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BIBLICAL TRAINING ACADEMY—Apologetic Defense of the faith, the Bible, and Christianity


OT Textual Criticism Articles

HOW THE BIBLE SURVIVED Careless and Even Deceitful Bible Copyists?

Preservation of Scripture This is one of the most hotly debated discussions, this new doctrine Preservation of Scripture. Some have equated this doctrine with Inerrancy of Scripture. Inerrancy of Scripture is simply that the original authors were inspired and that... Continue Reading →


Why Should the Dead Sea Scrolls be of Interest Us?

Prior to the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the oldest manuscripts of the Old Testament were dated to about the ninth and tenth centuries C.E., known as the Masoretic texts (MT).[1] The Hebrew Old Testament was complete in the middle... Continue Reading →

THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS: No Conspiracy, No Secret Scrolls

Contrary to the cover-up theorists, after the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered, numerous publications were released over the years that made those first finds accessible to scholars around the world. Nevertheless, the thousands of fragments from Cave 4 were proving far... Continue Reading →

The Qumran Residents: Were they Essenes?

Now that we have determined that, the Dead Sea Scrolls were the library of Qumran community, who were its people? Early on, in 1947 Professor Eleazar Sukenik obtained three scrolls from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; after that, suggesting that these scrolls... Continue Reading →

The Dead Sea Scrolls: Who Wrote Them?

After carefully dating these fragile documents, it has been determined that they were copied or composed sometime between the third-century B.C.E and the first-century C.E. (See PALEOGRAPHY: Dating Ancient Manuscripts) A handful of scholars have suggested that these scrolls were hidden in the... Continue Reading →

The Dead Sea Scrolls: What are They?

In the spring of 1947, a Bedouin shepherd threw a stone into a cave, marking an event that would be heard around the world, making the name “Dead Sea Scrolls” more known than any other associated with archaeology. As he... Continue Reading →

When Did the Hebrew Language Begin to Fade In Use?

The Hebrew Language Hebrew is the language in which the thirty-nine inspired books of the Old Testament were penned, apart from the Aramaic sections in Ezra 4:8–6:18; 7:12–26; Dan. 2:4b–7:28; Jer. 10:11, as well as a few other words and... Continue Reading →

PALEOGRAPHY: Dating Ancient Manuscripts

Before delving into paleography, we must very briefly make mention of a few introductory subject areas for the lay reader. If you are aware of these introduction subject areas, please just scroll to the heading about paleography, Greek Paleography and Its Beginnings. New... Continue Reading →

HOW WE GOT The Old Testament Text

The Old Testament, the inspired Word of God, how was it copied, maintained as to the textual reliability, and handed down throughout the past three thousand years? It should be appreciated that what we possess today is nothing short of... Continue Reading →

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