If we are to be able to evaluate the readings of the manuscripts that we have, we must be familiar with the manuscripts themselves. Moreover, we must understand how they are connected by their likenesses and differences. Westcott and Hort wrote in relation to internal manuscript evidence, “The first step toward obtaining a sure foundation... Continue Reading →
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient, prominent, and influential Christian theologians and writers who lived between the second and fifth centuries C.E. and established the intellectual and doctrinal foundations of Christianity.
Marcion of Sinope: He was a rich young man who was also a significant leader in early Christianity (c. 85 – c. 160 C.E.). He publicly stated that Christians should reject the Old Testament. The other Church leaders would eventually reject him, and he chose to set himself apart from the orthodox Christianity of the... Continue Reading →
Another primary source for recovery of the original text of the New Testament is the enormous number of quotations from the early Christian writers (apologetic works, epistles, commentaries, sermons, and the like). “Apostolic Fathers” is the descriptive term used for churchmen who wrote about Christianity in the late first and early second centuries. Some of... Continue Reading →
There are currently over 2000 classified manuscripts of the Septuagint. The Grek Septuagint is the oldest Greek version of the Old Testament; said to have been translated from the Hebrew by Jewish scholars at the request of Ptolemy II, but more likely at the request of Alexandrian Jews. The full translation was from 280 B.C.E. to 150 B.C.E.
The minuscule script was a style of Greek writing used as a book hand during the ninth and tenth centuries in Byzantine manuscripts. The minuscule took the place of the Greek uncial, third to the ninth centuries C.E. that resembles a modern capital letter but is more rounded.
Biblical manuscripts that were written in Greek (whether translations of the Hebrew Scriptures, or copies of the Greek New Testament, or both) can be divided or organized by the writing style, which also helps the paleographer in dating them. The older (earlier) style (especially from the fourth to the ninth century C.E.) is the uncial manuscript, written in large, separated capital letters. Uncial is a majuscule script (written entirely in capital letters) commonly used by Latin and Greek scribes.
The earliest sources for the Greek New Testament are the papyri in codex (book-like) form. At present, there have been over 139 of these discovered, with eighty of these manuscripts dating between 100 – 300 C.E., with the number increasing 21 more papyri from 290-390 C.E., with a total of 139, dating between 100-500 C.E. If you see the papyri siglum (e.g. P66, P75, P108) is linked, this means that there is an article for that papyrus manuscript. If you see a superscripted + next to the papyrus and it is linked that is another article on the same papyrus manuscript (e.g., P66+ and P75+). Click on the papyrus siglum for one article and the + symbol for the second article. We are always adding new papyrus articles.