If you were on a long trip and came across another that was heading to the same destination as you, and this new person said, “you are on the wrong path,” would this anger you that he implied that you and the others traveling with you had made a mistake? Would you verbally or physically attack him and then stay on the same path?
Would it not be better, if the two of you calmly and respectfully state your reasons why he thought his path was the correct way? Then, you could doubtless compare the maps and sources that led each of you to believe your information is correct. For, in the end, both of you want to be on the correct path and end up at the right destination, right?
The above illustrates the way that this book will investigate whether the Quran is the Word of God and comparable to the Bible, as well as whether Islam is the one true faith. Both Muslims and Christians are walking through life on a path to the destination of eternal life. On occasion they come across each other on this path, both feeling confident that they are on the correct path while the other is mistaken. However, while they occasionally come across each other on the path that seems to have crossroads at certain points, both are going in opposite directions because their maps are not the same. While there may be some similarities, the Quran and the Bible are very different. Which is right, the Quran or the Bible?
Let us a quick excursion and note that there are 41,000 different Christian denominations, which call themselves Christian, the truth, and the way. A number of these so-called Christian denominations do not properly represent the Bible. One of the best examples would be the Westboro Baptist Church. See their website link below, which should tell you enough. This church does not even have the right to the name Christian, as their actions and doctrines are as far removed from what Jesus Christ taught and practiced “as the east is from the west.” Therefore, any Muslims can no more use such churches as the Westboro Baptist Church to argue that Christianity is the false path than they would want Christians to argue that ISIS is evidence that Islam is the false path. No so-called Christian denomination in the last 2,000 years can be used to evidence that the Bible is not the inspired, fully inerrant, authoritative word of God. The Bible cannot be faulted for those who misuse it for their greedy and evil ends.
All Muslims are aware that the Quran came from Muhammad, an Arabian who was born about 570 C.E., in Mecca, and died at Medina, June 8, 632 C.E. (c. 62) Muhammad was about forty years old when he says that he received a message from the angel Gabriel, as well as a calling, to proclaim The Shahada: “There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God.” Over the next twenty plus years of his life Muhammad claimed to receive many more messages, which he had others take down through dictation because Muhammad was illiterate. It was not long after he died that his followers compiled these messages, which became what we now know as the Quran.
Over time, it was repeatedly copied, until there were various readings of it, which then caused disputes. Therefore, about twenty years later, another copy was made, which became the official copy, as they burned all other copies. Because the Quran was penned far closer to the printed press (1455 C.E.), it has come down to us with few changes to the text over the past 1,380 years.
Quran literally means “the recitation” or “the reading.” It consists of 114 chapters of varying lengths, revelations known as suras, from 3 to 286 verses. The verses themselves vary from one to twenty and more lines. In almost its entirety, the Quran is written in the first person, having Allah as the speaker. The Quran itself says, the “Mother of the Book” (Sura 13:39) exists in God’s presence and was revealed to Muhammad “in slow, well-arranged stages, gradually” (Sura 25:32) by “The Holy Spirit [Angel Gabriel, who] has brought the revelation from thy Lord in Truth, in order to strengthen those who believe, and as a Guide and Glad Tidings to Muslims.” (Sura 16:102) A Muslim is one who has surrendered himself to Allah. The Quran itself claims that it is a divine revelation throughout.―See Sura 2:89, 97; 6:19; 16:102; 17:105, 106; 25:32; 43:2-4
Is the Quran Authentic and True?
Was Muhammad able to offer any proof that he was a prophet of God or that these Suras came from God? If we think about it, God performed or used many different chosen humans to carry out over 125-recorded miracles from Genesis to Revelation. About 3,600 years before Muhammad and the Quran, there was chosen Noah and the building of the ark and the worldwide flood. (Gen. 7-8) Sometime before choosing Abraham, there was the confusing of the languages at Babel. (Gen. 11:1-9) After choose Abraham as his new spokesman, destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen. 19:24) Lot’s wife was turned into a “pillar of salt” (Gen. 19:26) Isaac was conceived by very 90-year-old Sarah and 100-year-old Abraham at Gerar (Gen. 21:1), and elderly Sarah was still able to nurse Isaac. (Gen. 21:7) Isaac was soon chosen to lead God’s People followed by his son Jacob.
