TEXTUAL PRINCIPLE: The more difficult or awkward reading is often preferable. The reading at first will seem to be more difficult or awkward to understand, but after further investigation, it will be discovered that a scribe deliberately or mistakenly changed the text to an easier reading.
Luke 15:31 Updated American Standard Version (UASV) 31 And he said to him, ‘Son, you are always with me, and all that is mine is yours.’
Textual scholars pretty much mocked Westcott and Hort (WH) believing that they were overzealousness, seeing it as bias too, at least until the 1950s. WH released their critical text in 1881, Hort said that Vaticanus preserved “not only a very ancient text but a very pure line of a very ancient text.” (Westcott and Hort 1882, 251) Later scholars argued that Vaticanus was a scholarly recension: a critical revision or edited text. However, …
John 20:23 Updated American Standard Version (UASV) 23 “If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them; if you retain the sins of any,
Knowing that the testing of your faith produces endurance (James 1:3a) The word used here for testing is the Greek word dokimion, which means, “putting to