Magi_Birth of Jesus

Who Is Jesus Christ?

Jesus Christ was/is the name and title of the Son of God from the time of his anointing while on earth. The name Jesus (Gr., Iesous) consistent to the Hebrew name Jeshua, meaning “Jehovah Is Salvation.” Jesus was a very common name, many men being named such in that period. Therefore, when people were referring to him, they often added further identification, saying, “Jesus the Nazarene.” (Mk 10:47; Ac 2:22) Christ is from the Greek Khristos, which is the same as the Hebrew Mashiach (Messiah), and means “Anointed One.” While it is true, the expression “anointed one” was applied to such ones as Moses, Aaron, and David before Jesus (Heb. 11:24-26; Le 4:3; 8:12; 2Sa 22:51), the position, office, or service to which these men were anointed only foreshadowed the superior position, office, and service of Jesus Christ. Therefore, Peter’s words about Jesus were overwhelmingly and exceptionally true as he is “the Christ, the Son of the living God.”–Matt 16:16

Before his Ministry

The focus of the Gospels was predominately on the life and ministry of Jesus, and so the coverage prior to is very brief. As most are aware, Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, King David’s native city.

Luke 2:21-40 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

21 And when eight days had passed, so as to circumcise him, his name was then called Jesus, the name given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb.

Jesus Presented at the Temple

22 And when the days for their purification according to the law of Moses were completed, they brought him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord 23 (as it is written in the Law of the Lord, “Every male opening the womb shall be called holy to the Lord”) 24 and to offer a sacrifice according to what was said in the Law of the Lord, “A pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons.” 25 And there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon; and this man was righteous and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel; and the Holy Spirit was upon him. 26 And it had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not see death before he had seen the Lord’s Christ. 27 And he came in the Spirit into the temple, and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him according to the custom of the Law, 28 then he took him into his arms, and blessed God, and said,

29 “Now Lord you are releasing your slave depart in peace,
according to your word;
30 for my eyes have seen your salvation
31     that you have prepared in the presence of all peoples,
32 a light for revelation to the Gentiles,
and the glory of your people Israel.”

33 And his father and his mother marveled at the things being said about him. 34 And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, “Behold, this child is appointed for the fall and rising of many in Israel, and for a sign that is opposed 35 and a sword will pierce through your own soul also, so that thoughts from many hearts may be revealed.”

36 And there was a prophetess, Anna, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was advanced in years, having lived with her husband seven years from her virginity, 37 and then as a widow to the age of eighty-four. She never left the temple, serving night and day with fasting and prayers. 38 And coming up at that very hour she began to give thanks to God and to speak of him to all who were waiting for the redemption of Jerusalem.

The Return to Nazareth

39 When they had performed everything according to the Law of the Lord, they returned to Galilee, to their own city of Nazareth. 40 And the child continued growing and became strong, being filled with wisdom. And the favor of God was upon him.

Joseph was the husband of Mary, and the adoptive father of Jesus, who earned a living as a carpenter (Matt. 13:55), and clearly of little means, as they could only afford the least expensive sacrifice at Mary’s purification. (Compare Lu 2:22-24 with Le 12:8.) Thus, the Son of God spent his first day as a human baby, sleeping in a stable. Moreover, his childhood was spent in a very spiritual home, but of modest means. Even the town that he was raised in, Nazareth, was possibly viewed negatively, because of its lack of prominence, regardless of its being near to two principal trade routes. Compare John 1:46.

Only one event from Jesus’ childhood is given to us in the Gospel of Luke.

Luke 2:41-47 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

The Boy Jesus in the Temple

41 Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the Feast of the Passover. 42 And when he was twelve years old, they went up according to the custom of the feast. 43 And after the days were completed, while they were returning, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem. And his parents did not know it, 44 but supposing him to be in the company, they went a day’s journey; and they began looking for him among their relatives and acquaintances. 45 and when they did not find him, they returned to Jerusalem, looking for him. 46 Then, it occurred, after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers and listening to them and questioning them47 And all those listening to him were amazed at his understanding and his answers.