About 2,150 years before Muhammad and the Quran, Moses was called by God to go to the Israelite people. Immediately Moses saw the need for authenticity. Moses said to God, “But behold, they will not believe me or listen to my voice, for they will say, ‘The Lord did not appear to you.’” God did not disagree; instead, he gave Moses the power to perform three miracles and the authority to speak in his name.” (Changing of a walking staff into a snake, turning a hand to leprous, and healing the hand, and turning water into blood)—Exodos 4:1-31, ESV.
Exodus 4:30-31 English Standard Version (ESV)
30 Aaron spoke all the words that the Lord had spoken to Moses and did the signs in the sight of the people. 31 And the people believed; and when they heard that the Lord had visited the people of Israel and that he had seen their affliction, they bowed their heads and worshiped.
Over the next forty years while the Israelites were traveling thru the wildernesses, they thirty more major miracles. If we think of the time that Moses received the Ten Divine Commandments, there as thunder, lightning, fire, smoke, trumpet sound and earthquake. All of this evidenced that Moses was no false prophet but rather was a chosen spokesman of God, commissioned to be a prophet.—Exodus, chapters 7 through 15; 19:16-18; Deuteronomy 8:14-16.
Then there were the faith-inspiring mighty deeds of the chosen men of God: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, and others. Overall, there were some ten major miracles during the 410-years of the judges, Ruth and Samuel. Balaam’s donkey repeatedly protected him from the angel and ultimately spoke to Balaam (Num. 22:21-35), Samson’s mighty strength (Judges 14-16), the disease that struck the Philistines (1 Sam. 5:1-12), and the supernatural death of the men of Beth-shemesh (1 Sam. 6:19), to mention just a few.
There were twenty-seven miracles during the 500-years of the kings. King Jeroboam’s hand was instantly withered and then restored (1 Ki 13:4-6), the widow’s son was raised from the dead (1 Ki 17:17-24), the drought in response to Elijah’s prayers (1 Ki 17-18), Ahaziah’s captains consumed by fire from heaven near Samaria (2 Ki 1:10-12), the Jordan divided by Elijah and Elisha near Jericho (2 Ki 2:7, 8, 14), Elisha’s bones revive the dead (2 Ki 13:21), and the angel of the God went out to the Assyrian camp and killed 185,000 Assyrian soldiers (2 Ki 19:35), to mention just a few.
Then, we need to think about the chosen prophets of God, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Micah, Zechariah, Malachi, and others, who were specifically selected as by God to speak for him, to pen his words. We have Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego delivered from the fiery furnace in Babylon (Dan. 3:10-27), we have Daniel saved from hungry lions in a sealed den (Dan. 6:16-23), and we have Jonah who survived three days in the belly of a whale (Jon. 2:1-10). Many miracles happened for Ezekiel, Jeremiah, Isaiah, and others as well.
Then, we enter the period of the Jesus Christ, the Son of God, where the question of authenticity would have to arise once more. Once Moses and other were established as chosen leaders and spokesman, the Israelite history was clear that they were the chosen people of God. You see, Jesus came to save the people of Israel, to offer them a place in his kingdom. Nevertheless, two things are factual, even had they accepted Christ, the Christian congregation and Gentiles were still going to become God’s people as well. However, they rejected Christ, and he took the kingdom from them (only the ones who rejected him) and gave it to others. (Matt. 21:42-44; 23:37-39)
Matthew 9:16-17 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
16 But no one puts a patch of unshrunk cloth on an old garment; for the patch pulls away from the garment, and the tear becomes worse. 17 Nor do they put new wine into old wineskins. If they do, then the wineskins burst and the wine spills out and the wineskins are ruined. But they do put new wine into new wineskins, and both are preserved.”
