The Leningrad Codex is the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible in Hebrew, using the Masoretic Text and Tiberian vocalization. It is dated 1008 CE (or possibly 1009).
Name: P5 (P. Oxy. 208 + 1781) Contents: John 1:23–31, 33–40; 16:14–30; 20:11–17, 19–20, 22–25 Date: 225 C.E. Provenance (Origin): Oxyrhynchus, Egypt Current Housing Location: London, England: British Library (inv. 782, 2484) Bibliography: Grenfell and Hunt, Oxy. Pap., 2:1–8, no. 208, and 15:8–12, no. 1781. Physical features: two leaves; originally 13 cm x 25 cm;... Continue Reading →
2 Thessalonians 2:10 Updated American Standard Version (UASV) 10 and with all wicked deception for those who are perishing, because they did not receive the love of the truth so as to be saved. 2 Corinthians 13:5 Updated American Standard Version (UASV) 5 Examine yourselves, to see whether you are in the faith. Test yourselves. Or do you not realize... Continue Reading →
Short Reminder: If we have the original words, we, in essence, have the original and; therefore, do not need the original documents.
The Masoretic Text has the reading “behind him” (אַחַר, ’akhar) in verse 13 of chapter 22. On the other hand, a number of Hebrew MSS, the Septuagint (LXX), Syriac (SYR), and Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) have “one” (Heb. אֶחָד, ’ekhad; Gr. εἷς, heis) in verse 13 of chapter 22.
The survival of the Bible through the ages is very difficult to explain if it is not in truth the Word of God. Books are like men—dying creatures. A very small percentage of books survive more than twenty years, a yet smaller percentage last a hundred years and only a very insignificant fraction represent those... Continue Reading →
“The book of Job is one of the most profound and moving in the Old Testament, speaking to the deep things of life and faith with its exploration of suffering and its soaring poetry. It tells of the trials of Job, a man who was ‘blameless and upright; he feared God and shunned evil.’ He... Continue Reading →
Introduction At the very beginning of his monumental work, A History of Literary Criticism and Theory, M. A. R. Habib declares, “In our world it has become more important than ever that we learn to read critically.” What does it mean to “read critically”? What, in fact, is criticism? The term is tossed around and... Continue Reading →
A. T. Robertson, the great Greek grammarian as well as a textual critic and general student of the New Testament, tells the following story about John Brown of Haddington, Scotland. Born in 1722, John Brown was the son of common and ordinary parents, although they had an interest in learning. His father, a weaver by... Continue Reading →