This incident is far more magnificent than one might first realize. Kittel’s Theological Dictionary of the New Testament helps the reader to appreciate that the Greek word eperotao (to ask, to question, to demand of), for “questioning” was far more than the Greek word erotao (to ask, to request, to entreat), for a boy’s inquisitiveness. Eperotao can refer to questioning, which one might hear in a judicial hearing, such as a scrutiny, inquiry, counter questioning, even the “probing and cunning questions of the Pharisees and Sadducees,” for instance those we find at Mark 10:2 and 12:18-23.

The same dictionary continues: “In [the] face of this usage it may be asked whether . . . [Luke] 2:46 denotes, not so much the questioning curiosity of the boy, but rather His successful disputing. [Verse] 47 would fit in well with the latter view.” Rotherham’s translation of verse 47 presents it as a dramatic confrontation: “Now all who heard him were beside themselves, because of his understanding and his answers.” Robertson’s Word Pictures in the New Testament says that their constant amazement means, “they stood out of themselves as if their eyes were bulging out.”

After returning to Jerusalem, and three days of searching, they found young Jesus in the Temple, questioning the Jewish religious leaders, to which “they were astounded.” (Luke 2:48) Robertson said of this, “second aorist passive indicative of an old Greek word [ekplesso]), to strike out, drive out by a blow. Joseph and Mary ‘were struck out’ by what they saw and heard. Even they had not fully realized the power in this wonderful boy.”[1] Thus, at twelve years old, Jesus, but a boy, is already evidencing that he is a great teacher and defender of truth. BDAG says, “to cause to be filled with amazement to the point of being overwhelmed, amaze, astound, overwhelm (literally, Strike out of one’s senses).[2]

Some 18 years later, Jesus again, hit the Jewish Pharisees with these types of interrogative questions, so much so that not “anyone [of them] dare from that day on to ask him any more questions.” (Matthew 22:41-46) The Sadducees fared no better when Jesus quieted them when the resurrection was brought up, “And no one dared to ask him any more questions.” (Luke 20:27-40) The Scribes were silenced just the same after they got into an exchange with Jesus, “And from then on no one dared ask him any more questions.” Mark 12:28-34

After the incident when Jesus was twelve, Jesus grew up in the city of Nazareth, learning the trade of carpentry from his adoptive father Joseph. (Mt 13:55) Jesus remained in Nazareth until he was 30 years old, at which point he went to be baptized by his cousin John, known as John the Baptist. After his baptism, Jesus started a ministry that would run for three and half years, where he would travel throughout the Promise Land proclaiming the good news of God’s Kingdom. He left the very visible sign that he had been sent by God. How? Jesus performed numerous miracles, or signs that were so powerful, there was no way that the Jewish religious leaders could have attributed them to any human.– Matthew 4:17; Luke 19:37, 38.

An entire book could be written just about the qualities and characteristics that Jesus displayed throughout his ministry. For a man, who had the power to walk on water, feed over ten thousand with a few fish and a couple loaves of bread, and raise the dead, he was full of tender warmth and deep emotions. This is evidenced in his dealings with others.

His kindness made him very trustworthy and approachable. Even the children were drawn to him. (Mark 10:13-16) Jesus honored women and even clarified the Law to the Jewish religious leaders, who were twisting it, enabling the Jewish men to be abusive toward women. (John 4:9, 27) He went out of his way to look out for the poor and oppressed, ‘to find rest for their souls.’ (Matthew 11:28-30) He was an exceptional teacher, having the gift of explaining the deep Mosaic Law in a very clear, simplified and practical manner. Moreover, what he chose to teach highlighted his heartfelt desire to make his Father known, giving him the glory. John 17:6-8.

Some of the most moving moments in Jesus’ ministry were when he performed miracles to heal the sick and help the afflicted. (Matthew 15:30, 31) Take a moment, and read the account below where Jesus healed a man of leprosy. Play the role, by empathetically putting yourself in the shoes of the leper, and then respond with a soft, warm voice that you know must have come from Jesus.

Matthew 8:2-3 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

And a leper came to him and bowed down before him, and said, “Lord, if you are willing, you can make me clean.” And Jesus stretched out his hand and touched him, saying, “I want to. Be made clean.” And immediately his leprosy was cleansed.