Jesus was making a point to the disciples of John the Baptist that no one should expect the followers of Jesus Christ to try to retain the old practices of Judaism, such as a ritualistic fasting. A Christian can fast if he chooses to do so, but there are no obligations to do so. Jesus did not come to patch up the old ways of worship by way of Judaism, which would be set aside on the day of Jesus’ ransom sacrifice. Christianity is not to conform to the old way of worship, to the form Jewish religious system, with the traditions of men.
As Jesus said, Christianity was not going to be a new patch on an old garment or a new wine in an old wineskin. Any Christian or so-called Jewish Christian, who tries to suggest the mixing of the two is nothing more than false prophets.–Matthew 24:11.
There was a new way to God now, and it was not through the Israelite nation but rather through Jesus Christ and Christianity. Now, the authenticity question was answered in a very similar way, through miracles and signs. To the Jewish religious leaders said it clearly, “the blind receive sight and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hears, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the gospel preached to them.” (Matt 11:5) The next words by Jesus quoted here are likely the most important in this book as it related to the authenticity of the Quran and Muhammad. “If I am not doing the works of my Father, then do not believe me; but if I do them, even though you do not believe me, believe the works, that you may know and understand that the Father is in me and I am in the Father.”―John 10:37-38.
Purpose of Miracles
What was the purpose behind Jesus’ miracles? Deuteronomy 18:15, 18 say that the Messiah would ‘be a prophet like Moses.’ God goes on to say, “I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him.” Again, in order for Moses to be accepted as God’s spokesperson, he initially performed many miracles. (Ex. 4:1-9, 30-31) Just as Moses performed many miracles to establish his purpose, Jesus actually performed far more, even raising people from the dead and casting out demons.―Acts 3:22.
We know that Jesus was more than Moses was and his authority and power demonstrate such. What Jesus did on a small scale during his three and a half year ministry, will be exceeded in the extreme upon his return. If Jesus were able to feed thousands miraculously with a few loaves and fishes, he would certainly restore this earth to how God had intended it at the beginning of creating it for perfect humanity. (Lu 9:12-17) Therefore, none will ever hunger again. (Ps. 72:16) Moreover, he will not only heal and cure humans but will also restore them to perfection, so that they will be able to live forever. (Rev. 21:4) Lastly, like with his friend Lazarus and others, Jesus will resurrect millions from the dead. (Lu 7:11-17; 8:40-56; John 5:28, 29; 11:11-44)
The one reason that Jews rejected Jesus like Saul (i.e., Paul), was because he did not carry out on a grand scale, the things listed in the Old Testament. For example, it was prophesied of Jesus’ coming kingdom, “In the days of those kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that shall never be destroyed, nor shall the kingdom be left to another people. It shall break in pieces all these kingdoms and bring them to an end, and it shall stand forever.” (Dan 2:44) What those Jews thought was going to take place on a larger scale on Jesus’ first coming, will be far grandeur at his second coming, for the first time was simply a preview of the things to come.
Miracles were Evidence of Change
The miracles of the Hebrew Scriptures, especially those performed by Moses, served as evidence that the Jews, descendants of faithful Abraham, were God’s chose people. (Ex. 19:16-19) A major change was in the offing. The Jews had followed the lead of their religious leaders in the last act of rebellion, resulting in their rejection as his people. The Mosaic Law was being replaced with the law of Christ. This does not mean that no Jew could be received into the newly founded Christian congregation. To the contrary, the next three and half years would be only the Jewish people, who would make up this new way to God. As was the case with Moses, there was to be a sign, miraculous events; this served as evidence to those, whose heart was receptive to the truth that the Son of God had come, had given his life for them, and ascended back to heaven.
This served as evidence that there was a new way to God, i.e., Christ and Christianity. (Matt. 21:43; 27:51; Rom. 9:6; 11:7) The many miracles by the apostles that followed Jesus’ miracles served as evidence that the Christian congregation was now the Truth and the Way, not fleshly Israel. (Acts 2:22, 43; 4:29-30; Heb. 2:3-4) Moreover, think of the account where people bring their sick ones in places where Peter’s shadow might fall on them as he walked by. On this, the Bible states, “They were all healed.” (Acts 5:15-16) This begs the question, why are not all the faithful ones healed when they go to these religious shrines.
