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BIBLICAL TRAINING ACADEMY—Apologetic Defense of the faith, the Bible, and Christianity


NT Textual Criticism

Who Took John 5:4 Out of My Bible?

The Healing at the Pool of Bethzatha John 5:1-9 Updated American Standard Version (UASV) 5 After these things there was a feast of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 2 Now there is in Jerusalem by the Sheep Gate... Continue Reading →


MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus”

Book Description Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews... Continue Reading →

NEW TESTAMENT TEXTUAL CRITICISM: Evaluation of The Coherence-Based Genealogical Method (CBGM) and Its Usefulness

While The Coherence-Based Genealogical Method (CBGM) blog article is 22 pages long and this article is 8 pages long, the full article/chapter (110 pages) is out of THE TEXT OF THE TESTAMENT by Wilkins and Andrews. Wilkins has penned an... Continue Reading →

PALEOGRAPHY: Dating Ancient Manuscripts

Edward D. Andrews Before delving into paleography, we must make mention of Kurt and Barbara Aland. New Testament manuscripts in Greek can be categorized into five categories, according to their assessment in The Text of the New Testament.[1] Kurt Aland (1915... Continue Reading →

The Sources of New Testament Textual Criticism

Edward D. Andrews If we are to be able to evaluate the readings of the manuscripts that we have, we must be familiar with the manuscripts themselves. Moreover, we must understand how they are connected by their likenesses and differences.... Continue Reading →

DEBUNKING AGNOSTIC BART D. EHRMAN: ‘What We Have Here Are the Error-Ridden Copies of the Autographs’

Edward D. Andrews The Moody experience was intense. I decided to major in Bible theology, which meant taking a lot of biblical study and systematic theology courses. Only one perspective was taught in these courses, subscribed to by all the... Continue Reading →


Edward D. Andrews As we have noted elsewhere, the textual scholar looks at two forms of evidence: external (manuscripts) and internal (what the author or scribe wrote). Internal evidence concerns what might have led to scribal errors. Therefore, we will... Continue Reading →

The Original or Earliest Text of the New Testament

Edward D. Andrews This chapter may be somewhat controversial because many modern textual scholars are not certain that we can get back to the original text. Again, when we use the term “original” reading or “original” text in this publication,... Continue Reading →


Edward D. Andrews In the above is an image of five Nomina Sacra, the first four being divine names and the first four of the fifteen known. Nomina Sacra (Sacred Names): Various contractions and abbreviations that are found in our... Continue Reading →

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