On another occasion, a large crowd consumed Jesus, so he “called his disciples to him and said, ‘I have compassion on the crowd because they have been with me now three days and have nothing to eat. And I am unwilling to send them away hungry, lest they faint on the way.’ And the disciples said to him, ‘Where are we to get enough bread in such a desolate place to feed so great a crowd?’ And Jesus said to them, ‘How many loaves do you have?’ They said, ‘Seven, and a few small fish. And directing the crowd to sit down on the ground, he took the seven loaves and the fish, and having given thanks he broke them and gave them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds. And they all ate and were satisfied. And they took up seven baskets full of the broken pieces left over. Those who ate were four thousand men, besides women and children.”–Matthew 15:32-38.

Here again, we see Jesus was moved with pity for these people. This man had the power to calm a storm because it threatened the safety of others. (Mark 4:37-39) On several occasions, he either resurrected someone or brought him or her back after having just died. (Luke 7:22; John 11:43, 44) In the end, he gave his own life as a perfect human sacrifice, so that humankind had a way out of this imperfection that Adam placed us in, by his rebellious actions. Undoubtedly, Jesus had and has an immeasurable amount of love for man.

Prophesies Concerning Jesus

The first prophecy that we find in scripture makes a reference to Jesus Christ. After the rebellion in Eden, Adam and Eve were kicked out of the Garden, Jehovah God said to the serpent, which had deceived Eve, and was really Satan the Devil, the rebel angel:

 Genesis 3:15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

15 And I will put enmity between you [Satan][3] and the woman, [heavenly organization],[4] and between your seed [demon angels and wicked humans][5] and her seed; [Jesus and his heavenly kingdom heirs] he [Jesus] shall bruise your [Satan’s] head, and you [Satan] shall bruise his [Jesus’] heel.”

After Satan had rebelled, he convinced a third of the angels to side with him. He was well aware of God’s plans for a seed, to which he has tried to thwart from the very beginning. Therefore, if the serpent is really a spirit creature and his offspring are other rebel angelic spirit creatures, it would seem only reasonable that the woman would be of the spirit realm as well. The woman was the heavenly organization that was working for God to bring about the birth of this coming seed through Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and eventually the tribe of Judah, specifically, the house of David.[6]

The birth of the seed Jesus Christ was the end (Mic. 5:2), so Satan used humans, causing the killing of young boys at the time Jesus had been born in Bethlehem, to try to have Jesus killed as a baby. (Matt. 2:1-15) The execution of Jesus at the end of his life was Satan’s bruising him on the heal, this was not a permanent or fatal wound, as Jesus was resurrected and ascended to heaven (Ac 1:6-11), to begin the formation of his heavenly kingdom. (Rev. 5:9-10) However, Jesus’ bruising Satan in the head is a fatal blow and will be accomplished after the thousand-year reign of Christ. Satan will be released from the abyss that he was jailed in for a time. Once he has tempted those that he can, he will be permanently destroyed forever.–Revelation 20:7-10.

There are innumerable references to Jesus Christ throughout the Old Testament. What do they tell us?

Genesis 22:2; John 3:16 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

He [God] said [to Abraham], “Take now your son, your only son, whom you love, Isaac, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains of which I will tell you.” 16 For God so loved the world that he gave his only-begotten Son, in order that everyone trusting[7] in him will not be destroyed but have eternal life.

Jehovah had Abraham, who was faithful when not all others were, offer up his only son by his wife Sarah. Jehovah knew he was going to stop Abraham at the last moment; giving Abraham to the opportunity to confirm what God knew was true; this being an evident demonstration that Abraham had real faith. However, how does this account help us better appreciate the sacrifice that God would make in behalf of an imperfect humankind?

Romans 8:32 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

32 He who did not spare his own Son, but delivered him over for us all, how will he not also with him freely give us all things?

