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BIBLICAL TRAINING ACADEMY—Apologetic Defense of the faith, the Bible, and Christianity


June 8, 2019

Papyrus 1 (P1) Matthew 1:1-9, 12, 14-20 Alexandrian Text Type (d. c. 250 C.E.)

Papyrus 1 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering) designated by "1", "ε 01 (von Soden)", is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the Gospel of Matthew dating palaeographically to the middle of the 3rd century (c. 250 C.E.). It is currently housed at the University of Pennsylvania... Continue Reading →

Gregory-Aland Numbering

Caspar René Gregory published another cataloging system in 1908 in Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments, which is the system still in use today. Gregory divided the manuscripts into four groupings: papyri, uncials, minuscules, and lectionaries. This division is partially arbitrary. The first... Continue Reading →

Kurt Aland (1915 – 1994) New Testament Textual Criticism Scholar

Kurt Aland, FBA (28 March 1915 – 13 April 1994) was a German theologian and biblical scholar who specialized in New Testament textual criticism. He founded the Institut für neutestamentliche Textforschung (Institute for New Testament Textual Research) in Münster and served as its first director from 1959–83. He was one of... Continue Reading →

Caspar René Gregory (1846 – 1917) New Testament Textual Criticism Scholar

The Life of Caspar René Gregor Gregory was born in Philadelphia. After completing his bachelor's degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 1864, he studied theology at two Presbyterian seminaries: in 1865–1867 at the Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, and in 1867–1873 at the Princeton Theological... Continue Reading →

Ezra Abbot (1819 – 1884) New Testament Textual Criticism Scholar

Ezra Abbot (April 28, 1819, Jackson, Maine – March 21, 1884, Cambridge, Massachusetts) was an American biblical scholar. Life and Writings He graduated from Bowdoin College in 1840. In 1847, at the request of Prof. Andrews Norton, he went to Cambridge, where he was principal of a public school... Continue Reading →


Put on then, as God’s chosen ones, holy and beloved, compassionate hearts, kindness, humility, meekness, and patience, – Col. 3:12. The new clothing of the Christian begins with personal attributes: compassion, kindness, humility, meekness, and patience. Their inclusion suggests the... Continue Reading →

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