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BIBLICAL TRAINING ACADEMY—Apologetic Defense of the faith, the Bible, and Christianity

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NTTC Sources

DETERMINING THE ORIGINAL READING: The Principles and Practice of New Testament Textual Criticism

The Practice of Textual Criticism Determine the Original Reading Note: The following are critical texts: the TR stands for Textus Receptus text (1550), WH stands for Westcott and Hort text (1881), and NU stands for the Nestle-Aland text (28th ed.... Continue Reading →

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THE LATIN VULGATE (Vulgata Latina) Textual Symbol vg

The Latin Vulgate The Latin Vulgate (Vulgata Latina) is a version of the entire Bible by one of the foremost Biblical scholars of all time, Jerome ([c.346–420 C.E.] Latin: Eusebius Hieronymus). Jerome was a Roman Christian priest, confessor, theologian, and... Continue Reading →

INTRODUCTION: The Sources of New Testament Textual Criticism

If we are to be able to evaluate the readings of the manuscripts that we have, we must be familiar with the manuscripts themselves. Moreover, we must understand how they are connected by their likenesses and differences. Westcott and Hort... Continue Reading →

THE CHURCH FATHERS: Advocates of Bible Truth

The Church Fathers were prominent theologians and Christian philosophers who lived between the second and fifth centuries C.E. More broadly speaking, Robert M. Grant writes, “In Christian thought since the eighth century, a church father (pater ecclesiae) is a teacher living... Continue Reading →

THE APOLOGISTS: Christian Defenders of the Faith

Marcion of Sinope: He was a rich young man who was also a significant leader in early Christianity (c. 85 – c. 160 C.E.). He publicly stated that Christians should reject the Old Testament. The other Church leaders would eventually... Continue Reading →

Patristic Quotations from New Testament Authors

Another primary source for recovery of the original text of the New Testament is the enormous number of quotations from the early Christian writers (apologetic works, epistles, commentaries, sermons, and the like). “Apostolic Fathers” is the descriptive term used for... Continue Reading →

The Greek Septuagint and Other Versions

Ancient Versions A version is a translation of the Bible from Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek into another language. Actually, the entire Bible has been translated into over 450 languages, although sections of the Bible have been translated into more than... Continue Reading →

Greek Minuscule Manuscripts of the New Testament

The minuscule script was a style of Greek writing used as a book hand during the ninth and tenth centuries in Byzantine manuscripts. The minuscule took the place of the Greek uncial, third and ninth centuries C.E. that resembles a... Continue Reading →

Greek Uncial Manuscripts of the New Testament

This category can be somewhat confusing because the papyrus manuscripts were written in uncial letters.[50] However, “uncial” is a term used to designate only the parchment manuscripts, written in uncial letters. For a very long time papyrus was used for... Continue Reading →

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