8:32 Paul’s point is: Would God do less for His children than He did for His enemies? freely give. This word means “to bestow out of grace.” Paul often uses it to denote forgiveness (2 Cor. 2:7, 10; 12:13; Col. 2:13; 3:13) and may intend that here. all things. Referring either to every sin the believer commits (if “freely give” is translated “forgiveness”) or to whatever is necessary to complete the purpose He had in choosing us (vv. 29, 30; cf. Phil. 1:6)[8]

There is little doubt that Paul is referencing the Abraham and Isaac story (Gen. 22:1–19). In that account, we see that Abraham did not hold back his son, his only son by his wife Sarah, whom he loved dearly. Because of his great trust, God blessed Abraham immensely. Is it conceivable that Jehovah would offer his only Son for sinners, as a ransom for many (Matt. 20:28), and then not give all things graciously to bring that salvation hope to reality? We can rest our faith in the protection that God has offered us. While we are well aware that our salvation is given freely; we still must ask, are there any requirements on our part?

Genesis 22:18 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

18 In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed my voice.”

Here again, we see that Abraham and all of his offspring, as well as all the nations of the earth, were to receive a blessing. Why? The conjunction “because” gives us a reason as to why, ‘Abraham had obeyed God’s voice.’

John 3:36 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

36 The one trusting[9] in the Son has eternal life, but the one who disobeys the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.

How can we know whether we are truly trusting in the Son? We know because of the changes in our lives that have brought us into harmony with the standard set out in Scripture. We now reject any course that we may have been following at one time because our inner self wants to be found pleasing to God. We need to follow the steps laid out by the Apostle Peter,

Acts 3:19 Amplified Bible (AMP)

19 So repent (change your mind and purpose); turn around and return [to God], that your sins may be erased (blotted out, wiped clean), that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord

Identifying Jesus as the Prophet Like Moses

Acts 3:22-23 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

22 Moses said, ‘The Lord God will raise up for you a prophet like me from your brothers. You shall listen to him in everything that he says to you. 23 And it shall be that every soul who does not listen to that prophet shall be destroyed from among the people.’

In order to receive the salvation spoken of in Scripture, we are required to have faith or trust in Jesus Christ, evidenced by our repentance. (Deut. 18:15–19) Once we accept that Jesus is the greater Moses, are there any responsibilities with our new understanding that Jesus was the long awaited Messiah or Christ? What would be one of those responsibilities that evidence that we truly have faith in Jesus?

Any group wanting a hearing in Israel had to link itself with the heroes of the past, and it surely did not hurt to drop Moses’ name in the process. As well-taught Jews, Peter’s hearers would have immediately understood the identification and continuity, and faith in Moses should produce belief in Jesus.

Belief in Jesus in no way destroys belief in Moses. When John the Baptist began preaching, the priests and Levites asked him, Are you the Prophet? (John 1:21). Of course not! Now Peter picked up the same theme to say that the prophet of whom Moses spoke was the very one through whose power the lame beggar had just been healed.

Matthew 28:18-20 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

18 And Jesus came up and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. 19 Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, 20 teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.”

Matthew helps us to appreciate that Jesus had been given all authority. Thus, the adverb “therefore” beginning verse 20 is a reference back to that authority and what is about to be required from all disciples. All who make the claim that they are a disciple of Christ must carry out this command to “make disciples.”

“Therefore” identified Jesus’ authority (28:18) as the reason the disciples must carry out his orders. In other words, we are obligated to transfer into others what we received, an intimate relationship with ‘the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom he had sent.’ In other words, one learner (disciple) is to make another learner (disciple). How?

Jesus said, “Go,” which carries more of a meaning than the simple act of departing for the purpose of “making disciples.” It means that we must be active in our pursuit of making disciples. We are actively to seek out these in our everyday activities, such as a fellow employee, a fellow student at school while waiting in line at the store, waiting at the doctor’s office, being served by the server at a restaurant, visiting a friend, and so on. All of these are acts of what is known as an informal ministry. (John 4:7-15) These are unplanned, but not unprepared occasions where we have an opportunity to share some form of the gospel with another. Then, there are the more planned forms of ministry, door-to-door, street witnessing, letter writing, and phone ministry, and even internet ministry. Is our entire obligation to share a brief message with these?