The Purpose has Been Served
What was the purpose again? The miracles and signs served to establish Jesus as the Son of God, to evidence on a small scale what he will do upon his return on a grandeur scale, and to establish that Christianity was now the Truth and the Way to God, not fleshly Israel. The miraculous gifts served their purpose, so they would “cease.” (1 Cor. 13:8-13) There will be more on this later. Miracles do not evidence true Christianity today; it is doing the will of the Father that evidence, whether one is a true Christian or true denomination, belonging to true Christianity. Jesus foretold,
Matthew 7:21-23 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
21 “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. 22 On that day many will say to me, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name, and cast out demons in your name, and do many mighty works in your name?’ 23 And then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you; depart from me, you who practice lawlessness.’
The Mark of True Christianity
Jesus told us how we could identify his true disciples, when he said, ‘by their fruit you will recognize them.’ Jesus gives us the gist of his point, “A good tree cannot produce bad fruit, nor can a bad tree produce good fruit.” (Matt. 7:16-20) One identifying fruit is the teachings upon which the denomination is based. Are the teachings based on God’s Word or the traditions of men? (2 Tim. 3:16; Mark 7:7) Another identifying fruit would be whether they are evidencing true faith in Christ. (John 3:36; Ps. 2:6-8; Jam. 2:26) Is it ritualistic or a formality, or is it a way of life. (Isa. 1:15-17; 1 Cor. 5:9-13; Eph. 5:3-5; Gal. 5:22-23) Jesus mentioned yet another fruit when he said, “By this all people will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another.” (John 13:35) Are it and its members a part of the world? (John 15:19; Jam 1:27; 4:4; 1 John 2:15-17) Are the true Christians carrying out the witnessing and evangelism work that Jesus assigned? (Matt 24:14; 28:19-20; Ac 1:8) Thus, it follows that miracles are no longer need as evidence that Christianity is the Truth and the Way, but rather other markers are needed to identify which of the more than 41,000 denominations are the Truth and the Way.
Thus, miracles were not to serve as an identifying marker forever. Therefore, our faith should not be based on a plethora of miracles taking place today. Rather, it should be grounded on the truths found in the Word of God. The focus needs to be on the sharing of God’s Word in our communities and living in harmony with that Word. Our complete trust must be placed in the Father, the Son and the provision of the Holy Spirit. Peter tells us, “There is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.” (Acts 4:12) Even though the miracles served their purpose, i.e., evince that there was a change from the nation of Israel to Jesus Christ and Christianity, if there were another major shift in the way to God, like through Muhammad, the Quran, and Islam, would God change his pattern of using miracles to establish the new way?
Now, where were the miracles and signs establishing another major shift in the way to God, like through Muhammad, the Quran, and Islam? Where were Muhammad’s miracles that would establish him as the new major prophet of God and that God has establish a new way in Arabia 632 years after the New Testament was closed? Was Muhammad able to say as Jesus did, “If I am not doing the works of my Father, then do not believe me; but if I do them, even though you do not believe me, believe the works, that you may know and understand that the Father is in me and I am in the Father.” (John 10:37-38) No, he could not, for Muhammad had absolutely no miracles, to establish his authenticity, the authenticity of the Quran, or that Islam was/is the new way to God.
Repeatedly this fact is self-confessed as his listeners accuse Muhammad of deception and forgery. See Sura 2:118; 10:38; 11:13; 17:89-93; 21:5, 6. When we think of the many miracles and signs every time God chose a new course in the history of his people, from Noah to Abraham, to Moses, to King David, to Jesus Christ and the dozens of chosen ones in between, did Muhammad’s listeners not have a right to ask, “Why is not a sign sent down to him from his Lord?” (Sura 6:37; 13:7) However, they were told, “Certainly (all) signs are in the power of Allah. but what will make you (Muslims) realize that (even) if (special) signs came, they will not believe.”? (Sura 6:109) “And we refrain from sending the signs, only because the men of former generations treated them as false”―Sura 17:59.
