses 17-19 are an apt description of the world that we live in, alienated from God, and heading down the path of death. These ones have refused to accept the knowledge that leads to eternal life. While they may seem to succeed in a fallen world, this is short-lived. They do not even realize that they are wallowing in moral and spiritual ruin.

In verses 20-21 of chapter 4, Paul stresses that we need to learn the truth, which is found in Jesus. Lastly, in verses 22-24, we saw that we are to take off the old man and to put on the new man, determinedly and purposefully. As long as we live in this fallen world, under the pressures of Satan and his demon horde, we must continue to feed our minds spiritual food, “for God, who said, “Let light shine out of darkness,” has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of God’s glory in the face of Jesus Christ.” (2 Corinthians 4:6)

Review Questions

  • Who are the lights of the world, and what role do Christians play?
  • How concerned was Paul about the darkness outside of God’s sovereignty, and why does it impose such a threat to our light?
  • In 4:17, Paul speaks of “the futility of their mind.” What did he mean?
  • What did Paul evidence when he said, “that is not the way you learned Christ”?
  • What do we need to do so that that we can honestly say that we “have heard about him and were taught in him.”
  • What can we conclude from Jesus saying of himself, “I am … the truth”?
  • How does one go about taking off that old man (person)?
  • Why must one be determined and decisive in taking off the old man?
  • Talk about the moral compass that God gave Adam and Eve, and what is an innocent appearing situation?
  • How are we to understand Romans 8:13?
  • How does this renewal process “in the spirit of our mind” work?
  • What role do we play in making the force that sets our mind into motion new, so that our inclinations, predisposition, leanings, likings, or dispositions are toward good?
  • How are memories stored in the brain, and what illustrations help us to appreciate how we can get at our biblical memories faster? What is a worldview, and how do we develop our biblical worldview?
  • In what sense is the new man new?
  • How does this completely new man come about?
  • How do we “learn Christ”?
  • Why is it important that we put away the old person definitively?
  • What is the force that sets our mind into motion, and how is it made new?
  • What was Adam given that imperfect humans still have, which needs to be cultivated?
  • What is the difference between having the truth in our head, being in the truth superficially, as opposed to having the truth in us?

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HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?

This book is primarily for HUSBANDS, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. HUSBANDS will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: HUSBANDS LOVE …

Christian Apologetics

DEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and TrueDEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and True

How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …

UNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of ViewUNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of View

Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the BasicsBIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the Basics

Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's "Misquoting Jesus" [Third Edition]MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …

DEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in RevelationDEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in Revelation

church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …

JOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK: Experience the Ministry of Jesus in a Spiritually Captivating WayJOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK

Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] An interpretive translation would have, “put on the new person,” because it does mean male or female.

[2] (Anders, Holman New Testament Commentary: vol. 8, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians 1999, p. 155)

[3] Lit., “wrestling.”

[4] (Anders, Holman New Testament Commentary: vol. 8, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians 1999, p. 191)

[5] An interpretive translation would have, “put on the new person,” because it does mean male or female.

[6] Tense refers to a grammatical temporal reference; that is referring to a particular time frame is intrinsic with the meaning of tense.

Aspect refers to viewpoint – how the action is viewed: perfective (from the outside, as a whole, from afar), or imperfective (from the inside, reference to internal structure and its details).

Aktionsart refers to how an action takes place – what sort of action it is: once-occurring, instantaneous event (punctiliar); repeated over and over (iterative); focuses on the beginning (ingressive)

[7] Buist M. Fanning, Verbal Aspect in New Testament Greek (Oxford Theological Monographs; Oxford: Clarendon, 1990), 27.

[8] Allowing sweat (perspiration) to sit on our flesh inspires bacterial growth, which may contribute to an outbreak on the surface of the skin that is often reddish and itchy.

[9] The verb tense where the writer portrays an action in process or a state of being with no assessment of the action’s completion. Michael S. Heiser, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database Terminology (Logos Bible Software, 2005).

[10] Live Science: http://www.livescience.com/32798-how-are-memories-stored-in-the-brain.html

[11] Gr porneia

[12] Lit passion; Gr pathos

[13] The longer reading, “upon the sons of disobedience,” has good early documentary support, but it is also absent from some very good early witnesses as well. In all likelihood, early scribes felt that something should have been a direct object after “the wrath of God is coming” upon whom? Thus, they likely made it to conform to the parallel passage of Eph. 5:6.  Paul informs his readers as to why the wrath is coming (4:5), but not who the object of that wrath is. Of course, it would be upon those who are disobedient. We retained it in square brackets because it is found in the Untied Bible Society and the Nestle-Aland Greek text.

[14] Or old person

[15] Or new person

[16] Epignosis is a strengthened or intensified form of gnosis (epi, meaning “additional”), meaning, “true,” “real,” “full,” “complete” or “accurate,” depending upon the context. Paul and Peter alone use epignosis.

[17] Or control your hearts

[18] Or indeed

[19] Or show yourselves thankful

[20] The Christ P46 א2 B C2 D F G  Ψ 1739 Maj it copsa; the Lord א* I copbo; God A C* 33

[21] Or with

[22] Or encouraging

[23] David S. Dockery, “The Pauline Letters,” in Holman Concise Bible Commentary, ed. David S. Dockery (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1998), 591–592.

 

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