There are three steps of fulfilling our Great Commission of being a disciple of Christ. (Hill 2006, 46)

The first step, we already spoke of, the going out in an unplanned but prepared way, to share the good news. In addition, we are to go out in a more planned form of ministry. All of this is actively taking the good news to all that we can. None of this is done by accident, but by preparation. If your church has no ministry school, where it trains its members in these forms of ministry, you may want to ask yourself, ‘is my church really carrying out the great commission to the extent Jesus expected?’

Luke 18:8 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

I tell you that he will bring about justice for them quickly. However, when the Son of Man comes, will he find the faith[1] on the earth?”

[1] Or find this faith

The second step is taking that person you shared the good news with, and bringing him or her to the point of baptism. In others words, to the point where their life meets the moral standards of Scripture, they are not living in any form of sin because they trust Jesus. How is this accomplished, taking them from your initial sharing of the good news to being one who has dedicated themselves to God?

The third step is teaching them to observe all that you have learned from another yourself, all that Jesus has commanded you. Teaching is a present participle, meaning that the act of teaching this newly interested one is ongoing, ‘keep on teaching.’

A New Prophet like Moses

Deuteronomy 18:15, 18-19 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

15 “Jehovah your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your brothers, to him you shall listen. 18 I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers. And I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him. 19 And it shall come about that the man who will not listen to my words that he will speak in my name, I shall myself require an account from him.

Acts 3:22-23 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

22 Moses said, ‘The Lord God will raise up for you a prophet like me from your brothers. You shall listen to him in everything that he says to you. 23 And it shall be that every soul who does not listen to that prophet shall be destroyed from among the people.’

The requirement for salvation is faith in Jesus Christ and repentance. Therefore, at Pentecost, the birth of Christianity, Peter spoke up and quoted Deuteronomy 18:15, 18–19. In fact, Jesus himself had stated, “if you believed Moses, you would believe me; for he wrote of me.” (John 5:46) The goal of every Christian is to be Christlike and to have the mind of Christ. As the new one studies the Bible with a Christian congregation member, she or he will begin to apply the Word of God in their lives. They will put on the new person spoken of by the Apostle Paul, acquiring the mind of Christ. Of course, it should be realized that it takes time to develop that new personality. The personality that the new one has developed must be set aside, to make way for the new personality.

New Person

Ephesians 4:24 tells us that we are to “put on the new self, created after the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness.” Colossians 3:9-10 informs us that we are to “put off the old self with its practices and have put on the new self, which is being renewed in knowledge after the image of its creator.”

4:24 of Ephesians means that we allow our new Christian person to lead us in all that we do in our lives. In other words, whether we are at a Christian meeting, at work, at home, in school or at recreation, we are to start living the life that follows in Christ Jesus’ steps, as he set the example for us. (1 Pet 2:21) This putting on the new person is not some miraculous switch that is flipped on and the old person is immediately removed. No, the new person in Christ is developed over time as we mature in our Christian walk.

We are “renewed in knowledge” by ‘getting to know the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom the Father had sent.’ (John 17:3) Yes, as one starts their study of and the application of God’s Word, they will begin to develop a relationship with the Father and the Son. The former worldly desires, as well as anger issues, speaking ill of others, will fade away, and the new spiritual desires, long-suffering personality, building up of others, will emerge. However, Bible study is like anything else in life, what we put into it is exactly what we will get out of it. We need to have both quantity and quality. We need to invest enough consistent time, which may be as much as an hour a day, or at least thirty minutes a day, four days a week. It needs to be quality time as well, meaning that we are prepared to start the moment we sit down, and there are not outside disturbances.

Mind of Christ

1 Corinthians 2:16 informs us that ‘we cannot understand the mind of [Jehovah or Yahweh] so as to instruct him?[10] But we have the mind of Christ.’

The Christian mind is influenced by the Spirit, in that they accept the Word of God as “breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness that the man of God may be complete, equipped for every good work.” (2 Tim 3:16) This spiritual food from the Word of God enables him to take on the mind of Christ.

In other words, the thought processes of the Christian mind are Jesus’ thoughts; their view of life is through his eyes. If the Christian has a correct mental grasp of scripture, he is not a victim of fleshly wisdom, which only leads to destruction. Those who truly reflect the Word of God in what they say, in their actions, or in mind or heart attitude, will not be led astray by carnal reasoning.