Over and over again Muhammad listeners were told that he was only a warner. However, that was only begging the question: where was the proof, the signs, and miracles, that Muhammad was God’s warner. The misplaced argument that in former times, others ignored the signs sent by God because God continued to send the signs for thousands of years by way of many actual chosen ones, true prophets of God. When Jesus arrived on the scene after thousands of years of the Israelite nation ignoring the signs and miracles of God, he did not offer the excuse and say, “you have ignored signs and miracles, so you will be given no more.’ No, instead, he like those preceding him used signs and miracles to prove that he was the long-awaited Messiah. They evidenced that he was the new way to the Father, and the Christianity that he would found by his apostles was new the new vehicle that God used to draw his people to him. These ones evangelized throughout the then known world. Muhammad, in contrast, used excuses.—Sura 3:180, 181; 5:36; 9:71
Was the Quran a Miracle?
Unlike Muhammad the Bible authors “came to them [their people] with Clear Signs” (Sura 64:6), while Islam only argues that the Quran is a literary miracle. The Quran says, “If the whole of mankind and Jinns [Spirits] were to gather together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they backed up each other with help and support.” (Sura 17:88) Shabbir Akhtar an Associate Professor of Philosophy and Religious Studies at Old Dominion University writes, “Muslims regard Islam as an intellectual faith with probative credentials supplied by the literary miracle of its Arabic scripture.” The argument that the Quran must be inspired because of it being a literary miracle and only God could inspire such truth into such a noble language does not really hold up. Think of Shakespeare, who did not spend 20+ years wring his plays but rather would write one while he was doing another. In the end, Shakespeare produced 884,000 words of poetry and prose, while the Quran has a mere 77,439 words. We see the words of Shakespeare as inspiring but not inspired.
This is not to say that there are not many beautiful suras in the Quran, especially those dealing with the characteristics, attributes, and of God. These are usually found in the earlier and shorter suras. We must remember that the Quran was compiled just after 632 C.E., meaning that the Muslims really did not have what we would call books in their own language at that time, so, of course, this so-called divine message in rhymed prose would appear to be some literary miracle; when, it was less than average.
A literary masterpiece, let alone a literary miracle are not repetitive. Nevertheless, the Quran repetitiously tells the stories of Adam, Moses, Christ Jesus and others, even with the same context. In Sura 55 the expression “which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both deny,” occurs 33 times in a mere 78 verses. Of the 114 Suras (chapters), hellfire and punishment after death are repeatedly mentioned.
Even more serious is that the Quran is not logical and consistent, nor is it unified as a whole. The Quran was written chronologically as to Muhammad’s life. As a young man, Muhammad got along with both Christians and Jews, when he worked as a traveling merchant on Syrian trading journeys in commercial trade. The Quran is interpreted chronologically; whatever was written last supersedes that which was written first. Thus, the talk of peace was early in the Quran, the idea of killing the infidel comes later. This can get a bit confusing because the suras in the Quran are not in chronological order but rather, it is arranged roughly longest surah to the shortest. Therefore, Sura 2, 3, 4, and 5, to mention just a few are actually 87, 89, 92, and 112 respectively, as to chronological order. Thus, those chronologically last are opposed to that which was written first. The suras by themselves, individually are, scrambled, a half hazard collection of verses, which nearly make it impossible even to understand what was meant.
Even the Sura chapter title does not coincide with what lies therein. For example, Sura 29 is titled “The Spider” and the insect is only mentioned a mere 2 times out of 69 verses, or about 2,740 words. Sura 16 is titled “The Bee” and the insect is only mentioned a mere 1 time out of 128 verses, or about 5,030 words. Sura 2 is the longest sura and is titled “The Cow, ” and the animal is only mentioned a mere 7 times out of 286 verses, or about 15,240 words. The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam comments, “The Koran was collected from the chance surfaces on which it had been inscribed: “from pieces of papyrus, flat stones, palm leaves, shoulder blades and ribs of animals, pieces of leather, wooden boards, and the hearts of men.”
