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Apologetic Defense of the faith, the Bible, and Christianity


NT Textual Criticism

The Practice of Textual Criticism to Determine the Original Reading

Don Wilkins Collecting manuscript evidence is a laborious process, but it is a straightforward in comparison to the evaluation process. In the collection process, the goal is to gather as much evidence as possible concerning various readings of a specific... Continue Reading →

Secretaries in Antiquity and Their Materials

Edward D. Andrews One of the greatest tragedies in the modern-day history of Christianity [1880 - present] is that churchgoers have not been educated about the history of the New Testament text. In fact, they are so misinformed that many... Continue Reading →

The Making of New Testament Books

Edward D. Andrews As Luke, Paul, Peter, Matthew, James, or Jude handed their authorized text off to be copied by others, i.e., published, what would it have looked like? What is the process that the New Testament writers would have... Continue Reading →

Discovering the Bart D. Ehrman Mindset

The last 30 plus years has seen a rise in interest in what are known as pseudo-gospels, epistles, and apocalypses discovered in the 1950’s in Nag Hammadi[1] and other places in Egypt. Generally, these documents and others have been referred... Continue Reading →


That is to say, once a scribe changes a text—whether accidentally or intentionally—then those changes are permanent in his manuscript (unless, of course, another scribe comes along to correct the mistake). The next scribe who copies that manuscript copies those... Continue Reading →

DEBUNKING AGNOSTIC BART D. EHRMAN: ‘This was a Human Book from Beginning to End’

For me, though, this was a compelling problem. It was the words of Scripture themselves that God had inspired. Surely we have to know what those words were if we want to know how he had communicated to us, since... Continue Reading →

DEBUNKING AGNOSTIC BART D. EHRMAN: ‘We Don’t Have Copies of the Copies of the Copies of the Originals’

Not only do we not have the originals, we don’t have the first copies of the originals. We don’t even have copies of the copies of the originals, or copies of the copies of the copies of the originals. What... Continue Reading →

DEBUNKING AGNOSTIC BART D. EHRMAN: ‘What We Have Here Are the Error-Ridden Copies of the Autographs’

The Moody experience was intense. I decided to major in Bible theology, which meant taking a lot of biblical study and systematic theology courses. Only one perspective was taught in these courses, subscribed to by all the professors (they had... Continue Reading →

The Armenian Version

Illustrated Armenian Bible from 1256 The Armenian Version of the Bible designated by (arm) dates from the early fifth century C.E., which includes all of the New Testament and was likely, prepared from both Greek and Syriac texts. It is often... Continue Reading →

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