Faith in Christ

There is no other name by which one can be saved, but Jesus Christ, who had given his life, and was raised from the dead by his Father. That ransom sacrifice gives his disciples the power to take the good news “throughout the whole world as a testimony to all nations.” (Matt 24:14) As Peter so appropriately stated: “So the honor is for you who believe, but for those who do not believe, ‘the stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone’”

Acts 4:11-12 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

11 This one is the stone that was rejected by you, the builders, that has become the head of the corner.[11] 12 And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.”

Because of Jesus’ ransom sacrifice, we can now stand before God with a clean conscience. The fleshly nation of Israel looked to this day, as the animals under the Mosaic Law, never achieved such. (Acts 13:38, 39; Heb. 9:13, 14) The only requirement is that our faith in Christ is genuine. Are we fully aware of our imperfections, that we are sinners, in dire need of a Christ’s sacrifice?

1 John 1:8-9 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.

One piece of the evidence of our faith is the public symbol of that faith. A newly interested one needs to acquire knowledge of God’s Word (1 Timothy 2:3, 4), have begun to demonstrate faith in that understanding (Hebrews 11:6), have changed course in any sinful living (Acts 17:30, 31), and have exhibited a Christian lifestyle. (Acts 3:19) Then, he is moved by his love for God to give an outward symbol that he is now a new person. In other words, he will eventually go to God in a personal prayer, expressing that love, and that he is giving his life to him.–Matthew 16:24; 22:37

We do not want to hold back from that public display if our heart has moved us to commit our lives to the Father. We need to reach out to become a baptized Christian. We will take heed of the words of the Apostle Peter, “baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.”–1 Pet. 3:21.

After we have been baptized, this does not mean that we have become a perfect person, and our Christian walk will be without sin. What are we to do if we commit a serious sin? We take comfort in the words of the Apostle John, “my little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not [a] sin.”[12] Thus, there will be occasions when, because of imperfection, we will commit a sin in action, speech or attitude. “But if anyone does [carry out a] sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. He is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.”

Therefore, say we do commit a sin, even a serious sin, and we go to God in prayer, are we automatically forgiven? No, we may not necessarily be forgiven. If we are to receive that forgiveness, we must be genuinely repentant. This would mean that we are truly aware of the wrongness of our actions, and our heart must honestly be remorseful that we have sinned, feeling intensely that we will take the appropriate actions to avoid sinning similarly again. (Acts 3:19; Jas. 5:13-16) If we are truly repentant and not just upset because we were caught, Jesus’ ransom will cover our sin. We will be restored to a righteous standing before God once more.

Oneness of faith will help us to draw close to the Father and the Son, as well as the Christian congregation. (1 John 3:23, 24) Jesus in prayer to his Father, requested, “I do not ask for these only, but also for those who will believe in me through their word, that they may all be one, just as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me.”

 Philippians 2:9-11 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

9 Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, 10 so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those who are in heaven and on earth and under the earth, 11 and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

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THE OUTSIDER: Coming-of-Age In This MomentTHE OUTSIDER Coming-of-Age In This Moment

THE OUTSIDER is a Coming-of-Age book. SECTION 1 Surviving Sexual Desires and Love will cover such subjects as What Is Wrong with Flirting, The Pornography Deception, Peer Pressure to Have Sexual Relations, Coping With Constant Sexual Thoughts, Fully Understanding Sexting, Is Oral Sex …

THIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING: When Hope and Love VanishTHIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING: When Hope and Love Vanish

Who should read THIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING? Anyone who is struggling with their walk as a young person. Anyone who has a friend who is having difficulty handling or coping with their young life, so you can offer them the help they need. Any parent who has young ones. And …

WAGING WAR: A Christian's Cognitive Behavioral Therapy WorkbookWAGING WAR: A Christian’s Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Workbook

Waging War is a guide to start the youth with the most basic information and work pages to the culmination of all of the facts, scripture, and their newly gained insight to offer a more clear picture of where they are and how to change their lives for the better. Every chapter will have …