The historian Thomas Carlyle admired Muhammad greatly, which would remove the argument of bias. He once said of the Quran, “. . . I must say, it [the Koran] is as toilsome reading as I ever undertook. A wearisome confused jumble, crude, incondite; endless iterations, long-windedness, entanglement; most crude, incondite; — insupportable stupidity, in short! Nothing but a sense of duty could carry any European through the Koran . . . It is the confused ferment of a great rude human soul; rude, untutored, that cannot even read; but fervent, earnest, struggling vehemently to utter itself in words . . . We said “stupid:” yet natural stupidity is by no means the character of Mahomet’s Book; it is natural uncultivation rather. The man has not studied speaking; in the haste and pressure of continual fighting, has not time to mature himself into fit speech . . . The man was an uncultured semi-barbarous Son of Nature, much of the Bedouin still clinging to him: we must take him for that. But for a wretched Simulacrum, a hungry Impostor without eyes or heart . . . we will not and cannot take him. Sincerity, in all senses, seems to me the merit of the Koran; what had rendered it precious to the wild Arab men . . . Curiously, through these incondite masses of tradition, vituperation, complaint, ejaculation in the Koran, a vein of true direct insight, of what we might almost call poetry, is found straggling. [Carlyle 64-67]”
Muslims claim that the Quran was written in perfect Arabic, Allah wrote it on a stone tablet in heaven before delivering it to Muhammad, it has no variant readings (copyist errors), the original Quran that Muhammad compiles is still in existence, and it cannot be faithfully translated into any other language.
The Quran Was Written In Perfect Arabic?
Sura 12:2. Verily, We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur’an in order that you may understand.
Sura 13:37. And thus have We sent it (the Qur’an) down to be a judgment of authority in Arabic. Were you (O Muhammad) to follow their (vain) desires after the knowledge which has come to you, then you will not have any Wali (protector) or defender against Allah.
Sura 41:41. Verily, those who disbelieved in the Reminder (i.e. the Qur’an) when it came to them (shall receive the punishment). And verily, it is an honourable respected Book (because it is Allah’s Speech, and He has protected it from corruption, etc.). (See V.15:9]
Sura 41:44. And if We had sent this as a Qur’an in a foreign language other than Arabic, they would have said: “Why are not its Verses explained in detail (in our language)? What! (A Book) not in Arabic and (the Messenger) an Arab?” Say: “It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing. And as for those who disbelieve, there is heaviness (deafness) in their ears, and it (the Qur’an) is blindness for them. They are those who are called from a place far away (so they neither listen nor understand).
Sura 16:103. And indeed We know that they (polytheists and pagans) say: “It is only a human being who teaches him (Muhammad).” The tongue of the man they refer to is foreign, while this (the Qur’an) is a clear Arabic tongue.
It was not written in perfect Arabic. Numerous vocabulary words were derived from the Syriac of the time.
- kaahin (Sura 52:29, 69:42) meaning a pagan soothsayer or diviner
- masiih. (Sura 3:45) from the Hebrew (mashiach) Messiah
- qissiis (Sura 5:82) – from qshysh’, Syraic Christian priest
- furqaaan (Sura 2:50) – from pwrqn’, Syraic salvation
- rabbaanii (Sura 3:73, 5:48, 5:68) – from rbn’, Syraic perceptor, doctor
- qiyaama (Sura 2:85, 2:113, many times) – from qymt’, Syraic resurrection
- ruuh. al-qudus (Sura 16:102) – from rwh. qwdsh’, Syraic Holy Spirit
- Sura 4:85, numerous times – from qryn’, Syriac technical term for “scriptural lesson” or “reading”
- muhaymin (Sura 57:12, etc.) – from mhymn’, Syraic for “the faithful”
- nuun (Sura 21:87) – a title for Jonah (Yunus), from nwn’, Syraic for “fish”
- tuur (Sura 20:80) – from t.wr’, Syraic for “mountain”
What this little sampling show is that we have many foreign words is this supposedly pure Arabic Quran. This is so, even though, there were actually Arabic words that could have been chosen in place of these words. In fact, there are over one hundred Egyptian, Hebrew, Greek, Syriac, Akkadian, Ethiopian, and Persian words and phrases in the Quran. (Jeffery 2009)
Below are a few grammar issues with the Quran based upon accepted rules of Classical Arabic grammar.
