Islamic Doctrine: Five versus Three Equals One?

In some ways, Islam is a complex, multi-layered religion that mixes politics, economics, and social dynamics within a religious structure. The structure itself is based on the Qur’an’s pronouncements from Allah, the words of the prophet Muhammad recorded in the Hadith and a complicated system of jurisprudence. On the other hand, the basic doctrines are quite simple, and initiation... Continue Reading →

OTTC GENESIS 10:23 “Mash” or “Meshech”?

Major Critical Texts and Manuscript Abbreviations of the Old Testament AC: Aleppo Codex AT: Aramaic Targum(s) B.C.E.: Before Common Era BHS: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Edited by Karl Elliger and Wilhelm Rudolph. Stuttgart, 1984. B 19A: Codex Leningrad c.: Circa, about, approximately LXX: The Greek Septuagint (Greek Jewish OT Scriptures in general and specifically used during of... Continue Reading →

NTTC MATTHEW 5:44b: “pray for those persecuting you”

Just like a Christian apologist today who says similar things at different events, the words are not always the same. So too, Jesus said similar things at different times. In the Sermon Near Capernaum on the Mount at Matthew 5:1–7:29, we find the short reading. When Jesus came down the mountain to the plains, he also gave a sermon ...

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