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BIBLICAL TRAINING ACADEMY—Apologetic Defense of the faith, the Bible, and Christianity


NTTC Sources

PAPYRUS 75 (P75): The Manuscript that Changed the Thinking of Textual Scholars

The discovery of P75 proved to be the catalyst for correcting the misconception that early copyists were predominately unskilled. As we elsewhere on our blog earlier, either literate or semi-professional copyist produced the vast majority of the early papyri, and some copied by professionals. Continue Reading →


CODEX VATICANUS: Why a Treasure?

Codex Vaticanus (03, B) contains the Gospels, Acts, the General Epistles, the Pauline Epistles, the Epistle to the Hebrews (up to Hebrews 9:14, καθα[ριει); it lacks 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and Revelation. It is written on 759 leaves of... Continue Reading →

PAPYRUS 137 (P137): The Recently Published Earliest Manuscript Fragment of Mark

PAPYRUS 137 (Gregory-Aland numbering) is designated 𝔓137. It is a fragment of the Gospel of Mark in Greek. It is from a codex, which is written on both sides: the recto (right/front) side containing Mark 1:7-9 and the verso (back) side containing Mark 1:16-18. P137 has been dated paleographically to about 175-225 C.E. Continue Reading →

DETERMINING THE ORIGINAL READING: The Principles and Practice of New Testament Textual Criticism

The Practice of Textual Criticism Determine the Original Reading Note: The following are critical texts: the TR stands for Textus Receptus text (1550), WH stands for Westcott and Hort text (1881), and NU stands for the Nestle-Aland text (28th ed.... Continue Reading →

THE LATIN VULGATE (Vulgata Latina) Textual Symbol vg

The Latin Vulgate The Latin Vulgate (Vulgata Latina) is a version of the entire Bible by one of the foremost Biblical scholars of all time, Jerome ([c.346–420 C.E.] Latin: Eusebius Hieronymus). Jerome was a Roman Christian priest, confessor, theologian, and... Continue Reading →

INTRODUCTION: The Sources of New Testament Textual Criticism

If we are to be able to evaluate the readings of the manuscripts that we have, we must be familiar with the manuscripts themselves. Moreover, we must understand how they are connected by their likenesses and differences. Westcott and Hort... Continue Reading →

THE CHURCH FATHERS: Advocates of Bible Truth

The Church Fathers were prominent theologians and Christian philosophers who lived between the second and fifth centuries C.E. More broadly speaking, Robert M. Grant writes, “In Christian thought since the eighth century, a church father (pater ecclesiae) is a teacher living... Continue Reading →

THE APOLOGISTS: Christian Defenders of the Faith

Marcion of Sinope: He was a rich young man who was also a significant leader in early Christianity (c. 85 – c. 160 C.E.). He publicly stated that Christians should reject the Old Testament. The other Church leaders would eventually... Continue Reading →

Patristic Quotations from New Testament Authors

Another primary source for recovery of the original text of the New Testament is the enormous number of quotations from the early Christian writers (apologetic works, epistles, commentaries, sermons, and the like). “Apostolic Fathers” is the descriptive term used for... Continue Reading →

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