- In Sura 2:177, there are actually FIVE grammatical errors:
- ‘aamanshould read tu’minuu
- ‘aatashoud be tu’tuu
- ‘aqaamashould be tuqimuu
- ‘aatashoud be tu’tuu
- saabiriinashould be saabiruuna
- The yakuun in 3:59 should read kana
- The muqiimiin in 4:162 should read muqiimuun
- The Saabi’uuna in 5:69 should read Saabi’iina
- The qaribun in 7:56 should read qaribah
- The asbatan in 7:160 should read sebtan
- The ‘asarru in 21:3 should read ‘asarra
- The ‘ikhtasamuu in 22:19 should read ‘ikhtasamaa
- The ta’e’een in 41:11 should read be ta’e’atain
- The ‘eq-tatalu in 49:9 should read ‘eqtatalata
- The ‘akun in 63:10 should read ‘akuuna
- The ma in 91:5 should read man
- The haazaani in 20:63 should read haazayn
There are many variant readings (copyist errors) within the Quran. The irony is that Muslim apologists will use this argument to attack the Bible. The difference is, Christians own their variants in the manuscripts of the Bible and through the art and science of textual criticism, and they have a restored text (Nestle-Aland and the UBS). Arthur in his book, Material for the History of the Text of the Quran gives his readers over 90 pages of variant readings. While some Muslim scholars will reluctantly talk about the variants, the average Muslim is completely unaware.
Patrick Sookhdeo writes, “The oldest surviving fragments of the Quranic manuscripts date from no earlier than the … eighth century A.D. They are written in a Kufic script showing consonants only. The result is ambiguous and open to interpretation as if all the vowels and punctuations marks were to be removed from an English text. Vowel points and other helpful marks were added later. Variants continued to exist until at least the tenth century A.D. when some Islamic scholars were imprisoned for refusing to abandon their preferred versions. Even in the mid-twentieth century, two versions were still in use, a fact most Muslims would disbelieve. While the majority of the Muslim world had one version, an alternative was still in use in North Africa, though rapidly being ousted by the main version. The Muslim argument that Christians have changed their Scriptures while Muslims have not is therefore clearly inaccurate according to the evidence.”
In looking at the history of the Quranic text, we find that some of the original verses that were in the Quran were lost. There was a follower of Muhammad, Abdollah Sarh, who often made suggestions to Muhammad on what suras to add, delete, or alter. More often than not, Muhammad listened to these suggestions. In the end, Abdollah Sarh was one of the first to be killed once Mecca was conquered because he knew too much. In other instances, many suras were simply done away with because they were at odds with the Muslim faith and practices.
The above information is just a cursory list of the information available about the Quran. However, it is enough to make the point in an evangelist discussion with a Muslim, be it, on social media or any other form of witnessing. It is also enough to discard the claim that the Quran is pure Arabic and perfect. Truly, in view of the above, which admittedly slight when compared to the whole of the evidence against the Quran, it cannot be claimed that the Quran is divinely inspired because of its being some literary miracle.
Is Islam the Religion of Peace?