THE POWERFUL WEAPON OF PRAYER: A Healthy Prayer LifeTHE POWERFUL WEAPON OF PRAYER: A Healthy Prayer Life

DOZENS OF QUESTIONS WILL BE ANSWERED: Why is prayer necessary? What must we do to be heard by God? How does God answer our prayers? Does God listen to all prayers? Does God hear everyone’s prayers? What may we pray about? Does the Father truly grant everything we ask for? What kind …

HUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For UsHUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For Us

There are many reasons the Christian view of humanity is very important. The Christian view of humanity believes that humans were created in the image of God. We will look at the biblical view of humanity. We are going to look at the nature of man, the freedom of man, the personality of …

FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition]FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition] 

In FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART – SO I A M, Edward D. Andrews offers practical and biblical insights on a host of Christian spiritual growth struggles, from the challenge of forgiveness to eating disorders, anger, alcoholism, depression, anxiety, pornography, masturbation, same-sex …

APPLYING GOD'S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]APPLYING GOD’S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]

There is a genuine happiness, contentment, and joy, which come from reading, studying and applying God’s Word. This is true because the Scriptures offer us guidance and direction that aids us in living a life that coincides with our existence as a creation of Almighty God. For example, we …

PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]

THERE IS ONE MAJOR DIFFERENCE between Christian living books by Andrews and those by others. Generally speaking, his books are filled with Scripture and offer its readers what the Bible authors meant by what they penned. In this publication, it is really God’s Word offering the counsel, …

Walking With Your God_Second EditionWALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD: Putting God’s Purpose First in Your Life [Second Edition]

A clean conscience brings us inner peace, calmness, and a profound joy that is seldom found in this world under the imperfection of fallen flesh that is catered to by Satan, the god of the world. Many who were formerly living in sin and have now turned their life over to God, they now know this amazing relief and are able today to hold a good and clean conscience as they carry out the will of the Father. WALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD, has been written to help its readers to find that same joy, to have and maintain a good, clean conscience in their lives. Of course, it is incapable of covering every detail that one would need to consider and apply in their lives …

WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS: How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?

This book is primarily for WIVES, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. WIVES will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: WIVES BE SUBJECT TO …

HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?

This book is primarily for HUSBANDS, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. HUSBANDS will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: HUSBANDS LOVE …

Christian Apologetics

DEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and TrueDEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and True

How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …

UNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of ViewUNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of View

Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the BasicsBIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the Basics

Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's "Misquoting Jesus" [Third Edition]MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …

DEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in RevelationDEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in Revelation

church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …

JOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK: Experience the Ministry of Jesus in a Spiritually Captivating WayJOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK

Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] A.T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1933), Lk 2:48.

[2] William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 308.

[3] John 8:44; 1 John 5:19; Revelation 12:9; 2 Corinthians 11:3

[4] Since the Serpent addressed by God is an invisible spirit creature, Satan the Devil, we should expect that the woman would also belong to the spirit realm. Revelation 12:1, 2

[5] Revelation 12:9; Mark 3:22; Ephesians 6:12.

[6] Gen. 17:18-21; 21:8-12; 22:15-18; 28:10-14; Gen 49:10; 1 Chron. 17:3, 4, 11-14.

[7] The grammatical construction of pisteuo “believe” followed by eis “into” plus the accusative causing a different shade of meaning, having faith into Jesus.

[8] MacArthur, John. The MacArthur Bible Commentary (Kindle Locations 52038-52041). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition.

[9] The grammatical construction of pisteuo “believe” followed by eis “into” plus the accusative causes a different shade of meaning, having faith [trusting, clings to, and relies] into Jesus.

[10] A quotation from Isaiah 40:13: “Who has measured up the spirit of Yahweh or informed him as his counselor?” (LEB)

[11] Or the chief cornerstone

[12] The Greek verb for “sin” is in the aorist active subjunctive, the aorist means the time of the action is punctiliar, or momentary, a “snapshot.” The aorist tense here envisions a single act of sinning, whereas the present infinitive in 1 John 3:9 would denote continual and repeated sinning, the state of being a sinner or the continuous or progressive action in sinning.

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