Again, the Quran was written chronologically as to Muhammad’s life, yet it is published with the longest Suras coming first, second longest and so on, which can cause great confusion. Sura 2:191 says, “Slay them [unbeliever, i.e., the infidel] wherever ye catch them.” Sura 2:216 says, “Fighting is prescribed for you, and ye dislike it. But it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knoweth, and ye know not.” Sura 2:244 says, “Then fight in the cause of Allah, and know that Allah Heareth and knoweth all things.” Sura 3:56 says, “As to those who reject faith, I will punish them with terrible agony in this world and in the Hereafter, nor will they have anyone to help.” Sura 3:151 says, “Soon shall We cast terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers, for that they joined companions with Allah, for which He had sent no authority.” Sura 4:74 says, “Let those fight in the way of Allah who sell the life of this world for the other. Whoso fighteth in the way of Allah, be he slain or be he victorious, on him We shall bestow a vast reward.” Sura 4:104 – says, “And be not weak hearted in pursuit of the enemy; if you suffer pain, then surely they (too) suffer pain as you suffer pain…” The Quran contains at least 109 verses that call Muslims to war with nonbelievers for the sake of Islamic rule.
One source makes the following observation, “The Quran contains at least 109 verses [suras] that call Muslims to war with nonbelievers for the sake of Islamic rule. Some are quite graphic, with commands to chop off heads and fingers and kill infidels wherever they may be hiding. Muslims who do not join the fight are called ‘hypocrites’ and warned that Allah would send them to Hell if they do not join the slaughter.” Some Islamic apologists would argue that they only fight when under attack. Is this true? Sura 2:191-193 says, “And kills them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah [disbelief or unrest] is worse than killing … But if they cease, then Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allah (Alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zalimun (the polytheists, and wrong-doers, etc.)”
Just so, we understand the word Fitnah is not referring to persecution or Islam coming under attack from some enemy, as some apologists have argued. Sura 8:39 says, “And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allah Alone [in the whole of the world]. But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allah), then certainly, Allah is All-Seer of what they do.” Notice that there is to be no religion other than Islam, all others are to be stamped out. This is one of the main teachings of Islam. When the prophet and Jesus Christ return, they are to rule the world by way of Sharia Law. In Islam, the only true religion is the one that worships Allah, which means that it is easily rationalized that violence is a proper method for removing anyone that does not believe and executing any who leave this so-called one true religion. Al-Sira al Nabawiyya: “Fight them so that there is no more rebellion, and religion, all of it, is for Allah only. Allah must have no rivals in the world.” Surah 9:29 says, “Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e., Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.” Chapter 2 will go on to look further at the Quran.
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 Islam means “submission,” “surrender,” or “commitment” to Allah.”
 The Shahada is an Islamic profession of faith made by Muslims.
 Frederick Mathewson Denny (2006). An Introduction to Islam. Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 409.
 Suras are chapters within the Quran. In this publication, we are using The Noble Quran, Published by Dar-us-Salam Publications.
 Muslim means ‘one who makes or does Islam.’
 Gordon Newby, A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam (London: Oneworld Publications, 2002), 230.
 Carlyle’s Problematic Portrayal of Mahomet and Islam. (May 29, 2017)
 THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism (May 3, 2017) by Edward Andrews and Don Wilkins
 Arthur Jeffery, Materials for the History of the Text of the Quran (New York: Russell F. Moore, 1952).
 Patrick Sookhdeo, A Christian’s Pocket Guide to Islam (Pewsey, Wiltshire: Isaac Publishing, 2001), 26.
 Ali Dashti, 23 Years: A Study of the Prophetic Career of Mohammed (George Allen & Unwin, London, 1985), 98.
 E.M. Wherry, A Comprehensive Commentary onthe Quran (Otto Zeller Verlag, Osnabruck, 1973), 110.
 If Terrorism Isn’t About Islam, What’s It About? | Michael … (May 29, 2017), https://drhurd.com/2017/05/22/terrorism-isnt-islam-whats/
 Al-Sira al Nabawiyya is a full examination, in chronological order of the background, life and the mission of the Prophet Muhammad (saw). Drawn from the earliest and most reliable Arabic sources, it offers, in this close English translation, the fullest available account of the historical circumstances and personalities most important in the foundation of Islam.